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1.
J Child Neurol ; : 883073819878917, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617442

RESUMO

The term spinocerebellar ataxia encompasses a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders due to pathogenic variants in more than 100 genes, underlying 2 major groups of ataxia: autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA, also known as spinocerebellar ataxias [SCAs]) due to heterozygous variants or polyglutamine triplet expansions leading to adult-onset ataxia, and autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxias (ARCAs, also known as SCARs) due to biallelic variants, usually resulting in more severe and earlier-onset cerebellar ataxia. Certain ataxia genes, including SPTBN2 which encodes ß-III spectrin, are responsible for both SCA and SCAR, depending on whether the pathogenic variant occurs in a monoallelic or biallelic state, respectively. Accordingly, 2 major phenotypes have been linked to SPTBN2: pathogenic heterozygous in-frame deletions and missense variants result in an adult-onset, slowly progressive ADCA (SCA5) through a dominant negative effect, whereas biallelic loss-of-function variants cause SCAR14, an allelic disorder characterized by infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia and cognitive impairment. Of note, 2 heterozygous missense variants (c.1438C>T, p.R480 W; c.1309C>G, p.R437G), both lying in the second spectrin repeat of SPTBN2, have been linked to infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia, similar to SCAR14. Here, we report a novel de novo heterozygous pathogenic missense variant (c.1310G>A) in SPTBN2 in a child with infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia and mild cognitive impairment. This variant affects the same R437 residue of the second spectrin repeat but results in a different amino acid change (p.R437Q). We review previously reported cases and discuss possible pathomechanisms responsible for the early-onset cerebellar phenotype due to disease-causing variants in the second spectrin repeat.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570889

RESUMO

Hypopigmentation along Blaschko's lines is a hallmark of a poorly defined group of mosaic syndromes whose genetic causes are unknown. Here we show that postzygotic inactivating mutations of RHOA cause a neuroectodermal syndrome combining linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, apparently asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy, and facial, ocular, dental and acral anomalies. Our findings pave the way toward elucidating the etiology of pigmentary mosaicism and highlight the role of RHOA in human development and disease.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646703

RESUMO

We recently described a new neurodevelopmental syndrome (TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome) (MIM# 300966) caused by pathogenic variants involving the X-linked gene TAF1, which participates in RNA polymerase II transcription. The initial study reported eleven families, and the syndrome was defined as presenting early in life with hypotonia, facial dysmorphia, and developmental delay that evolved into intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have now identified an additional 27 families through a genotype-first approach. Familial segregation analysis, clinical phenotyping, and bioinformatics were capitalized on to assess potential variant pathogenicity, and molecular modelling was performed for those variants falling within structurally characterized domains of TAF1. A novel phenotypic clustering approach was also applied, in which the phenotypes of affected individuals were classified using 51 standardized Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. Phenotypes associated with TAF1 variants show considerable pleiotropy and clinical variability, but prominent among previously unreported effects were brain morphological abnormalities, seizures, hearing loss, and heart malformations. Our allelic series broadens the phenotypic spectrum of TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome and the range of TAF1 molecular defects in humans. It also illustrates the challenges for determining the pathogenicity of inherited missense variants, particularly for genes mapping to chromosome X. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare autosomal dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis, with a prevalence of 0.2-1/10,000. Features include bilateral and symmetrical malar and mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities due to abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration and differentiation. To date, three genes have been identified: TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D. Despite a large number of patients with a molecular diagnosis, some remain without a known genetic anomaly. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing for four individuals with TCS but who were negative for pathogenic variants in the known causative genes. The effect of the pathogenic variants was investigated in zebrafish. RESULTS: We identified three novel pathogenic variants in POLR1B. Knockdown of polr1b in zebrafish induced an abnormal craniofacial phenotype mimicking TCS that was associated with altered ribosomal gene expression, massive p53-associated cellular apoptosis in the neuroepithelium, and reduced number of NCC derivatives. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic variants in the RNA polymerase I subunit POLR1B might induce massive p53-dependent apoptosis in a restricted neuroepithelium area, altering NCC migration and causing cranioskeletal malformations. We identify POLR1B as a new causative gene responsible for a novel TCS syndrome (TCS4) and establish a novel experimental model in zebrafish to study POLR1B-related TCS.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

7.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462756

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our laboratory has classified patients with methylmalonic aciduria using somatic cell studies for over four decades. We have accumulated 127 fibroblast lines from patients with persistent elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels in which no genetic cause could be identified. Cultured fibroblasts from 26 of these patients had low [14C]propionate incorporation into macromolecules, possibly reflecting decreased methylmalonyl-CoA mutase function. METHODS: Genome sequencing (GS), copy-number variation (CNV) analysis, and RNA sequencing were performed on genomic DNA and complementary DNA (cDNA) from these 26 patients. RESULTS: No patient had two pathogenic variants in any gene associated with cobalamin metabolism. Nine patients had heterozygous variants of unknown significance previously identified by a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel targeting cobalamin metabolic genes. Three patients had pathogenic changes in genes not associated with cobalamin metabolism (PCCA, EPCAM, and a 17q12 duplication) that explain parts of their phenotypes other than elevated MMA. CONCLUSION: Genome and RNA sequencing did not detect any additional putative causal genetic defects in known cobalamin genes following somatic cell studies and the use of a targeted NGS panel. They did detect pathogenic variants in other genes in three patients that explained some aspects of their clinical presentation.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1692-1700, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285529

RESUMO

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) is a heterogeneous group of severe forms of age-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathies with onset during the first weeks or months of life. The interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) shows a "suppression burst" (SB) pattern. The prognosis is usually poor and most children die within the first two years or survive with very severe intellectual disabilities. EIEE type 3 is caused by variants affecting function, in SLC25A22, which is also responsible for epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). We report a family with a less severe phenotype of EIEE type 3. We performed exome sequencing and identified two unreported variants in SLC25A22 in the compound heterozygous state: NM_024698.4: c.[813_814delTG];[818 G>A] (p.[Ala272Glnfs*144];[Arg273Lys]). Functional studies in cultured skin fibroblasts from a patient showed that glutamate oxidation was strongly defective, based on a literature review. We clustered the 18 published patients (including those from this family) into three groups according to the severity of the SLC25A22-related disorders. In an attempt to identify genotype-phenotype correlations, we compared the variants according to the location depending on the protein domains. We observed that patients with two variants located in helical transmembrane domains presented a severe phenotype, whereas patients with at least one variant outside helical transmembrane domains presented a milder phenotype. These data are suggestive of a continuum of disorders related to SLC25A22 that could be called SLC25A22-related disorders. This might be a first clue to enable geneticists to outline a prognosis based on genetic molecular data regarding the SLC25A22 gene.

9.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous patterned hypopigmentation's phenotype is highly variable and may be associated with extracutaneous anomalies. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the phenotypic and clinical characteristics of patients with cutaneous patterned hypopigmentation to determine whether certain patterns were more likely to be associated with underlying anomalies. METHODS: The charts of 106 children with cutaneous patterned hypopigmentation were reviewed retrospectively (2007-2018) at Sainte-Justine University Hospital Centre, in Montreal, Canada. Retrieved information included sex, age at diagnosis, phototype, pattern, and distribution of the cutaneous lesions and the presence of extracutaneous findings. Data were recorded on a software tool which collects and analyzes phenotypic information. RESULTS: The predominant types of cutaneous patterned hypopigmentation were along Blaschko's lines in narrow (38.7%) and broad bands (53.8%). Mixed patterns were observed in 22.5% of children. The anterior trunk and posterior trunk were most frequently affected (69% and 56%, respectively). Extracutaneous involvement, especially neurological and developmental, was present in 28.3% of patients and was significantly associated with ≥ 4 involved body sites. CONCLUSION: Distribution and types of cutaneous patterned hypopigmentation were not predictive of extracutaneous findings, with the exception of multiple sites involvement and possibly centrofacial location and blocklike lesions. Follow-up until school entry should help identify subtler associated extracutaneous anomalies.

10.
Neurogenetics ; 20(2): 103-108, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924036

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1) is a non-catalytic component of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex which catalyzes the ligation of amino acids to the correct tRNAs. Pathogenic variants in several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases genes have been linked to various neurological disorders, including leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH). To date, loss-of-function variants in AIMP1 have been associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-3 (MIM 260600). Here, we report a novel frameshift AIMP1 homozygous variant (c.160delA,p.Lys54Asnfs) in a child with pontocerebellar hypoplasia and simplified gyral pattern, a phenotype not been previously described with AIMP1 variants, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum. AIMP1 should be included in diagnostic PCH gene panels.

11.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(12): 1262-1270, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755017

RESUMO

AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common genetic disorder in medicine, with a prevalence of 1/250. Affected individuals have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increased lifetime risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The diagnosis of FH is based on algorithms that include LDL-C levels, physical manifestations, family history of high LDL-C and premature ASCVD, and, more recently, genetic testing. We sought to determine the impact of genetic testing on the: 1) diagnosis of 'definite familial hypercholesterolemia', 2) initiation and adherence of lipid-lowering therapy and 3) risk of ASCVD. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, pooling odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for ASCVD from studies comparing risk estimates in individuals harboring FH-causing variants and unaffected individuals. RESULTS: After screening 3304 unique publications, 56 studies were included in the analysis. 1) Genetic testing provided confirmation of FH in 28-80%, over clinical criteria alone, depending on the diagnostic algorithm and the method of analysis. In two large population-based studies comprising 76,751 individuals, an FH-causing variant was identified in only 1.7-2.5% of subjects with an LDL-C > 4.9 mmol/L (190 mg/dL). 2) A confirmed molecular diagnosis increased lipid-lowering therapy adherence (five studies, n = 4181 definite FH). 3) Loss-of-function variant of the LDLR were at a markedly increased risk of myocardial infarction (odds ratio 6.77, 95% confidence interval 4.75-9.66), and patients with a milder (hypomorphic) pathogenic LDLR change had a 4.4-fold increase in risk (odds ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.34-8.26), compared with controls. CONCLUSION: DNA sequencing confirms the diagnosis of FH but has a poor yield in unselected patients whose sole criterion is an elevated LDL-C. Initiation and adherence to treatment is improved. The risk of ASCVD is 4.4- to 6.8-fold increased in patients with an FH-causing variant compared with controls, depending on the severity of the DNA change.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 701-710, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710147

RESUMO

Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized diagnostic procedures in medical genetics, particularly for developmental diseases. The variety and complexity of the information produced has raised issues regarding its use in a clinical setting. Of particular interest are patients' expectations regarding the information disclosed, the accompaniment provided, and the value patients place on these. To explore these issues in parents of children with developmental disorders and no diagnosis with known etiology, a multidisciplinary group of researchers from social and behavioral sciences and patient organizations conducted a mixed-methodology study (quantitative and qualitative) in two centers of expertise for rare diseases in France. The quantitative study aimed to determine the preferences of 513 parents regarding the disclosure of ES results. It showed that parents wished to have exhaustive information, including variants of unknown significance possibly linked to their child's disorder and secondary findings. This desire for information could be a strategy to maximize the chances of obtaining a diagnosis. The qualitative study aimed to understand the expectations and reactions of 57 parents interviewed just after the return of ES results. In-depth analysis showed that parents had ambivalent feelings about the findings whatever the results returned. The contrasting results from these studies raise questions about the value of the information provided and parents' high expectations regarding the results. The nature of parental expectations has emerged as an important topic in efforts to optimize accompaniment and support for families during the informed decision-making process and after disclosure of the results in an overall context of uncertainty.

13.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(2): 257-270.e8, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595499

RESUMO

Self-renewal and differentiation of pluripotent murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is regulated by extrinsic signaling pathways. It is less clear whether cellular metabolism instructs developmental progression. In an unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen, we identified components of a conserved amino-acid-sensing pathway as critical drivers of ESC differentiation. Functional analysis revealed that lysosome activity, the Ragulator protein complex, and the tumor-suppressor protein Folliculin enable the Rag GTPases C and D to bind and seclude the bHLH transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. In contrast, ectopic nuclear Tfe3 represses specific developmental and metabolic transcriptional programs that are associated with peri-implantation development. We show differentiation-specific and non-canonical regulation of Rag GTPase in ESCs and, importantly, identify point mutations in a Tfe3 domain required for cytoplasmic inactivation as potentially causal for a human developmental disorder. Our work reveals an instructive and biomedically relevant role of metabolic signaling in licensing embryonic cell fate transitions.

14.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(12): 1553-1563, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527143

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder causing premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It affects 1 in 250 individuals worldwide, and of the approximately 145,000 Canadians estimated to have FH, most are undiagnosed. Herein, we provide an update of the 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement on FH addressing the need for case identification, prompt recognition, and treatment with statins and ezetimibe, and cascade family screening. We provide a new Canadian definition for FH and tools for clinicians to make a diagnosis. The risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with "definite" FH is 10- to 20-fold that of a normolipidemic individual and initiating treatment in youth or young adulthood can normalize life expectancy. Target levels for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are proposed and are aligned with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines on dyslipidemia. Recommendation for the use of inhibitors of proprotein convertase kexin/subtilisin type 9 are made in patients who cannot achieve therapeutic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets on maximally tolerated statins and ezetimibe. The writing committee used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology in the preparation of the present document, which offers guidance for practical evaluation and management of patients with FH. This position statement also aims to raise awareness of FH nationally, and to mobilize patient support, promote knowledge translation, and availability of treatment and health care resources for this under-recognized, but important medical condition.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Programas de Rastreamento , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Canadá , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Gravidez , Prevenção Primária , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006060

RESUMO

Alazami syndrome (AS) (MIM# 615071) is an autosomal recessive microcephalic primordial dwarfism (PD) with recognizable facial features and severe intellectual disability due to depletion or loss of function variants in LARP7. To date, 15 patients with AS have been reported. Here we describe two consanguineous Algerian sisters with Alazami PD due to LARP7 homozygous pathogenic variants detected by whole exome sequencing. By comparing these two additional cases with those previously reported, we strengthen the key features of AS: severe growth restriction, severe intellectual disability and some distinguishing facial features such as broad nose, malar hypoplasia, wide mouth, full lips and abnormally set teeth. We also report significant new findings enabling further delineation of this syndrome: disproportionately mild microcephaly, stereotypic hand wringing and severe anxiety, thickened skin over the hands and feet, and skeletal, eye and heart malformations. From previous reviews, we summarize the main etiologies of PD according to the involved mechanisms and cellular pathways, highlighting their clinical core features.

19.
Genet Med ; 20(11): 1354-1364, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate diagnostic yield and genotype-phenotype correlations in a cohort of 811 patients with lissencephaly or subcortical band heterotopia. METHODS: We collected DNA from 756 children with lissencephaly over 30 years. Many were tested for deletion 17p13.3 and mutations of LIS1, DCX, and ARX, but few other genes. Among those tested, 216 remained unsolved and were tested by a targeted panel of 17 genes (ACTB, ACTG1, ARX, CRADD, DCX, LIS1, TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2B, TUBB, TUBB3, TUBG1, KIF2A, KIF5C, DYNC1H1, RELN, and VLDLR) or by whole-exome sequencing. Fifty-five patients studied at another institution were added as a validation cohort. RESULTS: The overall mutation frequency in the entire cohort was 81%. LIS1 accounted for 40% of patients, followed by DCX (23%), TUBA1A (5%), and DYNC1H1 (3%). Other genes accounted for 1% or less of patients. Nineteen percent remained unsolved, which suggests that several additional genes remain to be discovered. The majority of unsolved patients had posterior pachygyria, subcortical band heterotopia, or mild frontal pachygyria. CONCLUSION: The brain-imaging pattern correlates with mutations in single lissencephaly-associated genes, as well as in biological pathways. We propose the first LIS classification system based on the underlying molecular mechanisms.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

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