Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Dev Psychol ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941299

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of children's gender stereotypes and peer playmate experiences in shaping their desire to play with peers who hold counterstereotypical preferences (e.g., a boy who likes dolls or a girl who likes trucks). Children (N = 95; 46 girls, 49 boys; 67% White, 18% Black, 8% Latinx, 4% Asian, 3% other; median household income = $US97,810) who were 4 to 8 years old (M = 6.11 years old, SD = 1.34) were interviewed about their gender stereotypes about toy preferences, how often they engage in counterstereotypical playmate experiences, and their desire to play with peers who hold counterstereotypical toy preferences. Children with less gender stereotype-consistent expectations reported more playmate experiences with children who played with toys that were gender counterstereotypical compared to children with more gender stereotype-consistent expectations. Additionally, children with less gender stereotype-consistent expectations reported a greater desire to play with peers who held counterstereotypical toy preferences compared to children with more gender stereotype-consistent expectations. Younger children's reported playmate experiences with peers who liked toys that were gender counterstereotypical and their desire to play with these peers were strongly related to their gender stereotypical expectations (and more so than for older children). Together, these findings indicate that children's gender stereotypes and peer playmate experiences are related to their desire to play with peers who hold counterstereotypical toy preferences, highlighting the importance of facilitating diverse friendships for promoting inclusive orientations in childhood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Dev Sci ; : e13170, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423885

RESUMO

Racism remains a pervasive force around the world with widespread and well documented harmful consequences for members of marginalized racial groups. The psychological biases that maintain structural and interpersonal racism begin to emerge in early childhood, but with considerable individual variation-some children develop more racial bias than others. The present study (N = 116; 4-year-old children) provides novel insights into the developmental mechanisms underlying the emergence of racial bias by longitudinally documenting how two psychological processes-normative beliefs about interracial friendships and explanatory beliefs about racial inequalities-developmentally predict the emergence of pro-White/anti-Black racial bias during early childhood. In a 6-month, three-wave, longitudinal study, we found that 4-year-old children's beliefs that their parents and peers do not value interracial friendships predicted increased racial bias in and across time and that children's endorsement of essentialist over extrinsic explanations for racial inequalities predicted the developmental trajectory of racial bias over time. These findings suggest that children's foundational beliefs about the social world developmentally predict the emergence of racial bias in early childhood and speak to the importance of early and persistent intervention efforts targeting children's normative beliefs about interracial friendships and explanatory beliefs about racial inequalities.

3.
Am Psychol ; 76(3): 475-487, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584061

RESUMO

American racism is alive and well. In this essay, we amass a large body of classic and contemporary research across multiple areas of psychology (e.g., cognitive, developmental, social), as well as the broader social sciences (e.g., sociology, communication studies, public policy), and humanities (e.g., critical race studies, history, philosophy), to outline seven factors that contribute to American racism: (a) Categories, which organize people into distinct groups by promoting essentialist and normative reasoning; (b) Factions, which trigger ingroup loyalty and intergroup competition and threat; (c) Segregation, which hardens racist perceptions, preferences, and beliefs through the denial of intergroup contact; (d) Hierarchy, which emboldens people to think, feel, and behave in racist ways; (e) Power, which legislates racism on both micro and macro levels; (f) Media, which legitimize overrepresented and idealized representations of White Americans while marginalizing and minimizing people of color; and (g) Passivism, such that overlooking or denying the existence of racism obscures this reality, encouraging others to do the same and allowing racism to fester and persist. We argue that these and other factors support American racism, and we conclude with suggestions for future research, particularly in the domain of identifying ways to promote antiracism. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Racismo/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , /psicologia
4.
Dev Psychol ; 56(12): 2223-2235, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074695

RESUMO

Social inequalities limit important opportunities and resources for members of marginalized and disadvantaged groups. Understanding the origins of how children construct their understanding of social inequalities in the context of their everyday peer interactions has the potential to yield novel insights into when-and how-individuals respond to different types of social inequalities. The present study examined whether children (N = 176; 3- to 8-years-old; 52% female, 48% male; 70% European American, 16% African American, 10% Latinx, and 4% Asian American; middle-income backgrounds) differentiate between structurally based inequalities (e.g., based on gender) and individually based inequalities (e.g., based on merit). Children were randomly assigned to a group that received more (advantaged) or fewer (disadvantaged) resources than another group due to either their groups' meritorious performance on a task or the gender biases of the peer in charge of allocating resources. Overall, children evaluated structurally based inequalities to be more unfair and worthy of rectification than individually based inequalities, and disadvantaged children were more likely to view inequalities to be wrong and act to rectify them compared to advantaged children. With age, advantaged children became more likely to rectify the inequalities and judge perpetuating allocations to be unfair. Yet, the majority of children allocated equally in response to both types of inequality. The findings generated novel evidence regarding how children evaluate and respond to individually and structurally based inequalities, and how children's own status within the inequality informs these responses. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
J Cogn Dev ; 21(4): 477-493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982602

RESUMO

This article introduces an accessible approach to implementing unmoderated remote research in developmental science-research in which children and families participate in studies remotely and independently, without directly interacting with researchers. Unmoderated remote research has the potential to strengthen developmental science by: (1) facilitating the implementation of studies that are easily replicable, (2) allowing for new approaches to longitudinal studies and studies of parent-child interaction, and (3) including families from more diverse backgrounds and children growing up in more diverse environments in research. We describe an approach we have used to design and implement unmoderated remote research that is accessible to researchers with limited programming expertise, and we describe the resources we have made available on a new website (discoveriesonline.org) to help researchers get started with implementing this approach. We discuss the potential of this method for developmental science and highlight some challenges still to be overcome to harness the power of unmoderated remote research for advancing the field.

6.
Curr Dir Psychol Sci ; 29(6): 610-616, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758480

RESUMO

Many people believe in equality of opportunity, but overlook and minimize the structural factors that shape social inequalities in the United States and around the world, such as systematic exclusion (e.g., educational, occupational) based on group membership (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). As a result, social inequalities persist, and place marginalized social groups at elevated risk for negative emotional, learning, and health outcomes. Where do the beliefs and behaviors that underlie social inequalities originate? Recent evidence from developmental science indicates that an awareness of social inequalities begins in childhood, and that children seek to explain the underlying causes of the disparities that they observe and experience. Moreover, children and adolescents show early capacities for understanding and rectifying inequalities when regulating access to resources in peer contexts. Drawing on a social reasoning developmental framework, this paper synthesizes what is currently known about children's and adolescents' awareness, beliefs, and behavior concerning social inequalities, and highlights promising avenues by which developmental science can help reduce harmful assumptions and foster a more just society.

7.
Child Dev ; 91(2): 439-455, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370937

RESUMO

This study investigated children's ability to distinguish between resource inequalities with individual versus structural origins. Children (3- to 8-years-old; N = 93) were presented with resource inequalities based on either recipients' merit (individual factor) or gender (structural factor). Children were assessed on their expectations for others' allocations, own allocations, reasoning, and evaluations of others' allocations. Children perpetuated merit-based inequalities and either rectified or allocated equally in response to gender-based inequalities. Older, but not younger, children expected others to perpetuate both types of inequalities and differed in their evaluations and reasoning. Links between children's allocations and judgments were also found. Results reveal novel insights into children's developing consideration of the structural and individual factors leading to resource inequalities.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Alocação de Recursos , Percepção Social , Análise de Variância , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Distribuição Aleatória , Recompensa
9.
Child Dev ; 90(6): e703-e717, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781129

RESUMO

The present study examined how peer group norms influence children's evaluations of deviant ingroup members. Following the manipulation of competitive or cooperative norms, participants (children, Mage  = 8.69; adolescents, Mage  = 13.81; adults, Mage  = 20.89; n = 263) evaluated deviant ingroup members from their own and the group's perspective. Children rated cooperative deviancy positively and believed their group would do the same. Adolescents and adults believed that their group would negatively evaluate cooperative deviancy when their group supported a competitive allocation strategy. Reasoning varied based on norm and participants' agreement with deviancy. Understanding an ingroup may not be favorable toward a cooperative deviant in a competitive context is a developmental challenge requiring the coordination of social and moral norms.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Dev Psychol ; 55(2): 274-285, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474997

RESUMO

In a hidden inequality context, resource allocators and resource recipients are unaware that an unknowingly advantaged recipient possesses resources. The present study presented children aged 3-13 years (N = 121) with a hidden inequality vignette involving an accidental transgression in which one resource claimant, who unknowingly possessed more resources than another claimant, made an "unintentional false claim" to resources. This unintentional false claim resulted in depriving another recipient of needed resources. Results revealed that children's ability to accurately identify the claimant's intentions was related to how they evaluated and reasoned about resource claims, a previously understudied aspect of resource allocation contexts. Children's attributions of intentions to the accidental transgressor mediated the relationship between age and evaluations of the accidental transgression and the relationship between age and assignment of punishment to the accidental transgressor. With age, children who negatively evaluated the unintentional false claim shifted from reasoning about lying to a focus on negligence on the part of the unintentional false claimant. This shift reflects an increasing understanding of the accidental transgressor's benign intentions. These findings highlight how mental state knowledge and moral reasoning inform children's comprehension of resource allocation contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Decepção , Intenção , Conhecimento , Imperícia , Princípios Morais , Psicologia da Criança , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Punição , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 177: 53-69, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170244

RESUMO

This study investigated how theory of mind (ToM) competence is related to children's ability to differentiate between intentional and unintentional false statements regarding claims to resources. Participants (4-10 years old; N = 122) heard about individuals who had different access to knowledge about resource ownership when making resource claims, and they were asked to make an evaluation, attribute intentions, assign punishment, and predict the teacher's assigned punishment. Two measures of ToM were assessed: a prototypic false belief ToM assessment and a contextually embedded, morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM) assessment. Children's ToM competence reliably predicted more favorable evaluations of the individual who made the unintentional false claim than of the one who did so intentionally. Furthermore, the contextually embedded MoToM assessment predicted children's responses for all of the assessments above and beyond age and prototypic ToM competence. The findings indicate that children's contextually embedded MoToM competence bears on their moral assessments of the intentions of transgressors and underscores the importance of ToM in the ability to discriminate intentional and unintentional false statements.


Assuntos
Decepção , Intenção , Julgamento/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Punição
12.
Dev Psychol ; 54(8): 1499-1506, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952601

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related changes in the intergroup allocation of resources depending on whether the ingroup norm was competitive or cooperative. Participants included children (Mage = 8.69), adolescents (Mage = 13.81), and adults (Mage = 20.89), (N = 263) who were inducted into simulated groups and informed about an ingroup norm of either cooperation or competition. The goal context for the resource allocation task was either prosocial (to benefit the welfare of animals in a charity event) or group focused (to win a national interschool competition). They were then asked to allocate resources between an ingroup and outgroup, and to justify their allocation. The findings showed that children allocated significantly more resources to their ingroup in order to achieve a prosocial goal, but only when the ingroup norm was competitive. In contrast, adolescents and adults allocated resources equally irrespective of the ingroup norm. These findings showed that children prioritized the moral goal of welfare over that of fairness when their ingroup favored competition, while adolescents and adults always prioritized fairness. Older participants justified their equal allocation with greater reference to the importance of fair competition. This study demonstrated an important developmental shift in how the prioritization of moral goals during intergroup resource allocation is influenced by ingroup norms of competition and cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Alocação de Recursos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 169: 30-41, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324244

RESUMO

The current study investigated whether children's relative social status within a context influences their ability to identify others' mental states. Across two experiments, 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 103) were randomly assigned to hold either an advantaged or disadvantaged social status and were assessed on their ability to accurately identify others' mental states (via false-belief and belief-emotion "theory of mind" assessments). When participants' status was manipulated by a structural factor (gender; Experiment 1), participants with disadvantaged status were more likely than participants with advantaged status to pass the false-belief and belief-emotion assessments. When status was manipulated by an individual factor (performance; Experiment 2), participants with disadvantaged status were more likely to pass the false-belief assessment but not the belief-emotion assessment. Results provide the first empirical evidence that an individual's contextualized perspective (i.e., his or her social status situated within a given context) influences the individual's ability to identify others' mental states.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Classe Social , Teoria da Mente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 165: 19-36, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645542

RESUMO

Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Moral , Grupo Associado , Distância Psicológica , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Normas Sociais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança
15.
Dev Psychol ; 54(3): 510-520, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083217

RESUMO

The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic expectations regarding doll- and truck-making abilities, and these expectations predicted the degree of bias in their allocations of resources to the characters. Critically, children's performance on a Theory of Mind (ToM) Scale (Diverse Desires [DD], Contents False-Belief [FB], Belief-Emotion [BE]) was significantly related to their allocations of resources to individuals whose effort did not fit existing gender stereotypes (e.g., a boy who was good at making dolls). With increasing ToM competence, children allocated resources based on merit (even when the character's effort did not fit existing gender stereotypes) rather than based on stereotypes. The present results provide novel information regarding the emergence of gender stereotypes about abilities, the influence of stereotypes on children's resource allocations, and the role of ToM in children's ability to challenge gender stereotypes when allocating resources. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Alocação de Recursos , Comportamento Social , Estereotipagem , Teoria da Mente , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia da Criança , Sexismo
16.
Cogn Dev ; 43: 25-36, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983150

RESUMO

In many situations, children evaluate straightforward resource inequalities as unfair. It remains unclear, however, how children interpret hidden inequalities (i.e., inequalities that are unknown to allocators and/or recipients). Children 3-9-years-old (N = 87) evaluated and attributed intentions to a naïve resource allocator who, while unaware of a hidden inequality, made three hypothetical resource allocations: 1) an unknowingly equitable allocation (which rectified the inequality), 2) an inequitable allocation (which perpetuated the inequality), and 3) an equal allocation (which maintained the inequality). Children without false belief morally-relevant theory of mind (FB MoToM) attributed more positive intentions to the unknowingly equitable allocation than to the inequitable allocation. Children with FB MoToM, however, did not differ in their attributions of intentions to the unknowingly equitable and inequitable allocations, reflecting their knowledge that the naïve allocator was not aware of the hidden inequality. Further, children's attributions of intentions were related to their evaluations of the allocations. These findings underscore the importance of children's social cognitive inferences to their evaluations of resource allocation decisions.

17.
J Fam Stud ; 23(1): 38-61, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405175

RESUMO

Young children are sensitive to the importance of apologies, yet little is known about when and why parents prompt apologies from children. We examined these issues with parents of 3-10-year-old children (N = 483). Parents judged it to be important for children to apologize following both intentional and accidental morally-relevant transgressions, and they anticipated prompting apologies in both contexts, showing an 'outcome bias' (i.e., a concern for the outcomes of children's transgressions rather than for their underlying intentions). Parents viewed apologies as less important after children's breaches of social convention; parents recognized differences between social domains in their responses to children's transgressions. Irrespective of parenting style, parents were influenced in similar fashion by particular combinations of transgressions and victims, though permissive parents were least likely to anticipate prompting apologies. Parents endorsed different reasons for prompting apologies as a function of transgression type, suggesting that they attend to key features of their children's transgressions when deciding when to prompt apologies.

18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 156: 113-128, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063404

RESUMO

Young children understand that lying is wrong, yet little is known about the emotions children connect to the acts of lying and confessing and how children's emotion expectancies relate to real-world behavior. In the current study, 4- to 9-year-old children (N=48) heard stories about protagonists (a) committing transgressions, (b) failing to disclose their misdeeds, and (c) subsequently lying or confessing. Younger children (4-5years) expected relatively positive feelings to follow self-serving transgressions, failure to disclose, and lying, and they often used gains-oriented and punishment-avoidance reasoning when justifying their responses. Older children (7-9years) had the opposite pattern of emotional responses (better feelings linked to confession compared with lying). Older children expected a more positive parental response to a confession than younger children. Furthermore, children who expected more positive parental responses to confession were reported by parents to confess more in real life than children who expected more negative parental responses to confession. Thus, the current research demonstrates a link between children's emotion expectancies and actual confession behavior.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pais , Revelação da Verdade , Boston , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Dev Psychol ; 52(8): 1307-17, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455189

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Cooperativo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Testes Psicológicos , Alocação de Recursos , Recompensa , Pensamento
20.
Cognition ; 155: 176-187, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27423813

RESUMO

To investigate whether children rectify social inequalities in a resource allocation task, participants (N=185 African-American and European-American 5-6year-olds and 10-11year-olds) witnessed an inequality of school supplies between peers of different racial backgrounds. Assessments were conducted on how children judged the wrongfulness of the inequality, allocated new resources to racial ingroup and outgroup recipients, evaluated alternative allocation strategies, and reasoned about their decisions. Younger children showed ingroup favorability; their responses differed depending on whether they had witnessed their ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. With age, children increasingly reasoned about the importance of equal access to school supplies and correcting past disparities. Older children judged the resource inequality negatively, allocated more resources to the disadvantaged group, and positively evaluated the actions of others who did the same, regardless of whether they had seen their racial ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. Thus, balancing moral and social group concerns enabled individuals to rectify inequalities and ensure fair access to important resources regardless of racial group membership.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Alocação de Recursos , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Identificação Social
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...