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1.
J Pathol Transl Med ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028755

RESUMO

Background: Distinguishing prostatic stromal invasion (PSI) by urothelial carcinoma (UC) from in situ UC involving prostatic ducts or acini with no stromal invasion (in situ involvement) may be challenging on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. However, the distinction between them is important because cases with PSI show worse prognosis. This study was performed to assess the utility of double cocktail immunostains with high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK) and GATA-3 to discriminate PSI by UC from in situ UC involvement of prostatic ducts or acini in the prostate. Materials and Methods: Among 117 radical cystoprostatectomy specimens for bladder UCs, 25 cases showed secondary involvement of bladder UC in prostatic ducts/acini only or associated stromal invasion and of these 25 cases, seven cases revealed equivocal PSI. In these seven cases with equivocal PSI, HMWCK, and GATA-3 double immunohistochemical stains were performed to identify whether this cocktail stain is useful to identify the stromal invasion. Results: In all cases, basal cells of prostate glands showed strong cytoplasmic staining for HMWCK and UC cells showed strong nuclear staining for GATA-3. In cases with stromal invasion of UC, GATA-3-positive tumor cells in the prostatic stroma without surrounding HMWCK-positive basal cells were highlighted and easily recognized. Among seven equivocal cases, two cases showed PSI and five in situ UC in the prostate. In two cases, the original diagnoses were revised. Conclusion: Our study suggested that HMWCK and GATA-3 double stains could be utilized as an adjunct method in the distinction between PSI by UC from in situ UC involving prostatic ducts or acini.

2.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000794, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003614

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of plasmacytoid variant (PV)-urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) have not been fully understood. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcomes of PV-UCB as compared to conventional UCB (C-UCB). METHODS: A systematic review was performed following the PRISMA guideline. PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2019. The differences in the clinicopathological features (≥stage pT3, lymph node metastasis, ureteral margin-positive, and perivesical soft tissue margin-positive status) and survival outcomes [overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM)] between PV-UCB and C-UCB were compared. The GRADE approach was used for rating the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies were included. Patients with PV-UCB had a higher frequency of ≥stage pT3 (odds ratio [OR], 3.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-9.03; p=0.002) and risk of lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.15-5.76; p=0.02), ureteral margin-positive (OR 12.18; 95% CI, 4.62-32.13; p<0.00001), and perivesical soft tissue margin-positive (OR 12.31; 95% CI, 5.15-29.41; p<0.00001) status after radical cystectomy than those with C-UCB. Although there was no difference in CSM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% CI, 0.82-2.40; p=0.22) between PV-UCB and C-UCB, PV-UCB had worse survival outcomes (OM) than C-UCB approaching the borderline of significance (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.98-2.68; p=0.06) when adjusted for other clinicopathological characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: PV-UCB was strongly associated with adverse clinicopathological features and worse OM compared to C-UCB after adjusting other clinicopathological parameters, and PV histology of UCB is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival.

3.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 44: 151433, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most urothelial neoplasms of the bladder show an exophytic papillary pattern, but some show an inverted growth pattern. In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a detailed histologic classification system for papillary urothelial neoplasms, but not for inverted forms. The International Consultation on Urologic Disease (ICUD) recommendations of 2012 are applicable to inverted/endophytic papillary lesions as follows: 1) inverted papilloma (IP), 2) inverted papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (IPUNLMP), 3) inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma, low grade, non-invasive (IPUCLG-NI), 4) inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma, high grade, non-invasive (IPUCHG-NI), 5) inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma, high grade, invasive (IPUCHG-I). However, only atypical cellular morphology was considered for classification in the 2012 ICUD recommendations, and data to support to validate this new grading system are lacking. METHODS: Sixty cases of inverted urothelial papillary tumors were classified into 5 categories according to 2012 ICUD and 2016 WHO/ISUP recommendations to evaluate their clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Two subgroups were defined as subgroup 1, IP and IPUNLMP, and subgroup 2, IPUCLG-NI, IPUCHG-NI, and IPUCHG-I. Clinical features (age, sex, history of urothelial carcinoma, smoking history, size, and multifocality) and histologic features (nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count, mitosis level, apoptosis, luminal necrosis, trabecular thickening, anastomosing trabeculae, hypercellularity, loss of polarity, peripheral palisading, palisading with central streaming, and discohesiveness) were evaluated. Immunohistochemical stains for CK20, CD44, P53, p16, Ki-67, cyclin D1 and c-erbB2 were performed. RESULTS: A total of 60 cases were classified as 10 cases of IP, 29 cases of IPUNLMPs, 15 cases of IPUCLG-NI, 4 cases of IPUCHG-NI, and 2 cases of IPUCHG-I. Compared to subgroup 1, subgroup 2 showed larger tumor size, more nuclear irregularity, higher mitotic count (hot spot and per 10 high power fields), more upper level mitosis (>1/2), and more frequent apoptosis, luminal necrosis, surface papillary component, trabecular thickening, anastomosing irregular trabeculae, hypercellularity, loss of polarity, peripheral palisading with central streaming, and discohesiveness, and absence of umbrella cells and urothelial eddies. CK20, Ki67, and c-erbB2 were the only markers that were differently expressed in the two subgroups, with more expression in subgroup 2. CONCLUSIONS: The 2012 ICUD recommendations are valid to classify inverted papillary urothelial tumors. However, other histologic features besides atypical cellular morphology should also be considered to distinguish subgroup 1 and subgroup 2 inverted papillary urothelial tumors.

4.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(5): 673-680, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876580

RESUMO

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) has been recently recognized by the World Health Organization classification of prostatic tumors as a distinct entity, most often occurring concurrently with invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa). Whether documented admixed with PCa or in its rare pure form, numerous studies associate this entity with clinical aggressiveness. Despite increasing clinical experience and requirement of IDC-P documentation in protocols for synoptic reporting, the specifics of its potential contribution to assessment of grade group (GG) and cancer quantitation of PCa in both needle biopsies (NBx) and radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens remain unclear. Moreover, there are no standard guidelines for incorporating basal cell marker immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of IDC-P, either alone or as part of a cocktail with AMACR/racemase. An online survey containing 26 questions regarding diagnosis, reporting practices, and IHC resource utilization, focusing on IDC-P, was undertaken by 42 genitourinary subspecialists from 9 countries. The degree of agreement or disagreement regarding approaches to individual questions was classified as significant majority (>75%), majority (51% to 75%), minority (26% to 50%) and significant minority (≤25%). IDC-P with or without invasive cancer is considered a contraindication for active surveillance by the significant majority (95%) of respondents, although a majority (66%) also agreed that the clinical significance/behavior of IDC-P on NBx or RP with PCa required further study. The majority do not upgrade PCa based on comedonecrosis seen only in the intraductal component in NBx (62%) or RP (69%) specimens. Similarly, recognizable IDC-P with GG1 PCa was not a factor in upgrading in NBx (78%) or RP (71%) specimens. The majority (60%) of respondents include readily recognizable IDC-P in assessment of linear extent of PCa at NBx. A significant majority (78%) would use IHC to confirm or exclude intraductal carcinoma if other biopsies showed no PCa, while 60% would use it to confirm IDC-P with invasive PCa in NBx if it would change the overall GG assignment. Nearly half (48%, a minority) would use IHC to confirm IDC-P for accurate Gleason pattern 4 quantitation. A majority (57%) report the percentage of IDC-P when present, in RP specimens. When obvious Gleason pattern 4 or 5 PCa is present in RP or NBx, IHC is rarely to almost never used to confirm the presence of IDC-P by the significant majority (88% and 90%, respectively). Most genitourinary pathologists consider IDC-P to be an adverse prognostic feature independent of the PCa grade, although recommendations for standardization are needed to guide reporting of IDC-P vis a vis tumor quantitation and final GG assessment. The use of IHC varies widely and is performed for a multitude of indications, although it is used most frequently in scenarios where confirmation of IDC-P would impact the GG assigned. Further study and best practices recommendations are needed to provide guidance with regards to the most appropriate indications for IHC use in scenarios regarding IDC-P.

5.
J Breast Cancer ; 22(2): 326-335, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281733

RESUMO

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare, soft tissue neoplasm that rarely presents in breast tissue, with only 27 previously reported cases. To our knowledge, only one case of malignant SFT has been reported in the English literature. A 75-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our institution with a 3-month history of a palpable left breast mass. No other symptoms, including nipple discharge or skin changes, were noted. She underwent 3 previous biopsies for right breast masses, all of which were benign, with no evidence of spindle cell neoplasm, atypical hyperplasia, or malignancy. Microscopic examination of the mass demonstrated a classic area of SFT with areas of high-grade anaplastic component. In these areas, the tumor showed atypical epithelioid cells arranged in hypercellular sheets with diminished branching vasculature, nuclear pleomorphism, and increased mitotic count (up to 9/10 high-power fields). This case represents the second case of malignant SFT in the breast.

6.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 42: 48-58, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306859

RESUMO

Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the genitourinary tract are rare and are comprised of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. These include paraganglioma, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors or carcinoid tumors, small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Personal experiences, in addition to the findings of an extensive literature search for pertinent publications, were used to compile the epidemiological data, clinical information, histopathological features, prognostic factors, and therapeutic approaches. We also include molecular alterations and targeted treatments of the various neuroendocrine tumors of the genitourinary tract.

8.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 41: 43-50, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132651

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Invasive micropapillary adenocarcinoma (MPC) is an aggressive variant of lung adenocarcinoma, frequently manifesting with advanced stage lymph node metastasis and decreased survival. OBJECTIVE: Identification of this morphology is important, as it is strongly correlated with poor prognosis regardless of the amount of MPC component. To date, no study has investigated the morphological criteria used to objectively diagnose it. DESIGN: Herein, we selected 30 cases of potential MPC of lung, and distributed 2 digital images per case among 15 pulmonary pathology experts. Reviewers were requested to diagnostically interpret, assign the percentage of MPC component, and record the morphological features they identified. The noted features included: columnar cells, elongated slender cell nests, extensive stromal retraction, lumen formation with internal epithelial tufting, epithelial signet ring-like forms, intracytoplasmic vacuolization, multiple nests in the same alveolar space, back-to-back lacunar spaces, epithelial nest anastomosis, marked pleomorphism, peripherally oriented nuclei, randomly distributed nuclei, small/medium/large tumor nest size, fibrovascular cores, and spread through air-spaces (STAS). RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed three subgroups with the following diagnoses: "MPC", "combined papillary and MPC", and "others". The subgroups correlated with the reported median percentage of MPC. Intracytoplasmic vacuolization, epithelial nest anastomosis/confluence, multiple nests in the same alveolar space, and small/medium tumor nest size were the most common criteria identified in the cases diagnosed as MPC. Peripherally oriented nuclei and epithelial signet ring-like forms were frequently identified in both the "MPC" and "combined papillary and MPC" groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides objective diagnostic criteria to diagnose MPC of lung.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Papilar/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Papilar/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patologistas , Patologia Cirúrgica/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 143(6): 705-710, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969154

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Core biopsy has been increasingly used for clinical decision-making in the management of patients with renal masses. The sensitivity and specificity of histologic diagnoses of renal mass biopsies depend on many factors such as adequate sampling and tissue processing, diagnostic skill and experience, and appropriate use of ancillary techniques. OBJECTIVE.­: To review the indications, emphasize the importance of obtaining adequate diagnostic material, and introduce a general diagnostic approach, in conjunction with immunohistochemistry, in diagnosis of renal mass biopsies. DATA SOURCES.­: Literature review and personal experiences in daily practice and consultation diagnosis of renal masses in a large tertiary medical center. CONCLUSIONS.­: For renal mass biopsies, it is critical to obtain adequate diagnostic material and establish a standard laboratory procedure in working with small biopsy specimens. The key for the diagnosis is to be familiar with different tumor entities with characteristic morphology and to understand the wide spectrum of tumor heterogeneity. By developing a systematic approach, one can categorize the tumor and create a sensible differential diagnosis based on the growth pattern and cellular morphology. Immunohistochemistry is particularly helpful for renal mass biopsy diagnosis in selected situations.

11.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 40: 26-29, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921621

RESUMO

Clear cell Mullerian-type adenocarcinoma of the testis is an exceedingly rare entity, and its histogenesis and clinical behavior are still poorly understood. We discuss three cases of clear cell carcinoma of the testis, compiled from a review of the literature and our personal experience. Microscopically, the tumors closely resembled clear cell carcinoma of the ovary, displaying papillae lined by clear cells with areas of hobnailing. The reported immunophenotypic features were also similar to that of ovarian tumors, as positivity for epithelial markers (CK7, CAM5.2, AE1/AE3, EMA) and Mullerian markers (PAX8, CA125) with negativity for estrogen and progesterone receptors have been observed. The pathogenesis of testicular clear cell carcinoma is still poorly understood, with reported cases displaying evidence of both mesothelial and Mullerian origin. In addition, molecular characterization of testicular clear cell carcinomas has yet to be accomplished; however, studies performed on ovarian clear cell carcinomas may provide insight to the origin, biologic behavior, and potential therapeutic modalities for this obscure, aggressive malignancy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Patologia Molecular , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia
12.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 39: 118-124, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661742

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. A small minority of GISTs exhibit morphologic and phenotypic changes and differentiate into an unusual phenotype through the process of dedifferentiation. Dedifferentiation can occur either de novo or after prolonged treatment with imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. GISTs can present with various morphologies including rhabdomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. The unusual histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors can be diagnostically challenging. Therefore, it is essential that the pathologists recognize GISTs with unusual morphology and be aware of the dedifferentiation process. This review aims to provide an overview of the morphologic and molecular features of dedifferentiated GISTs. Additionally, we discuss diagnostic dilemmas and recent immunohistochemical markers that are useful in distinguishing dedifferentiated GISTs from other gastrointestinal tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Desdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Imuno-Histoquímica
13.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 25(1): 51-58, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963640

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted therapy improved the outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. However, a prediction of the response to VEGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) remains to be elucidated. We aimed to develop a classifier for VEGFR-TKI responsiveness in mRCC patients. Among 101 mRCC patients, ones with complete response, partial response, or ≥24 weeks stable disease in response to VEGFR-TKI treatment were defined as clinical benefit group, whereas patients with <24 weeks stable disease or progressive disease were classified as clinical non-benefit group. Clinicolaboratory-histopathological data, 41 gene mutations, 20 protein expression levels and 1733 miRNA expression levels were compared between clinical benefit and non-benefit groups. The classifier was built using support vector machine (SVM). Seventy-three patients were clinical benefit group, and 28 patients were clinical non-benefit group. Significantly different features between the groups were as follows: age, time from diagnosis to TKI initiation, thrombocytosis, tumor size, pT stage, ISUP grade, sarcomatoid change, necrosis, lymph node metastasis and expression of pAKT, PD-L1, PD-L2, FGFR2, pS6, PDGFRß, HIF-1α, IL-8, CA9 and miR-421 (all, P < 0.05). A classifier including necrosis, sarcomatoid component and HIF-1α was built with 0.87 accuracy using SVM. When the classifier was checked against all patients, the apparent accuracy was 0.875 (95% CI, 0.782-0.938). The classifier can be presented as a simple decision tree for clinical use. We developed a VEGFR-TKI response classifier based on comprehensive inclusion of clinicolaboratory-histopathological, immunohistochemical, mutation and miRNA features that may help to guide appropriate treatment in mRCC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 143(2): 212-221, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979612

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) of soft parts, hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT), and myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) are 3 distinct entities of low-grade spindle cell mesenchymal neoplasm. These tumors have similar clinical presentations and partially overlapping but distinctive pathologic features. A recurrent translocation, t(1;10)(p22;q24), has been detected in a subset of PHAT, HFLT, MIFS, and HFLT/MIFS hybrid cases. Translocation t(1;10)(p22;q24) involves transforming growth factor ß-receptor 3 ( TGFBR3) and meningioma-expressed antigen 5 ( MGEA5) genes on chromosomes 1p22 and 10q24, respectively. However, the percentage of translocation in PHAT, HFLT, and MIFS varies significantly among different studies. The relationship among these tumors has been a controversial topic among experts. OBJECTIVE.­: To discuss the diagnostic and functional significance of translocation t(1;10)(p22;q24) TGFBR3/MGEA5 rearrangement in HFLT, PHAT, and MIFS. DATA SOURCES.­: PubMed was used for this study. CONCLUSIONS.­: Diagnosis of HFLT, PHAT, and MIFS is challenging because of a lack of unique morphologic, immunophenotypic, molecular, and cytogenetic markers. The recurrent t(1;10)(p22;q24) translocation and/or TGFBR3/MGEA5 rearrangement was reported in 55 patients, with a relatively even distribution among HFLT, PHAT, and MIFS (17 HFLT, 15 MIFS, 13 MIFS/HFLT, and 10 PHAT). This indicates that current morphology-based diagnostic criteria do not identify reliably the subset of soft tissue tumor with t(1;10) translocation. Genetic heterogeneity of these tumors is supported by the recent detection of a mutually exclusive, second recurrent genetic change, t(7;17) TOM1L2-BRAF translocation or BRAF amplification, in a subset of MIFS.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Proteoglicanas/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Translocação Genética
15.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 37: 42-46, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241034

RESUMO

Intraluminal crystalloids have rarely been described in the breast, particularly in cases with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We recently encountered a case of DCIS of the breast associated with numerous intraluminal crystalloids. The patient presented with a mass in the right breast, and microcalcifications were detected on screening and diagnostic mammograms; the patient underwent needle biopsies, lumpectomy, and skin-sparing mastectomy. Invasive ductal carcinoma associated with extensive DCIS was diagnosed. Multiple refractile, eosinophilic crystalloids, with variable morphologies including rectangular, triangular and needle-like with sharp borders, were observed within the lumina of DCIS, besides calcium phosphate microcalcifications. We report this case together with a literature review on crystalloid-containing lesions in breast and non-breast tissues. We also studied radiologic findings of these crystalloids using a specimen radiograph.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 142(8): 958-972, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040457

RESUMO

CONTEXT: - Spindle cell neoplasms arising in the skin comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors with divergent lineages. Cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms are relatively common and present surgical pathologists with diagnostic challenges. Recognition of their histopathologies is important for correct diagnosis and management. The current review presents a pattern-based diagnostic approach to common cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms that often cause diagnostic difficulties. OBJECTIVE: - To provide a useful guide for diagnosis of cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms. DATA SOURCES: - PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) reports and the authors' personal experiences are reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: - The authors briefly summarize the histologic features and differential diagnoses of common cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Fibroma/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Nevo Fusocelular/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fibroma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Nevo Fusocelular/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico
17.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 142(8): 938-946, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040459

RESUMO

CONTEXT: - The presence of cribriform glands/ducts in the prostate can pose a diagnostic challenge. Cribriform glands/ducts include a spectrum of lesions, from benign to malignant, with vastly different clinical, prognostic, and treatment implications. OBJECTIVE: - To highlight the diagnostic features of several entities with a common theme of cribriform architecture. We emphasize the importance of distinguishing among benign entities such as cribriform changes and premalignant to malignant entities such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical intraductal cribriform proliferation, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate, and invasive adenocarcinoma (acinar and ductal types). The diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and clinical implications of these cribriform lesions are discussed. DATA SOURCES: - Literature review of pertinent publications in PubMed up to calendar year 2017. Photomicrographs obtained from cases at the University of California at Irvine and authors' collections. CONCLUSIONS: - Although relatively uncommon compared with small acinar lesions (microacinar carcinoma and small gland carcinoma mimickers), large cribriform lesions are increasingly recognized and have become clinically and pathologically important. The spectrum of cribriform lesions includes benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and differentiating them can often be subtle and difficult. Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate in particular is independently associated with worse prognosis, and its presence in isolation should prompt definitive treatment. Patients with atypical intraductal cribriform proliferation, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate, or even focal cribriform pattern of invasive adenocarcinoma in biopsies would not be ideal candidates for active surveillance because of the high risk of adverse pathologic findings associated with these entities.


Assuntos
Próstata/patologia , Doenças Prostáticas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Prostáticas/diagnóstico
19.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 142(3): 420-423, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494224

RESUMO

Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm is a rare tumor that the World Health Organization recognized in 2010 as a subtype of premalignant pancreatic neoplasms. It is important to distinguish it from other intraductal neoplasms, including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and intraductal variant of acinar cell carcinoma, because intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm has a favorable prognosis. Histopathologically, intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms are characterized by tubulopapillary growth, uniform high-grade cytologic atypia, frequent necrotic foci, evident ductal differentiation, and absence of mucin. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms show distinct immunohistochemical and molecular findings, with positive cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, MUC1, and MUC6, and somatic PIK3CA mutations (2 of 11; 18%), and low rates of KRAS (2 of 20; 10%), TP53 (5 of 22; 23%), and BRAF (2 of 13; 15%) mutations. These differences also highlight the fact that intraductal tubulopapillary pancreatic neoplasm is distinct from other similar neoplasms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Mod Pathol ; 31(7): 1097-1106, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467479

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological features of patients with flat epithelial atypia, diagnosed in directional vacuum-assisted biopsy targeting microcalcifications, to identify upgrade rate to in situ ductal or invasive breast carcinoma, and determine factors predicting carcinoma in the subsequent excision. We retrospectively evaluated the histological, clinical, and mammographic features of 69 cases from 65 women, with directional vacuum-assisted biopsy-diagnosed flat epithelial atypia with or without atypical ductal hyperplasia or atypical lobular hyperplasia, which underwent subsequent surgical excision. The extent and percentage of microcalcifications sampled by directional vacuum-assisted biopsy were evaluated by mammography. All biopsy and surgical excision slides were reviewed. The age of the women ranged from 40 to 85 years (mean 57 years). All patients presented with mammographically detected microcalcifications only, except in one case that had associated architectural distortion. Extent of calcifications ranged from <1 cm (n = 47), 1-3 cm (n = 15) to > 3 cm (n = 6), and no measurement (n = 1). A mean of 11 cores (range 6-25) was obtained from each lesion. Post-biopsy mammogram revealed >90% removal of calcifications in 81% of cases. Pure flat epithelial atypia represented nearly two-thirds of directional vacuum-assisted biopsy specimens (n = 43, 62%), while flat epithelial atypia coexisted with atypical ductal hyperplasia (18 cases, 26%), or atypical lobular hyperplasia (8 cases, 12%). Upon excision, none of the cases were upgraded to in situ ductal or invasive breast cancer. In one case, however, an incidental, tubular carcinoma (4 mm) was found away from biopsy site. Excluding this case, the upgrade rate was 0%. Our study adds to the growing evidence that diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia on directional vacuum-assisted biopsy for microcalcifications as the only imaging finding is not associated with a significant upgrade to carcinoma on excision, and therefore, excision may not be necessary. Additionally, excision may not be necessary for flat epithelial atypia with atypical ductal hyperplasia limited to ≤2 terminal duct-lobular units, if at least 90% of calcifications have been removed on biopsy.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Mamárias/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vácuo
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