Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 81
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
2.
Am Psychol ; 75(2): 265-273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052999

RESUMO

In this article, insights from psychology and behavioral economics are identified that help explain why it is hard to maintain healthy eating habits in modern food environments. Most eating decisions engage System 1, rather than System 2, processing, making it difficult for people to consistently make healthy choices in food environments that encourage overconsumption of unhealthy foods. The psychological vulnerabilities discussed include emotions and associations mattering more than reason, difficulty processing complex information, present-biased preferences and planning fallacy, status quo bias and defaults, and susceptibility to unhealthy foods that are in sight and, therefore, in mind. The article argues that these insights should convince us that supporting healthy eating habits and reversing the worldwide obesity epidemic will occur only if our food environments are changed in substantial ways, largely through policy changes. Such policies include restrictions on food marketing, requiring uniform front-of-package nutrition labeling, changing unhealthy food and beverage defaults to healthy ones, and taxing unhealthy foods and beverages. Psychology and behavioral economics should inform the design of these policies to maximize their effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(6): e181-e193, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Policymakers are interested in requiring chain restaurants to display sodium warning labels on menus to reduce sodium consumption. This study examined the influence of label design on consumers' hypothetical choices, meal perceptions, and knowledge. STUDY DESIGN: Four sequential, randomized, controlled online experiments were conducted. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Across all 4 experiments, 10,412 sociodemographically diverse participants were recruited online through Survey Sampling International and Amazon Mechanical Turk. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to view restaurant menus with either no sodium label (control) or 1 of 13 sodium warning labels that varied the text (e.g., "sodium warning" versus "high sodium"), icons (e.g., stop sign), and colors (red/black) used. Participants placed a hypothetical meal order and rated restaurant meal perceptions. Data were collected and analyzed in 2016-2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was sodium content of hypothetical restaurant choices. Secondary outcomes included restaurant meal perceptions and sodium knowledge. RESULTS: In Experiments 1-3, all warning labels reduced average sodium ordered across both restaurants (by 19-81 mg) versus controls, with some of the largest reductions from traffic light and stop sign labels, but results were not statistically significant. In a larger, preregistered replication (Experiment 4) testing traffic light and red stop sign labels versus control, traffic light and red stop sign labels significantly reduced average sodium ordered across both restaurants (-68 mg, p=0.002 and -46 mg, p=0.049, respectively). Warnings also significantly increased participants' knowledge of sodium content and perceived health risks associated with high-sodium meals compared with no label. CONCLUSIONS: Traffic light and red stop sign warning labels significantly reduced sodium ordered compared with a control. Warning labels also increased knowledge about high sodium content in restaurant meals. Designs with warning text are likely to improve consumer understanding.

4.
BMJ ; 367: l5837, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether calorie labeling of menus in large restaurant chains was associated with a change in mean calories purchased per transaction. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental longitudinal study. SETTING: Large franchise of a national fast food company with three different restaurant chains located in the southern United States (Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi) from April 2015 until April 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 104 restaurants with calorie information added to in-store and drive-thru menus in April 2017 and with weekly aggregated sales data during the pre-labeling (April 2015 to April 2017) and post-labeling (April 2017 to April 2018) implementation period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the overall level and trend changes in mean purchased calories per transaction after implementation of calorie labeling compared with the counterfactual (ie, assumption that the pre-intervention trend would have persisted had the intervention not occurred) using interrupted time series analyses with linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes were by item category (entrees, sides, and sugar sweetened beverages). Subgroup analyses estimated the effect of calorie labeling in stratums defined by the sociodemographic characteristics of restaurant census tracts (defined region for taking census). RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 14 352 restaurant weeks. Over three years and among 104 restaurants, 49 062 440 transactions took place and 242 726 953 items were purchased. After labeling implementation, a level decrease was observed of 60 calories/transaction (95% confidence interval 48 to 72; about 4%), followed by an increasing trend of 0.71 calories/transaction/week (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) independent of the baseline trend over the year after implementation. These results were generally robust to different analytic assumptions in sensitivity analyses. The level decrease and post-implementation trend change were stronger for sides than for entrees or sugar sweetened beverages. The level decrease was similar between census tracts with higher and lower median income, but the post-implementation trend in calories per transaction was higher in low income (change in calories/transaction/week 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.21) than in high income census tracts (0.50, 0.19 to 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: A small decrease in mean calories purchased per transaction was observed after implementation of calorie labeling in a large franchise of fast food restaurants. This reduction diminished over one year of follow-up.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Prevalência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 99, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of calorie labeling on fast-food purchases is unclear. McDonald's voluntarily labeled its menus with calories in 2012, providing an opportunity to evaluate this initiative on purchases. METHODS: From 2010 to 2014, we collected receipts from and administered questionnaires to 2971 adults, 2164 adolescents, and 447 parents/guardians of school-age children during repeated visits to 82 restaurants, including McDonald's and five control chains that did not label menus over the study period in four New England cities. In 2018, we analyzed the data by using difference-in-differences analyses to estimate associations of calorie labeling with calories purchased (actual and estimated) and predicted probability of noticing calorie information on menus. RESULTS: Calorie labeling at McDonald's was not associated with changes in calories purchased in adults (change = - 19 cal pre- vs. post-labeling at McDonald's compared to control chains, 95% CI: - 112, 75), adolescents (change = - 49 cal, 95% CI: - 136, 38), or children (change = 13 cal, 95% CI: - 108, 135). Calorie labeling generally increased the predicted probability of noticing calorie information, but did not improve estimation of calories purchased. CONCLUSIONS: Calorie labeling at McDonald's was not associated with changes in calories purchased in adults, adolescents, or children. Although participants were more likely to notice calories on menus post-labeling, there was no improvement in ability to accurately estimate calories purchased.

6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(10): 829-835, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on employee opinions of workplace wellness programs is limited. METHODS: At a large academic medical center in Boston, we conducted 12 focus groups on employee perceptions of wellness programs. We analyzed data using the immersion-crystallization approach. Participant mean age (N = 109) was 41 years; 89% were female; 54% were white. RESULTS: Employees cited prominent barriers to program participation: limited availability; time and marketing; disparities in access; and workplace culture. Encouraging supportive, interpersonal relationships among employees and perceived institutional support for wellness may improve workplace culture and improve participation. Employees suggested changes to physical space, including onsite showers and recommended that a centralized wellness program could create and market initiatives such as competitions and incentives. CONCLUSION: Employees sought measures to address serious constraints on time and space, sometimes toxic interpersonal relationships, and poor communication, aspects of workplaces not typically addressed by wellness efforts.

8.
Appetite ; 140: 41-49, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study measures how racially-targeted food and beverage ads affect adolescents' attitudes toward ads and brands, purchase intentions for advertised products, and willingness to engage with brands on social media. METHODS: Black and White adolescents were recruited through Survey Sampling International in 2016. Participants completed an online survey in which they were randomized to view either four food and beverage ads (e.g., soda, candy commercials) featuring Black actors or four food and beverage ads featuring White actors. RESULTS: For the two components of the attitudinal outcome, Black participants were more likely to report a positive affective response toward racially-similar ads compared to Whites. However, White participants were more likely to like ads that were racially-dissimilar compared to Black participants. Data were analyzed in 2016-2017, and we used an alpha level of 0.05 to denote statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Both Black and White adolescents reported more positive affective responses to ads that featured Blacks compared to ads that featured Whites. Because there were no differences on two outcomes, future research should examine the influence of racially-targeted marketing in real-world contexts (e.g., social media) and longitudinal exposure to targeted advertising on dietary behavior.

9.
JAMA ; 321(18): 1799-1810, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087022

RESUMO

Importance: Policy makers have implemented beverage taxes to generate revenue and reduce consumption of sweetened drinks. In January 2017, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, became the second US city to implement a beverage excise tax (1.5 cents per ounce). Objectives: To compare changes in beverage prices and sales following the implementation of the tax in Philadelphia compared with Baltimore, Maryland (a control city without a tax) and to assess potential cross-border shopping to avoid the tax in neighboring zip codes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used a difference-in-differences approach and analyzed sales data to compare changes between January 1, 2016, before the tax, and December 31, 2017, after the tax. Differences by store type, beverage sweetener status, and beverage size were examined. The commercial retailer sales data included large chain store sales in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and the Pennsylvania zip codes bordering Philadelphia. These data reflect approximately 25% of the ounces of taxed beverages sold in Philadelphia. Exposures: Philadelphia's tax on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in taxed beverage prices and volume sales. Results: A total of 291 stores (54 supermarkets, 20 mass merchandise stores, 217 pharmacies) were analyzed. The mean price per ounce of taxed beverages in Philadelphia increased from 5.43 cents in 2016 to 6.24 cents in 2017 at supermarkets; from 5.28 cents to 6.24 cents at mass merchandise stores, and from 6.60 cents to 8.28 cents at pharmacies. The mean price per ounce in Baltimore increased from 5.33 cents in 2016 to 5.50 cents in 2017 at supermarkets, from 6.34 cents to 6.52 cents at mass merchandise stores, and from 6.76 cents to 6.93 cents at pharmacies. The mean per-ounce difference in price between the 2 cities was 0.65 cents (95% CI, 0.60 cents-0.69 cents; P<.001) at supermarkets; 0.87 cents (95 % CI, 0.72 cents-1.02 cents; P<.001) at mass merchandise stores, and 1.56 cents (95% CI, 1.50 cents-1.62 cents; P<.001) at pharmacies. Total volume sales of taxed beverages in Philadelphia decreased by 1.3 billion ounces (from 2.475 billion to 1.214 billion) or by 51.0% after tax implementation. Volume sales in the Pennsylvania border zip codes, however, increased by 308.2 million ounces (from 713.1 million to 1.021 billion), offsetting the decrease in Philadelphia's volume sales by 24.4%. In Philadelphia, beverage volume sales in ounces per 4-week period between before and after tax periods decreased from 4.85 million to 1.99 million at supermarkets, from 2.98 million to 1.72 million at mass merchandise stores, and from 0.16 million to 0.13 million at pharmacies. In Baltimore, the beverage volume sales in ounces decreased from 2.83 million to 2.81 million at supermarkets, from 1.05 million to 1.00 million at mass merchandise stores, and from 0.14 million to 0.13 million at pharmacies. This was a 58.7% reduction at supermarkets (difference-in-differences, -2.85 million ounces; 95% CI, -4.10 million to -1.60 million ounces; P < .001), 40.4% reduction at mass merchandise stores (difference-in-differences, -1.20 million ounces; 95% CI, -2.04 million to -0.36 million ounces; P = .001), and 12.6% reduction in pharmacies (difference-in-differences, -0.02 million ounces; 95% CI, -0.03 million to -0.01 million ounces; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In Philadelphia in 2017, the implementation of a beverage excise tax on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages was associated with significantly higher beverage prices and a significant and substantial decline in volume of taxed beverages sold. This decrease in taxed beverage sales volume was partially offset by increases in volume of sales in bordering areas.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Açúcares da Dieta , Edulcorantes , Impostos , Baltimore , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Philadelphia
10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 46, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar taxes and front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labelling systems are strategies to address diet-related non-communicable diseases. However, there is relatively little experimental data on how these strategies influence consumer behavior and how they may interact. This study examined the relative impact of different sugar taxes and FOP labelling systems on beverage and snack food purchases. METHODS: A total of 3584 Canadians 13 years and older participated in an experimental marketplace study using a 5 (FOP label condition) × 8 (tax condition) between-within group experiment. Participants received $5 and were presented with images of 20 beverages and 20 snack foods available for purchase. Participants were randomized to one of five FOP label conditions (no label; 'high in' warning; multiple traffic light; health star rating; nutrition grade) and completed eight within-subject purchasing tasks with different taxation conditions (beverages: no tax, 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), 20% tax on sugary drinks, tiered tax on SSBs, tiered tax on sugary drinks; snack foods: no tax, 20% tax on high-sugar foods, tiered tax on high-sugar foods). Upon conclusion, one of eight selections was randomly chosen for purchase, and participants received the product and any change. RESULTS: Compared to those who saw no FOP label, participants who viewed the 'high in' symbol purchased less sugar (- 2.5 g), saturated fat (- 0.09 g), and calories (- 12.6 kcal) in the beverage purchasing tasks, and less sodium (- 13.5 mg) and calories (- 8.9 kcal) in the food tasks. All taxes resulted in substantial reductions in mean sugars (- 1.4 to - 4.7 g) and calories (- 5.3 to - 19.8 kcal) purchased, and in some cases, reductions in sodium (- 2.5 to - 6.6 mg) and saturated fat (- 0.03 to - 0.08 g). Taxes that included 100% fruit juice ('sugary drink' taxes) produced greater reductions in sugars and calories than those that did not. CONCLUSIONS: This study expands the evidence indicating the effectiveness of sugar taxation and FOP labelling strategies in promoting healthy food and beverage choices. The results emphasize the importance of applying taxes to 100% fruit juice to maximize policy impact, and suggest that nutrient-specific FOP 'high in' labels may be more effective than other common labelling systems at reducing consumption of targeted nutrients.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Lanches , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Possible adverse economic impacts of sweetened drink taxes are a key concern for numerous stakeholders. This study examined changes in unemployment benefit claims filings in Philadelphia compared to its neighboring counties two years prior to and 14 months post implementation of a 1.5 cents per ounce excise tax on sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverages. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Labor. Interrupted time series analysis was used to determine if there was a change in new monthly unemployment claims filings post-tax implementation in Philadelphia compared to surrounding counties in supermarkets, select potentially affected industries, and in total claims filings across all industries combined. RESULTS: Results showed there were no statistically significant changes to unemployment claims in Philadelphia compared to neighboring counties for supermarkets (ß = -9.45, 95% CI = -98.11, 79.22), soft drink manufacturers (ß = -0.13, 95% CI = -9.13, 8.88), across other potentially affected industries (ß = 9.16, 95% CI = -488.29, 506.60), or across all industries (ß = -445.85, 95% CI = -4272.39, 3380.68) following implementation of the beverage tax. Unemployment declined similarly in Philadelphia compared to surrounding counties. CONCLUSIONS: Public reports of increased unemployment within the first year following the implementation of the Philadelphia beverage tax are not supported by this analysis. Future work should examine employment outcomes and include longer follow-up periods.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Impostos/economia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Philadelphia
12.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(1): 3-15.e1, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635107

RESUMO

It is the position of the Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that environmental sustainability should be inherent in dietary guidance, whether working with individuals or groups about their dietary choices or in setting national dietary guidance. Improving the nutritional health of a population is a long-term goal that requires ensuring the long-term sustainability of the food system. Current environmental trends, including those related to climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation, water shortages, and water pollution, threaten long-term food security and are caused in part by current diets and agricultural practices. Addressing these problems while producing more food for a growing population will require changes to current food systems. Dietary choices have a significant role in contributing to environmental impacts, which could be lessened by consuming fewer overconsumed animal products and more plant-based foods while reducing excess energy intake and the amount of food wasted. Discussion of sustainability within governmental dietary guidance is common in many countries, is consistent with previous US guidelines, and is within the scope of authorizing legislation. Dietary choices are a personal matter, but many American consumers are motivated by a concern for the environment and would welcome sound advice from credentialed nutrition professionals. More opportunities are needed for developing such interdisciplinary knowledge among nutritionists.

13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 51(10): 1153-1161, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fashion warning labels that caution readers about digitally altered images have been recommended and adopted by several countries to prevent body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. This study investigated the short- and longer-term influence of fashion warning labels on affect, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and snack consumption using a randomized-controlled experiment. METHOD: Female undergraduates (n = 118) were randomized to view and rate responses to fashion images either with or without a warning label. They then consumed snacks and completed questionnaires. Sixty-four participants (54%) completed follow-up online surveys asking them to view and rate new fashion images with or without warning labels once per week for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were affect, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and kilocalories consumed. RESULTS: Overall, fashion warning labels had no short-term effects on affect, body dissatisfaction, or kilocalories consumed in the lab. However, individuals who reported engaging in restrictive eating consumed fewer kilocalories when exposed to advertisements with warning labels (M = 170.33, SD = 120.78) versus no labels (M = 286.46, SD = 166.30), p = .008. Warning labels also had no protective effects after repeated exposure over 4 weeks on affect or eating disorder symptoms, and significantly increased appearance orientation (p = .001). DISCUSSION: Warning labels on media images are unlikely to be an effective policy tool to prevent negative affect, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder symptoms, and, in some cases, may exacerbate these concerns.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(2): e19-e27, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, such as fruit drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened teas are increasingly promoted to and consumed by youth. These beverages may be perceived as healthier options than soda. To educate consumers about beverages high in added sugar, several cities and states have proposed policies mandating health warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages. METHODS: In 2015, a total of 2,381 parents were randomized to a no label, calorie label, or warning label condition. An online survey asked about the healthfulness of different beverages, and asked parents to select a beverage for their child in a choice task. Regressions compared the warning and calorie label groups to the control group and measured mediating effects of health beliefs on beverage choice. Data were analyzed in 2016. RESULTS: Parents viewed fruit drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened teas as healthier and less likely to cause disease than soda. Compared with no label, warning labels significantly increased parents' risk perceptions for all beverages except soda. Warning labels significantly reduced the odds of selecting fruit drinks for the child (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.32, 0.56), and this effect was mediated by changes in health beliefs and risk perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Fruit drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened teas are increasingly promoted to youth. Parents believe these beverages are healthier and less likely to cause disease than soda, and warning labels may correct these misperceptions.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Pais/psicologia , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(1): 55-62, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program, providing $67 billion in benefits to 44 million Americans. Some states distribute SNAP benefits over one or a few days each month, which may create an incentive for retailers to heavily promote top-selling products, like sugar-sweetened beverages, when benefits are disbursed. METHODS: A beverage environment scan assessing presence of displays, advertisements, and price promotions for sugar-sweetened, low-calorie, and unsweetened beverages was administered in a census of SNAP-authorized beverage retailers (n=630) in three cities in New York from September to November 2011. Multilevel regression models controlling for store type; county; and percentage SNAP enrollment, poverty, and non-Hispanic white population in the store's census tract were used to estimate the odds of in-store beverage marketing during the SNAP benefit issuance period compared to other days of the month. Data were analyzed in 2016. RESULTS: There were higher odds of in-store sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during SNAP benefit issuance days (first to ninth days of the month) compared with other days of the month, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverage advertisements (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.01, 2.72) and displays (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.16, 3.03). In census tracts with high SNAP enrollment (>28%), the odds of a retailer having sugar-sweetened beverage displays were 4.35 times higher (95% CI=1.93, 9.98) during issuance compared with non-issuance days. There were no differences in marketing for low-calorie or unsweetened beverages. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during issuance may exacerbate disparities in diet quality of households participating in SNAP. Policy changes, like extending SNAP benefit issuance, may mitigate these effects.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/economia , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas/economia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , New York , Pobreza , Edulcorantes/provisão & distribução
16.
Pediatrics ; 141(4)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy products are associated with popular sports organizations, especially those viewed by youth. METHODS: This descriptive study used Nielsen audience data to select 10 sports organizations with the most 2-17 year old viewers of 2015 televised events. Sponsors of these organizations were identified and assigned to product categories. We identified advertisements promoting food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsorships on television, YouTube, and sports organization Web sites from 2006 to 2016, and the number of YouTube advertisement views. The nutritional quality of advertised products was assessed. RESULTS: Youth watched telecasts associated with these sports organizations over 412 million times. These organizations had 44 food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors (18.8% of sponsors), second to automotive sponsors (n = 46). The National Football League had the most food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors (n = 10), followed by the National Hockey League (n = 7) and Little League (n = 7). We identified 273 advertisements that featured food and/or nonalcoholic beverage products 328 times and product logos 83 times (some advertisements showed multiple products). Seventy-six percent (n = 132) of foods had unhealthy nutrition scores, and 52.4% (n = 111) of nonalcoholic beverages were sugar-sweetened. YouTube sponsorship advertisements totaled 195.6 million views. CONCLUSIONS: Sports sponsorships are commonly used to market unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverages, exposing millions of consumers to these advertisements.


Assuntos
Bebidas/normas , Alimentos/normas , Marketing/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Esportes/normas , Televisão/normas , Adolescente , Bebidas/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alimentos/economia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/economia , Marketing/métodos , Organizações/economia , Organizações/normas , Esportes/economia , Televisão/economia
17.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(11): 2117-2127, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the nutritional quality of menu items promoted in four (US) fast-food restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Taco Bell) in 2010 and 2013. DESIGN: Menu items pictured on signs and menu boards were recorded at 400 fast-food restaurants across the USA. The Nutrient Profile Index (NPI) was used to calculate overall nutrition scores for items (higher scores indicate greater nutritional quality) and was dichotomized to denote healthier v. less healthy items. Changes over time in NPI scores and energy of promoted foods and beverages were analysed using linear regression. SETTING: Four hundred fast-food restaurants (McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Taco Bell; 100 locations per chain). SUBJECTS: NPI of fast-food items marketed at fast-food restaurants. RESULTS: Promoted foods and beverages on general menu boards and signs remained below the 'healthier' cut-off at both time points. On general menu boards, pictured items became modestly healthier from 2010 to 2013, increasing (mean (se)) by 3·08 (0·16) NPI score points (P<0·001) and decreasing (mean (se)) by 130 (15) kJ (31·1 (3·65) kcal; P<0·001). This pattern was evident in all chains except Taco Bell, where pictured items increased in energy. Foods and beverages pictured on the kids' section showed the greatest nutritional improvements. Although promoted foods on general menu boards and signs improved in nutritional quality, beverages remained the same or became worse. CONCLUSIONS: Foods, and to a lesser extent, beverages, promoted on menu boards and signs in fast-food restaurants showed limited improvements in nutritional quality in 2013 v. 2010.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos/tendências , Marketing/tendências , Valor Nutritivo , Restaurantes/tendências , Bebidas/análise , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 118(3): 399-408, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that calorie information on restaurant menus does not similarly influence the ordering decisions of all population groups and may have unintended consequences for individuals who struggle with disordered eating or other weight-related concerns. OBJECTIVE: This study describes demographic patterns in the use of calorie information on restaurant menus and investigates relationships between using this information to limit calorie intake and measures of restaurant visit frequency and weight-related concerns and behavior. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: There were 788 men and 1042 women (mean age=31.0±1.6 years) who participated in the fourth wave of the Project EAT study. Participants were initially recruited from Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, schools and completed EAT-IV surveys online or by mail from 2015 to 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants self-reported weight-related concerns, restaurant eating, intuitive eating, dieting, healthy (eg, exercise) and unhealthy (eg, use of laxatives) weight-control behaviors, and binge eating. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression models accounting for demographics and weight status. RESULTS: Approximately half of participants (52.7%) reported they had noticed calorie information while purchasing a meal or snack in a restaurant within the previous month. Among individuals who noticed calorie information, 38.2% reported they did not use it in deciding what to order. The most common use of calorie information was to avoid high-calorie menu items (50.1%) or to decide on a smaller portion (20.2%). Using menu labels to limit calories was related to binge eating among women and was associated with more weight-related concerns, dieting, and unhealthy weight-control behaviors among both women and men. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition educators and other health care professionals should talk with clients who struggle with disordered eating or weight-related concerns to learn about their use of calorie information at restaurants, address any potential unintended consequences, and promote healthy uses of calorie information.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Tomada de Decisões , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Restaurantes
19.
J Adolesc Health ; 62(1): 5-13, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111226

RESUMO

Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sports (e.g., M&M's with National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing logo) generate positive feelings, excitement, and a positive self-image among adults and children. Despite this, self-regulatory pledges made by food companies to limit exposure of unhealthy products to children have not improved the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children. We reviewed the literature about sports-related food marketing, including food and beverage companies' use of sports sponsorships, athlete endorsements, and sports video games. This review demonstrates that sports sponsorships with food and beverage companies often promote energy-dense, nutrient-poor products and while many of these promotions do not explicitly target youth, sports-related marketing affects food perceptions and preferences among youth. Furthermore, endorsement of unhealthy products by professional athletes sends mixed messages; although athletes may promote physical activity, they simultaneously encourage consumption of unhealthy products that can lead to negative health outcomes. We argue that more athletes and sports organizations should stop promoting unhealthy foods and beverages and work with health experts to encourage healthy eating habits among youth.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Alimentos , Marketing/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Esportes , Adolescente , Atletas , Criança , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Organizações , Saúde Pública , Televisão
20.
Prev Med ; 106: 114-121, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066375

RESUMO

In 2011, a National Academy of Medicine report recommended that packaged food in the U.S. display a uniform front-of-package nutrition label, using a system such as a 0-3 star ranking. Few studies have directly compared this to other labels to determine which best informs consumers and encourages healthier purchases. In 2013, we randomized adult participants (N=1247) in an Internet-based survey to one of six conditions: no label control; single traffic light; multiple traffic light; Facts Up Front; NuVal; or 0-3 star ranking. We compared groups on purchase intentions and accuracy of participants' interpretation of food labels. There were no differences in the nutritional quality of hypothetical shopping baskets across conditions (p=0.845). All labels improved consumers' abilities to judge the nutritional quality of foods relative to no label, but the best designs varied by outcomes. NuVal and multiple traffic light labels led to the greatest accuracy identifying the healthier of two products (p<0.001), while the multiple traffic light also led to the most accurate estimates of saturated fat, sugar, and sodium (p<0.001). The single traffic light outperformed other labels when participants compared nutrient levels between similar products (p<0.03). Single/multiple traffic light and Facts Up Front labels led to the most accurate calories per serving estimations (p<0.001). Although front-of-package labels helped participants more accurately assess products' nutrition information relative to no label, no conditions shifted adults' purchase intentions. Results did not point to a clearly superior label design, but they suggest that a 3-star label might not be best for educating consumers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intenção , Percepção , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA