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1.
Omega (Westport) ; : 302228211009753, 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840273

RESUMO

The Covid-19 crisis led to an increase in the 'total pain' of many terminally ill patients who faced a reduction in support, due to the temporary closure of front-line palliative day therapy services. A hospice volunteer, I instigated an online day therapy programme for patients previously attending face-to-face day therapy. Participant feedback revealed the importance of providing a space for ongoing peer support for participants' changing sense of identity, an issue for time-limited day therapy programmes. An exploration of key concepts associated with palliative care established the multiple connections between such changing identity and arts-based approaches to living well. This article charts how I used this understanding to develop an alternative, online arts-based support programme, Live well, die well. It explores the links between ongoing mutual support, arts-based activity and the reactions to a shifting identity in patients with a life-limiting illness.

2.
Children (Basel) ; 8(2)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672514

RESUMO

Eczema affects one in five children and can have a substantial impact on quality of life. This qualitative study aimed to explore children's views and experiences of eczema and what may affect treatment adherence from their perspective. We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with children with eczema aged 6-12 years from March to July 2018. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We found that children do not typically view eczema as a long-term condition, and topical treatments (predominately emollients) were seen to provide effective symptom relief. Uncertainty around co-managing at home was expressed as children typically felt that parental reminders and assistance with applying different types of topical treatments were still needed. For some children, eczema can be difficult to manage at school due to a lack of convenient access and appropriate spaces to apply creams and psychosocial consequences such as attracting unwanted attention from peers and feeling self-conscious. Treatment adherence could be supported by reinforcing that eczema is a long-term episodic condition, providing clear information about regular emollient use, practical advice such as setting reminders to support co-management at home, and working with schools to facilitate topical treatment use when necessary.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(584)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692134

RESUMO

Current treatments for chronic pain rely largely on opioids despite their substantial side effects and risk of addiction. Genetic studies have identified in humans key targets pivotal to nociceptive processing. In particular, a hereditary loss-of-function mutation in NaV1.7, a sodium channel protein associated with signaling in nociceptive sensory afferents, leads to insensitivity to pain without other neurodevelopmental alterations. However, the high sequence and structural similarity between NaV subtypes has frustrated efforts to develop selective inhibitors. Here, we investigated targeted epigenetic repression of NaV1.7 in primary afferents via epigenome engineering approaches based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-dCas9 and zinc finger proteins at the spinal level as a potential treatment for chronic pain. Toward this end, we first optimized the efficiency of NaV1.7 repression in vitro in Neuro2A cells and then, by the lumbar intrathecal route, delivered both epigenome engineering platforms via adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) to assess their effects in three mouse models of pain: carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, and BzATP-induced pain. Our results show effective repression of NaV1.7 in lumbar dorsal root ganglia, reduced thermal hyperalgesia in the inflammatory state, decreased tactile allodynia in the neuropathic state, and no changes in normal motor function in mice. We anticipate that this long-lasting analgesia via targeted in vivo epigenetic repression of NaV1.7 methodology we dub pain LATER, might have therapeutic potential in management of persistent pain states.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e045583, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eczema care requires management of triggers and various treatments. We developed two online behavioural interventions to support eczema care called ECO (Eczema Care Online) for young people and ECO for families. This protocol describes two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to evaluate clinical and cost-effectiveness of the two interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Design: Two independent, pragmatic, unmasked, parallel group RCTs with internal pilots and nested health economic and process evaluation studies. Setting: Participants will be recruited from general practitioner practices in England. Participants: Young people aged 13-25 years with eczema and parents and carers of children aged 0-12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (five or less on Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM)). Interventions: Participants will be randomised to online intervention plus usual care or to usual eczema care alone. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is eczema severity over 24 weeks measured by POEM. Secondary outcomes include POEM 4-weekly for 52 weeks, quality of life, eczema control, itch intensity (young people only), patient enablement, health service and treatment use. Process measures include treatment adherence, barriers to adherence and intervention usage. Our sample sizes of 303 participants per trial are powered to detect a group difference of 2.5 (SD 6.5) in monthly POEM scores over 24 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be from a National Health Service and personal social service perspective. Qualitative and quantitative process evaluation will help understand the mechanisms of action and participant experiences and inform implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by South Central Oxford A Research Ethics Committee (19/SC/0351). Recruitment is ongoing, and follow-up will be completed by mid-2022. Findings will be disseminated to participants, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, and policy makers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN79282252.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041108, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little qualitative research in the UK focussing on adolescents' experience of their healthcare providers, and inflammatory skin conditions are a common heath problem in adolescence. AIM: To explore the experiences of adolescents with eczema and psoriasis with healthcare professionals, and to distil the participants' key messages for their healthcare providers. DESIGN: This is a secondary thematic analysis of interviews with adolescents with eczema or psoriasis. PARTICIPANTS: There were a total of 41 text transcripts of interviews with young people with eczema or psoriasis who had given permission for secondary analysis; 23 of the participants had eczema, and 18 psoriasis. Participants were living in the UK at time of interview, and aged 15-24 years old. RESULTS: We have distilled the following key messages from young people with eczema and psoriasis for healthcare providers: (1) address the emotional impact; (2) give more information, with the subtheme and (3) appreciate patient research. We identified the following eczema-specific themes: (ECZ-4) 'It's not taken seriously'; (ECZ-5) offer choice in treatment and (ECZ-6) lack of structure/conflicting advice. Two psoriasis-specific themes were identified: (PSO-4) feeling dehumanised/treat me as a person; and (PSO-5) think about how treatments will affect daily life. CONCLUSION: This qualitative data analysis highlights the need for greater recognition of the emotional impact of skin disease in adolescence, and for more comprehensive provision of information about the conditions. We call for greater sensitivity and flexibility in our approach to adolescents with skin disease, with important implications for healthcare delivery to this group.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044005, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore young people's experiences of eczema self-management and interacting with health professionals. DESIGN: Secondary qualitative data analysis of data sets from two semistructured interview studies. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the UK primary care, dermatology departments and a community-based sample (eg, patient representative groups, social media). PARTICIPANTS: Data included 28 interviews with young people with eczema aged 13-25 years (mean age=19.5 years; 20 female). RESULTS: Although topical treatments were generally perceived as effective, young people expressed doubts about their long-term effectiveness, and concerns around the safety and an over-reliance on topical corticosteroids. Participants welcomed the opportunity to take an active role in their eczema management, but new roles and responsibilities also came with initial apprehension and challenges, including communicating their treatment concerns and preferences with health professionals, feeling unprepared for transition to an adult clinic and obtaining treatments. Decisions regarding whether to engage in behaviours that would exacerbate their eczema (eg, irritants/triggers, scratching) were influenced by young people's beliefs regarding negative consequences of these behaviours, and perceived control over the behaviour and its negative consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural change interventions must address the treatment concerns of young people and equip them with the knowledge, skills and confidence to take an active role in their own eczema management.


Assuntos
Eczema/terapia , Autogestão , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema affects up to 10% of adults and is becoming more common globally. Few studies have assessed whether atopic eczema increases the risk of death. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether adults with atopic eczema were at increased risk of death overall and by specific causes and to assess whether the risk varied by atopic eczema severity and activity. METHODS: The study was a population-based matched cohort study using UK primary care electronic health care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with linked hospitalization data from Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality data from the Office for National Statistics from 1998 to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 526,736 patients with atopic eczema were matched to 2,567,872 individuals without atopic eczema. The median age at entry was 41.8 years, and the median follow-up time was 4.5 years. There was limited evidence of increased hazard for all-cause mortality in those with atopic eczema (hazard ratio = 1.04; 99% CI = 1.03-1.06), but there were somewhat stronger associations (8%-14% increased hazard) for deaths due to infectious, digestive, and genitourinary causes. Differences on the absolute scale were modest owing to low overall mortality rates. Mortality risk increased markedly with eczema severity and activity. For example, patients with severe atopic eczema had a 62% increased hazard (hazard ratio = 1.62; 99% CI = 1.54-1.71) for mortality compared with those without eczema, with the strongest associations for infectious, respiratory, and genitourinary causes. CONCLUSION: The increased hazards for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were largely restricted to those with the most severe or predominantly active atopic eczema. Understanding the reasons for these increased hazards for mortality is an urgent priority.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e042139, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and synthesise qualitative research exploring parents/carers' experiences of seeking online information and support for long-term physical childhood conditions. DESIGN: Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research. DATA SOURCES: Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences were searched from inception to September 2019. We used thematic synthesis to analyse findings. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary research papers presenting qualitative data collection and analysis, focusing on parents/carers' experiences of seeking health information and support from online resources for long-term physical childhood health conditions. No language restrictions were placed. RESULTS: 23 studies from seven countries met inclusion criteria and were included in the synthesis. Included studies presented data collected through interviews/focus groups with 559 parents/carers; free-text surveys and essays with 26 parents/carers and 2407 messages from online support groups. Parents/carers developed a variety of strategies to obtain information and support online, based on personal preferences, appraisal of trustworthiness, perceived needs and previous experiences online. Many parents sought the benefits of online information and support, which included reassurance and validation from online communities, and feeling they had greater knowledge about their children's conditions. Some concerns and perceived risks were discussed, which often stemmed from prior unsatisfactory experiences of seeking information and support online, consultations with health professionals and seeing distressing stories online. CONCLUSION: Most parents/carers were successful in obtaining information and support online. Many continued to share experiences with other parents/carers online. The need for information was particularly apparent early after diagnosis of the condition, whereas the need for peer support continued. The potential concerns and perceived risks with information and support online were especially apparent among parents/carers of children with life-limiting long-term conditions. Findings may be useful for health professionals to facilitate discussions regarding use of online resources, and researchers designing online health resources for parents/carers. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018096009.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Pais , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347446

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD is associated with a variety of physiological changes and is a substantial risk factor for numerous diseases. We aimed to characterize systemic alterations in immune responses using a well-established mouse model of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure to induce alcohol dependence. We exposed mice to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor for 4 weeks and analyzed the expression of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-17 by different immune cells in the blood, spleen and liver of alcohol dependent and non-dependent control mice through multiparametric flow cytometry. We found increases in IFN-γ and IL-17 expression in a cell type- and organ-specific manner. Often, B cells and neutrophils were primary contributors to increased IFN-γ and IL-17 levels while other cell types played a secondary role. We conclude that chronic alcohol exposure promotes systemic pro-inflammatory IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in mice. These responses are likely important in the development of alcohol-related diseases, but further characterization is necessary to understand the initiation and effects of systemic inflammatory responses to chronic alcohol exposure.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo
11.
Prog Neurobiol ; : 101952, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197496

RESUMO

Alcohol elicits a neuroimmune response in the brain contributing to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). While pro-inflammatory mediators initiate and drive the neuroimmune response, anti-inflammatory mediators provide an important homeostatic mechanism to limit inflammation and prevent pathological damage. However, our understanding of the role of anti-inflammatory signaling on neuronal physiology in critical addiction-related brain regions and pathological alcohol-dependence induced behaviors is limited, precluding our ability to identify promising therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesized that chronic alcohol exposure compromises anti-inflammatory signaling in the central amygdala, a brain region implicated in anxiety and addiction, consequently perpetuating a pro-inflammatory state driving aberrant neuronal activity underlying pathological behaviors. We found that alcohol dependence alters the global brain immune landscape increasing IL-10 producing microglia and T-regulatory cells but decreasing local amygdala IL-10 levels. Amygdala IL-10 overexpression decreases anxiety-like behaviors, suggesting its local role in regulating amygdala-mediated behaviors. Mechanistically, amygdala IL-10 signaling through PI3K and p38 MAPK modulates GABA transmission directly at presynaptic terminals and indirectly through alterations in spontaneous firing. Alcohol dependence-induces neuroadaptations in IL-10 signaling leading to an overall IL-10-induced decrease in GABA transmission, which normalizes dependence-induced elevated amygdala GABA transmission. Notably, amygdala IL-10 overexpression abolishes escalation of alcohol intake, a diagnostic criterion of AUD, in dependent mice. This highlights the importance of amygdala IL-10 signaling in modulating neuronal activity and underlying anxiety-like behavior and aberrant alcohol intake, providing a new framework for therapeutic intervention.

12.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(7): 1300-1306, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unplanned surgeries following postmastectomy breast reconstruction (PMBR) may be required to treat complications or to revise the reconstructed breast. The primary objective of this study was to examine factors that influenced unplanned reoperations after PMBR. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using provincial databases in Ontario, Canada, was completed. Patients with breast cancer underwent mastectomy between April 2002 and March 2012 followed by immediate or delayed PMBR. Primary outcome was time from PMBR to unplanned reoperations measured in years. The Anderson-Gill counting process model was used to estimate the risk of recurrent unplanned reoperations over time. Univariate and multivariate analyses were completed to examine the association between covariates. RESULTS: A total of 3066 women underwent PMBR and 51.7% had at least one unplanned reoperation. Unplanned breast reoperation was significantly associated with microsurgical tissue vs implant-based reconstruction (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.27), radiation after PMBR (HR: 1.22), surgery at a nonteaching hospital (HR: 1.16), patient comorbidity score (HR: 1.02), and prior unplanned reoperations (HR: 1.25). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides important long-term population-level data regarding factors influencing unplanned reoperations after PMBR. Patients undergoing microsurgical PMBR or postmastectomy radiation had a higher rate of additional procedures. Every additional reoperation also increases the likelihood of unplanned reoperations resulting in a "reoperation cascade."

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alloderm and Dermacell are the two leading human acellular dermal matrices (ADM) in immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). Despite differences in sterility, consistency, thickness and cost, there are no comparative trials to date to compare patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) between the two products. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in patient-reported outcomes (as measured by the BREAST-Q) between patients reconstructed with Alloderm and Dermacell. METHODS: A single center, open-label, randomized control trial of patients undergoing IBR with an implant for breast cancer or breast cancer prophylaxis was performed. Patients were randomized to either Alloderm or Dermacell. Baseline demographic data were compared, and linear mixed models were used to identify associations with BREAST-Q over time. RESULTS: Between June 2016 and October 2018, 62 patients were randomized into two groups, 31(50%) Alloderm and 31(50%) Dermacell. Of these, 23(74%) patients in the Alloderm group and 27(87%) patients of the Dermacell group filled out BREAST-Q questionnaires. Baseline BREAST-Q scores with respect to satisfaction with breasts, psychosocial well-being, sexual well-being, and physical well-being were similar between groups (p>0.05). At 3 months postoperatively, the Alloderm group had a statistically significant improvement with respect to satisfaction with breasts (67 vs 53, p = 0.03), satisfaction with overall results (85 vs 61, p = 0.003), satisfaction with the surgeon (89 vs 67, p = 0.01), and satisfaction with information provided (74 vs 59, p = 0.02). At 12 months postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences in PROM between groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: We report the first randomized controlled trial to date comparing patient-reported outcomes of the two most commonly used ADMs in IBR in Canada. Although a short-term analysis favors the use of Alloderm, there does not appear to be any difference in outcomes between the two products in the longer term.

14.
Palliat Care Soc Pract ; 14: 2632352420935132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783026

RESUMO

Background: There is a dearth of national and international data on the impact of social support on physical, mental, and financial outcomes following bereavement. Methods: We draw from two large, population-based studies of bereaved people in Australia and Ireland to compare bereaved people's experience of support. The Australian study used a postal survey targeting clients of six funeral providers and the Irish study used telephone interviews with a random sample of the population. Results: Across both studies, the vast majority of bereaved people reported relying on informal supporters, particularly family and friends. While sources of professional help were the least used, they had the highest proportions of perceived unhelpfulness. A substantial proportion, 20% to 30% of bereaved people, reported worsening of their physical and mental health and about 30% did not feel their needs were met. Those who did not receive enough support reported the highest deterioration in wellbeing. Discussion: The compassionate communities approach, which harnesses the informal resources inherent in communities, needs to be strengthened by identifying a range of useful practice models that will address the support gaps. Ireland has taken the lead in developing a policy framework providing guidance on level of service provision, associated staff competencies, and training needs.

15.
Br J Health Psychol ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore adolescents and young adults' experiences of symptoms related to their eczema in order to determine their psychosocial needs. DESIGN: A secondary qualitative analysis of two data sources collected through semi-structured interviews for two different projects, SKINS project and Eczema Care Online project. METHODS: In total, there were 28 transcripts with adolescents and young adults with eczema having a mean age of 19.5 years available to analyse. Interview data were collected from face-to-face interviews that were recorded and transcribed. Inductive thematic analysis explored data about symptoms and organized according to psychosocial needs. RESULTS: Adolescents and young adults with eczema experience both visible symptoms (such as flaky, dry, and inflamed skin) and invisible symptoms (such as itch, pain, exhaustion, and mental distress) that elicit different psychosocial needs. These psychosocial needs are to (i) be understood; (ii) be perceived as normal; and (iii) receive emotional support. Interviewees described a struggle between wanting their peers and family to understand but take their eczema seriously whilst not wanting to stand out and instead to be perceived as 'normal', which they would define as being perceived as other adolescents. This has implications on behaviours, such as seeking support, avoiding going out, hiding their skin, as well as emotional implications, such as social isolation and feeling anxious and low. CONCLUSIONS: Having a better understanding of young people's experiences and psychosocial needs will provide a framework on how best to support adolescents and young adults when managing symptoms related to eczema. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Eczema has a high impact on children and is considered a burden by children and adults with eczema. However, it is unclear what impact eczema has on adolescents and young adults. Adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions are known to be vulnerable to negative psychosocial outcomes but psychosocial needs and how to best support this age group with eczema are unknown What does this add? Three psychosocial needs were developed from evaluating the impact of visible and invisible symptoms of eczema: The need to feel understood (mostly reflective of invisible symptoms such as itch and pain and visible symptoms such as scratching). The need to be perceived as 'normal': visible symptoms such as flaky, inflamed skin make them stand out in comparison with their peers and a need emerged to blend in. The need for emotional support: adolescents and young adults searched for this from their health care providers, from shared experiences and from online resources. Adolescents and young adults with eczema appear to feel ambivalent about wishing the impact of the condition to be acknowledged whilst wishing the condition to be invisible to others. This ambivalence had further impact on feeling self-conscious, seeking support, and dealing with unsolicited advice.

16.
Neuroscience ; 442: 124-137, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634532

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that neuroimmune factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), play a role in the CNS actions of alcohol. The cerebellum is a sensitive target of alcohol, but few studies have examined a potential role for neuroimmune factors in the actions of alcohol on this brain region. A number of studies have shown that synaptic transmission, and in particular inhibitory synaptic transmission, is an important cerebellar target of alcohol. IL-6 also alters synaptic transmission, although it is unknown if IL-6 targets are also targets of alcohol. This is an important issue because alcohol induces glial production of IL-6, which could then covertly influence the actions of alcohol. The persistent cerebellar effects of both IL-6 and alcohol typically involve chronic exposure and, presumably, altered gene and protein expression. Thus, in the current studies we tested the possibility that proteins involved in inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the cerebellum are common targets of alcohol and IL-6. We used transgenic mice that express elevated levels of astrocyte produced IL-6 to model persistently elevated expression of IL-6, as would occur in alcohol use disorders, and a chronic intermittent alcohol exposure/withdrawal paradigm (CIE/withdrawal) that is known to produce alcohol dependence. Multiple cerebellar synaptic proteins were assessed by Western blot. Results show that IL-6 and CIE/withdrawal have both unique and common actions that affect synaptic protein expression. These common targets could provide sites for IL-6/alcohol exposure/withdrawal interactions and play an important role in cerebellar symptoms of alcohol use such as ataxia.

17.
Obes Surg ; 30(11): 4275-4285, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity is disproportionally high in African Americans (AA) in the United States. This study compared outcomes for AA patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) with non-AA patients. METHODS: The MBSAQIP database was reviewed for RYGB and SG patients (2015-2017). Patients were identified as AA or non-AA and grouped to RYGB or SG. Combined and univariate analyses were performed on unmatched/propensity matched populations to assess outcomes. RESULTS: After applying exclusion criteria, 75,409 AA and 354,305 non-AA patients remained. Univariate analysis identified AA-RYGB and AA-SG patients were heavier and younger than non-AA patients. Overall, AA patients tended to have fewer preoperative comorbidities than non-AA patients with the majority of AA comorbidities related to hypertension and renal disease. Analysis of propensity matched data confirmed AA bariatric surgery patients had increased cardiovascular-related disease incidence compared with non-AA patients. Perioperatively, AA-RYGB patients had longer operative times, increased rates of major complications/ICU admission, and increased incidence of 30-day readmission, re-intervention, and reoperation, concomitant with lower rates of minor complications/superficial surgical site infection (SSI) compared with non-AA patients. For SG, AA patients had longer operative times and higher rates of major complications and 30-day readmission, re-intervention, and mortality, coupled with fewer minor complications, superficial/organ space SSI, and leak. CONCLUSION: African American patients undergoing bariatric surgery are younger and heavier than non-AA patients and present with different comorbidity profiles. Overall, AAs exhibit worse outcomes following RYGB or SG than non-AA patients, including increased mortality rates in AA-SG patients.

19.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 226, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection remains a major public health concern despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The virus enters the central nervous system (CNS) early in infection and continues to cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-associated brain injury remain incompletely understood. Since HIV-1 activates the type I interferon system, which signals via interferon-α receptor (IFNAR) 1 and 2, this study investigated the potential role of IFNAR1 in HIV-induced neurotoxicity. METHODS: We cross-bred HIVgp120-transgenic (tg) and IFNAR1 knockout (IFNAR1KO) mice. At 11-14 months of age, we performed a behavioral assessment and subsequently analyzed neuropathological alterations using deconvolution and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and bioinformatics. Western blotting of brain lysates and an in vitro neurotoxicity assay were employed for analysis of cellular signaling pathways. RESULTS: We show that IFNAR1KO results in partial, sex-dependent protection from neuronal injury and behavioral deficits in a transgenic model of HIV-induced brain injury. The IFNAR1KO rescues spatial memory and ameliorates loss of presynaptic terminals preferentially in female HIVgp120tg mice. Similarly, expression of genes involved in neurotransmission reveals sex-dependent effects of IFNAR1KO and HIVgp120. In contrast, IFNAR1-deficiency, independent of sex, limits damage to neuronal dendrites, microgliosis, and activation of p38 MAPK and restores ERK activity in the HIVgp120tg brain. In vitro, inhibition of p38 MAPK abrogates neurotoxicity caused similarly by blockade of ERK kinase and HIVgp120. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that IFNAR1 plays a pivotal role in both sex-dependent and independent processes of neuronal injury and behavioral impairment triggered by HIV-1.

20.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 16(10): 1392-1400, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obesity rate for the Hispanic population is significantly higher than that of white, non-Hispanic people in the United States, yet Hispanic people undergo disproportionately fewer metabolic and bariatric surgery procedures. This study used the Metabolic Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program data registry to examine potential differences in preoperative co-morbidities and postoperative outcomes in Hispanic adults undergoing sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To study the presence of the Hispanic paradox in metabolic and bariatric surgery utilizing the MBSAQIP registry. SETTING: Academic Teaching Institution. METHODS: Participant User Files from the Metabolic Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program were reviewed for patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (2015-2017). Patients were grouped by race (Hispanic versus all other races) and primary procedure performed. Variables for major and minor postoperative complications were combined. A univariate analysis was performed on unmatched and propensity-matched cohorts. RESULTS: After applying exclusions, 53,353 (13.7%) Hispanic patients and 335,299 non-Hispanic patients remained. A univariate analysis demonstrated Hispanic patients had the lowest preoperative co-morbidity profile compared with all other races and decreased rates of major and minor postoperative complications. Using matched-cohort data, when complications were assessed and grouped as major/minor complications, rates of major and minor complications in Hispanic patients were lower in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group, despite Hispanic patients having higher leak rates. Similarly, there were no differences between Hispanic/non-Hispanic sleeve gastrectomy patients in overall major/minor complication rates despite Hispanic patients exhibiting higher venous thromboembolism and lower bleeding compared with non-Hispanic patients. CONCLUSION: Hispanic patients undergo disproportionately low rates of metabolic and bariatric surgery procedures and present with lower incidence of preoperative co-morbidities. Additionally, Hispanic patients have the same or decreased incidence of postoperative complications compared with non-Hispanic patients, thereby corroborating the Hispanic paradox.

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