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1.
Inhal Toxicol ; : 1-15, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human exposure to cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is possible during the production and/or use of products containing CNC. The objectives of the current study were to determine the lung toxicity of CNC and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the toxicity. METHODS: Rats were exposed to air or CNC (20 mg/m3, six hours/day, 14 d) by whole-body inhalation and lung toxicity and global gene expression profile were determined. RESULTS: Significant increases in lactate dehydrogenase activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, phagocyte oxidant production, and macrophage and neutrophil counts were detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells or fluid from the CNC exposed rats. Mild lung histological changes, such as the accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils, were detected in the CNC exposed rats. Gene expression profiling by next generation sequencing identified 531 genes whose expressions were significantly different in the lungs of the CNC exposed rats, compared with the controls. Bioinformatic analysis of the lung gene expression data identified significant enrichment in several biological functions and canonical pathways including those related to inflammation (cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, inflammatory diseases and response, respiratory disease, complement system, acute phase response, leukocyte extravasation signaling, granulocyte and agranulocyte adhesion and diapedesis, IL-10 signaling, and phagosome formation and maturation) and oxidative stress (NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in macrophages, and free radical scavenging). CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated that inhalation exposure of rats to CNC resulted in lung toxicity mediated mainly through the induction of inflammation and oxidative stress.

2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 408: 115256, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007384

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is a process used to enhance retrieval of gas from subterranean natural gas-laden rock by fracturing it under pressure. Sand used to stabilize fissures and facilitate gas flow creates a potential occupational hazard from respirable fracking sand dust (FSD). As studies of the immunotoxicity of FSD are lacking, the effects of whole-body inhalation (6 h/d for 4 d) of a FSD, i.e., FSD 8, was investigated at 1, 7, and 27 d post-exposure in rats. Exposure to 10 mg/m3 FSD 8 resulted in decreased lung-associated lymph node (LLN) cellularity, total B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells and total natural killer (NK) cells at 7-d post exposure. The frequency of CD4+ T-cells decreased while the frequency of B-cells increased (7 and 27 d) in the LLN. In contrast, increases in LLN cellularity and increases in total CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were observed in rats following 30 mg/m3 FSD 8 at 1 d post-exposure. Increases in the frequency and number of CD4+ T-cells and NK cells were observed in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid at 7-d post-exposure (10 mg/m3) along with an increase in total CD4+ T-cells, CD11b + cells, and NK cells at 1-day post-exposure (30 mg/m3). Increases in the numbers of B-cells and CD8+ T-cells were observed in the spleen at 1-day post 30 mg/m3 FSD 8 exposure. In addition, NK cell activity was suppressed at 1 d (30 mg/m3) and 27 d post-exposure (10 mg/m3). No change in the IgM response to sheep red blood cells was observed. The findings indicate that FSD 8 caused alterations in cellularity, phenotypic subsets, and impairment of immune function.

3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 408: 115280, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065154

RESUMO

The pulmonary inflammatory response to inhalation exposure to a fracking sand dust (FSD 8) was investigated in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to air or an aerosol of a FSD, i.e., FSD 8, at concentrations of 10 or 30 mg/m3, 6 h/d for 4 d. The control and FSD 8-exposed rats were euthanized at post-exposure time intervals of 1, 7 or 27 d and pulmonary inflammatory, cytotoxic and oxidant responses were determined. Deposition of FSD 8 particles was detected in the lungs of all the FSD 8-exposed rats. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage parameters of toxicity, oxidant generation, and inflammation did not reveal any significant persistent pulmonary toxicity in the FSD 8-exposed rats. Similarly, the lung histology of the FSD 8-exposed rats showed only minimal changes in influx of macrophages following the exposure. Determination of global gene expression profiles detected statistically significant differential expressions of only six and five genes in the 10 mg/m3, 1-d post-exposure, and the 30 mg/m3, 7-d post-exposure FSD 8 groups, respectively. Taken together, data obtained from the present study demonstrated that FSD 8 inhalation exposure resulted in no statistically significant toxicity or gene expression changes in the lungs of the rats. In the absence of any information about its potential toxicity, a comprehensive rat animal model study (see Fedan, J.S., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 000, 000-000, 2020) has been designed to investigate the bioactivities of several FSDs in comparison to MIN-U-SIL® 5, a respirable α-quartz reference dust used in previous animal models of silicosis, in several organ systems.

4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 409: 115282, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068622

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is used in unconventional gas drilling to allow for the free flow of natural gas from rock. Sand in fracking fluid is pumped into the well bore under high pressure to enter and stabilize fissures in the rock. In the process of manipulating the sand on site, respirable dust (fracking sand dust, FSD) is generated. Inhalation of FSD is a potential hazard to workers inasmuch as respirable crystalline silica causes silicosis, and levels of FSD at drilling work sites have exceeded occupational exposure limits set by OSHA. In the absence of any information about its potential toxicity, a comprehensive rat animal model was designed to investigate the bioactivities of several FSDs in comparison to MIN-U-SIL® 5, a respirable α-quartz reference dust used in previous animal models of silicosis, in several organ systems (Fedan, J.S., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 00, 000-000, 2020). The present report, part of the larger investigation, describes: 1) a comparison of the physico-chemical properties of nine FSDs, collected at drilling sites, and MIN-U-SIL® 5, a reference silica dust, and 2) a comparison of the pulmonary inflammatory responses to intratracheal instillation of the nine FSDs and MIN-U-SIL® 5. Our findings indicate that, in many respects, the physico-chemical characteristics, and the biological effects of the FSDs and MIN-U-SIL® 5 after intratracheal instillation, have distinct differences.

5.
Toxicol Rep ; 7: 1350-1355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102138

RESUMO

It is estimated that greater than 1 million workers are exposed to welding fume (WF) by inhalation daily. The potentially toxic metals found in WF are known to cause multiple adverse pulmonary and systemic effects, including cardiovascular disease, and these metals have also been shown to translocate to the liver. This occupational exposure combined with a high fat (HF) Western diet, which has been shown to cause hyperlipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has the potential to cause significant mixed exposure metabolic changes in the liver. The goal of this study was to use matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to analyze the spatial distribution and abundance changes of lipid species in Sprague Dawley rat liver maintained on a HF diet combined with WF inhalation. The results of the MALDI-IMS analysis revealed unique hepatic lipid profiles for each treatment group. The HF diet group had significantly increased abundance of triglycerides and phosphatidylinositol lipids, as well as decreased lysophosphatidic lipids and cardiolipin. Ceramide-1-phosphate was found at higher abundance in the regular (REG) diet WF-exposed group which has been shown to regulate the eicosanoid pathway involved in pro-inflammatory response. The results of this study showed that the combined effects of WF inhalation and a HF diet significantly altered the hepatic lipidome. Additionally, pulmonary exposure to WF alone increased lipid markers of inflammation.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609782

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to use liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to assess metabolic changes of two different diets in three distinct rat strains. Sprague-Dawley, Fischer 344, and Brown-Norway male rats were maintained on a high-fat, or regular diet for 24 weeks. Liver tissue was collected at 4, 12, and 24 weeks to assess global small molecule metabolite changes using high resolution accurate mass spectrometry coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of the global metabolomics analysis revealed significant changes based on both age and diet within all three strains. Principal component analysis revealed that the influence of diet caused a greater variation in significantly changing metabolites than that of age for the Brown Norway and Fisher 344 strains, whereas diet had the greatest influence in the Sprague Dawley strain only at the 4-week time point. As expected, metabolites involved in lipid metabolism were changed in the animals maintained on a high fat diet compared to the regular diet. There were also significant changes observed in the concentration of Tri carboxylic acid cycle intermediates that were extracted from the liver of all three strains based on diet. The results of this study showed that a high fat diet caused significant liver and metabolic changes compared to a regular diet in multiple rat strains. The inbred Fisher 344 and Brown Norway rats were more metabolically sensitive to the diet changes than outbred Sprague Dawley strain. The study also showed that age, as was the case for Sprague Dawley, is an important variable to consider when assessing metabolic changes.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Environ Res ; 180: 108900, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711660

RESUMO

Inhalation of welding fume (WF) can result in the deposition of toxic metals, such as manganese (Mn), in the brain and may cause neurological changes in exposed workers. Alterations in telomere length are indicative of cellular aging and, possibly, neurodegeneration. Here, we investigated the effect of WF inhalation on telomere length and markers of neurodegeneration in whole brain tissue in rats. Male Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were exposed by inhalation to stainless steel WF (20 mg/m3 x 3 h/d x 4 d/wk x 5 wk) or filtered air (control). Telomere length, DNA-methylation, gene expression of Trf1, Trf2, ATM, and APP, protein expression of p-Tau, α-synuclein, and presenilin 1 and 2 were assessed in whole brain tissue at 12 wk after WF exposure ended. Results suggest that WF inhalation increased telomere length without affecting telomerase in whole brain. Moreover, we observed that components of the shelterin complex, Trf1 and Trf2, play an important role in telomere end protection, and their regulation may be responsible for the increase in telomere length. In addition, expression of different neurodegeneration markers, such as p-Tau, presenilin 1-2 and α-synuclein proteins, were increased in brain tissue from the WF-exposed rats as compared to control. These findings suggest a possible correlation between epigenetic modifications, telomere length alteration, and neurodegeneration because of the presence of factors in serum after WF exposure that may cause extra-pulmonary effects as well as the translocation of potentially neurotoxic metals associated with WF to the central nervous system (CNS). Further studies are needed to investigate the brain region specificity and temporal response of these effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação , Telômero , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo , Gatos , Metilação de DNA , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Toxicol Sci ; 174(1): 100-111, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868906

RESUMO

The exposome is the measure of all exposures of an individual in a lifetime and how those exposures relate to health. The goal was to examine an experimental model integrating multiple aspects of the exposome by collecting biological samples during critical life stages of an exposed animal that are applicable to worker populations. Genetic contributions were assessed using strains of male rats with different genetic backgrounds (Fischer-344, Sprague Dawley, and Brown-Norway) maintained on a regular or high-fat diet for 24 weeks. At week 7 during diet maintenance, groups of rats from each strain were exposed to stainless steel welding fume (WF; 20 mg/m3 × 3 h/d × 4 days/week × 5 weeks) or air until week 12, at which time some animals were euthanized. A separate set of rats from each strain were allowed to recover from WF exposure until the end of the 24-week period. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were collected at 7, 12, and 24 weeks to assess general health indices. Depending on animal strain, WF exposure and high-fat diet together worsened kidney toxicity as well as altered different serum enzymes and proteins. Diet had minimal interaction with WF exposure for pulmonary toxicity endpoints. Experimental factors of diet, exposure, and strain were all important, depending on the health outcome measured. Exposure had the most significant influence related to pulmonary responses. Strain was the most significant contributor regarding the other health indices examined, indicating that genetic differences possibly drive the exposome effect in each strain.

9.
Inhal Toxicol ; 31(8): 299-324, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707870

RESUMO

Background: The correlation of physico-chemical properties with mechanisms of toxicity has been proposed as an approach to predict the toxic potential of the vast number of emerging nanomaterials. Although relationships have been established between properties and the acute pulmonary inflammation induced by nanomaterials, properties' effects on other responses, such as exacerbation of respiratory allergy, have been less frequently explored.Methods: In this study, the role of nickel oxide (NiO) physico-chemical properties in the modulation of ovalbumin (OVA) allergy was examined in a murine model. Results: 181 nm fine (NiO-F) and 42 nm ultrafine (NiO-UF) particles were characterized and incorporated into a time course study where measured markers of pulmonary injury and inflammation were associated with NiO particle surface area. In the OVA model, exposure to NiO, irrespective of any metric was associated with elevated circulating total IgE levels. Serum and lung cytokine levels were similar with respect to NiO surface area. The lower surface area was associated with an enhanced Th2 profile, whereas the higher surface area was associated with a Th1-dominant profile. Surface area-normalized groups also exhibited similar alterations in OVA-specific IgE levels and lung neutrophil number. However, lung eosinophil number and allergen challenge-induced alterations in lung function related more to particle size, wherein NiO-F was associated with an increased enhanced pause response and NiO-UF was associated with increased lung eosinophil burden.Conclusions: Collectively, these findings suggest that although NiO surface area correlates best with acute pulmonary injury and inflammation following respiratory exposure, other physico-chemical properties may contribute to the modulation of immune responses in the lung.


Assuntos
Asma/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunofenotipagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Tamanho da Partícula
10.
Nanotoxicology ; 13(8): 1102-1116, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280638

RESUMO

Carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) are universally being used to make commodities, as they present unique opportunities for development and innovation in the fields of engineering, biotechnology, etc. As technology advances to incorporate CNMs in industry, the potential exposures associated with these particles also increase. CNMs have been found to be associated with substantial pulmonary toxicity, including inflammation, fibrosis, and/or granuloma formation in animal models. This study attempts to categorize the toxicity profiles of various carbon allotropes, in particular, carbon black, different multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene-based materials, and their derivatives. Statistical and machine learning-based approaches were used to identify groups of CNMs with similar pulmonary toxicity responses from a panel of proteins measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples and with similar pathological outcomes in the lungs. Thus, grouped particles, based on their pulmonary toxicity profiles, were used to select a small set of proteins that could potentially identify and discriminate between the toxicity profiles associated within each group. Specifically, MDC/CCL22 and MIP-3ß/CCL19 were identified as common protein markers associated with both toxicologically distinct groups of CNMs. In addition, the persistent expression of other selected protein markers in BAL fluid from each group suggested their ability to predict toxicity in the lungs, i.e. fibrosis and microgranuloma formation. The advantages of such approaches can have positive implications for further research in toxicity profiling.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos
11.
J Immunotoxicol ; 16(1): 87-124, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195861

RESUMO

The recent surge in incorporation of metallic and metal oxide nanomaterials into consumer products and their corresponding use in occupational settings have raised concerns over the potential for metals to induce size-specific adverse toxicological effects. Although nano-metals have been shown to induce greater lung injury and inflammation than their larger metal counterparts, their size-related effects on the immune system and allergic disease remain largely unknown. This knowledge gap is particularly concerning since metals are historically recognized as common inducers of allergic contact dermatitis, occupational asthma, and allergic adjuvancy. The investigation into the potential for adverse immune effects following exposure to metal nanomaterials is becoming an area of scientific interest since these characteristically lightweight materials are easily aerosolized and inhaled, and their small size may allow for penetration of the skin, which may promote unique size-specific immune effects with implications for allergic disease. Additionally, alterations in physicochemical properties of metals in the nano-scale greatly influence their interactions with components of biological systems, potentially leading to implications for inducing or exacerbating allergic disease. Although some research has been directed toward addressing these concerns, many aspects of metal nanomaterial-induced immune effects remain unclear. Overall, more scientific knowledge exists in regards to the potential for metal nanomaterials to exacerbate allergic disease than to their potential to induce allergic disease. Furthermore, effects of metal nanomaterial exposure on respiratory allergy have been more thoroughly-characterized than their potential influence on dermal allergy. Current knowledge regarding metal nanomaterials and their potential to induce/exacerbate dermal and respiratory allergy are summarized in this review. In addition, an examination of several remaining knowledge gaps and considerations for future studies is provided.


Assuntos
Asma/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Asma/imunologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1996, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760804

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to determine if age, diet, and genetic disposition (animal strain) in an animal model had early effects on specific molecular markers in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Three strains [Sprague-Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown-Norway (BN)] of male rats were maintained on a high-fat (HF) or regular diet. Blood was collected at 4, 12, and 24 wk to assess chemistry and to recover PBMCs. Triglycerides and body weight gain increased at all time points in the HF diet group for each strain. Telomere length in PBMCs decreased in the HF diet group compared to the regular diet group up to 24 wk in all strains. Telomere length decreased in PBMCs at 24 wk compared to baseline in all strains, indicating an age-related effect. These findings highlight that diet and age cause changes in PBMCs recovered from different strains of rats. The next tier of studies will examine the contribution of an occupational exposure (e.g., welding fume inhalation) in combination with diet, age, and strain, to assess changes in the molecular responses of isolated PBMCs. In addition, studies involving lifestyle exposure (e.g., tobacco smoke) are in the planning stages and will assess the long-term effects of exposure in our animal model.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Telômero/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ganho de Peso
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 471, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679488

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to silica has been observed to cause pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer through complex mechanisms. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein structures with repetitive (TTAGGG) sequences at the end of chromosomes, are a molecular "clock of life", and alterations are associated with chronic disease. The shelterin complex (POT1, TRF1, TRF2, Tin2, Rap1, and POT1 and TPP1) plays an important role in maintaining telomere length and integrity, and any alteration in telomeres may activate DNA damage response (DDR) machinery resulting in telomere attrition. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of silica exposure on the regulation of the shelterin complex in an animal model. Male Fisher 344 rats were exposed by inhalation to Min-U-Sil 5 silica for 3, 6, or 12 wk at a concentration of 15 mg/m3 for 6 hr/d for 5 consecutive d/wk. Expression of shelterin complex genes was assessed in the lungs at 16 hr after the end of each exposure. Also, the relationship between increased DNA damage protein (γH2AX) and expression of silica-induced fibrotic marker, αSMA, was evaluated. Our findings reveal new information about the dysregulation of shelterin complex after silica inhalation in rats, and how this pathway may lead to the initiation of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Inalação , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo , Animais , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Receptores com Domínio Discoidina/genética , Receptores com Domínio Discoidina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos
14.
Toxicol Pathol ; 46(1): 14-27, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934917

RESUMO

Recent experimental evidence indicates significant pulmonary toxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), such as inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, granuloma formation, and carcinogenicity. Although numerous studies explored the adverse potential of various CNTs, their comparability is often limited. This is due to differences in administered dose, physicochemical characteristics, exposure methods, and end points monitored. Here, we addressed the problem through sparse classification method, a supervised machine learning approach that can reduce the noise contained in redundant variables for discriminating among MWCNT-exposed and MWCNT-unexposed groups. A panel of proteins measured from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) samples was used to predict exposure to various MWCNT and determine markers that are attributable to MWCNT exposure and toxicity in mice. Using sparse support vector machine-based classification technique, we identified a small subset of proteins clearly distinguishing each exposure. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), in particular, was associated with various MWCNT exposures and was independent of exposure method employed, that is, oropharyngeal aspiration versus inhalation exposure. Sustained expression of some of the selected protein markers identified also suggests their potential role in MWCNT-induced toxicity and proposes hypotheses for future mechanistic studies. Such approaches can be used more broadly for nanomaterial risk profiling studies to evaluate decisions related to dose/time-response relationships that could delineate experimental variables from exposure markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
Toxicol Pathol ; 46(1): 28-46, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929951

RESUMO

Assessing the potential health risks for newly developed nanoparticles poses a significant challenge. Nanometer-sized particles are not generally detectable with the light microscope. Electron microscopy typically requires high-level doses, above the physiologic range, for particle examination in tissues. Enhanced dark-field microscopy (EDM) is an adaption of the light microscope that images scattered light. Nanoparticles scatter light with high efficiency while normal tissues do not. EDM has the potential to identify the critical target sites for nanoparticle deposition and injury in the lungs and other organs. This study describes the methods for EDM imaging of nanoparticles and applications. Examples of EDM application include measurement of deposition and clearance patterns. Imaging of a wide variety of nanoparticles demonstrated frequent situations where nanoparticles detected by EDM were not visible by light microscopy. EDM examination of colloidal gold nanospheres (10-100 nm diameter) demonstrated a detection size limit of approximately 15 nm in tissue sections. EDM determined nanoparticle volume density was directly proportional to total lung burden of exposed animals. The results confirm that EDM can determine nanoparticle distribution, clearance, transport to lymph nodes, and accumulation in extrapulmonary organs. Thus, EDM substantially improves the qualitative and quantitative microscopic evaluation of inhaled nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia/métodos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17284, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230030

RESUMO

Exposure to silica can cause lung fibrosis and cancer. Identification of molecular targets is important for the intervention and/or prevention of silica-induced lung diseases. Telomeres consist of tandem repeats of DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes, preventing chromosomal fusion and degradation. Regulator of telomere length-1 (RTEL1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), genes involved in telomere regulation and function, play important roles in maintaining telomere integrity and length. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of silica inhalation on telomere length and the regulation of RTEL1 and TERT. Lung tissues and blood samples were collected from rats at 4, 32, and 44 wk after exposure to 15 mg/m3 of silica × 6 h/d × 5 d. Controls were exposed to air. At all-time points, RTEL1 expression was significantly decreased in lung tissue of the silica-exposed animals compared to controls. Also, significant increases in telomere length and TERT were observed in the silica group at 4 and 32 wk. Telomere length, RTEL1 and TERT expression may serve as potential biomarkers related to silica exposure and may offer insight into the molecular mechanism of silica-induced lung disease and tumorigeneses.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Homeostase do Telômero , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
17.
Nanotoxicology ; 11(8): 1040-1058, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094619

RESUMO

Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are an emerging engineered nanomaterial attracting significant attention due to superior electrical, chemical and thermal properties. Currently, the toxicity profile of this material is largely unknown. Commercial grade BNNTs are composed of a mixture (BNNT-M) of ∼50-60% BNNTs, and ∼40-50% impurities of boron and hexagonal boron nitride. We performed acute in vitro and in vivo studies with commercial grade BNNT-M, dispersed by sonication in vehicle, in comparison to the extensively studied multiwalled carbon nanotube-7 (MWCNT-7). THP-1 wild-type and NLRP3-deficient human monocytic cells were exposed to 0-100 µg/ml and C57BL/6 J male mice were treated with 40 µg of BNNT-M for in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. In vitro, BNNT-M induced a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. This was confirmed in vivo following acute exposure increase in bronchoalveolar lavage levels of lactate dehydrogenase, pulmonary polymorphonuclear cell influx, loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and augmented levels of 4-hydroxynonenal. Uptake of this material caused lysosomal destabilization, pyroptosis and inflammasome activation, corroborated by an increase in cathepsin B, caspase 1, increased protein levels of IL-1ß and IL-18 both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of these effects in NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cells confirmed NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation by BNNT-M. BNNT-M induced a similar profile of inflammatory pulmonary protein production when compared to MWCNT-7. Functionally, pretreatment with BNNT-M caused suppression in bacterial uptake by THP-1 cells, an effect that was mirrored in challenged alveolar macrophages collected from exposed mice and attenuated with NLRP3 deficiency. Analysis of cytokines secreted by LPS-challenged alveolar macrophages collected after in vivo exposure to dispersions of BNNT-M showed a differential macrophage response. The observed results demonstrated acute inflammation and toxicity in vitro and in vivo following exposure to sonicated BNNT-M was in part due to NLRP3 inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 80(23-24): 1349-1368, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165057

RESUMO

Exposure to crystalline silica results in serious adverse health effects, most notably, silicosis. An understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying silica-induced pulmonary toxicity is critical for the intervention and/or prevention of its adverse health effects. Rats were exposed by inhalation to crystalline silica at a concentration of 15 mg/m3, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3, 6 or 12 weeks. Pulmonary toxicity and global gene expression profiles were determined in lungs at the end of each exposure period. Crystalline silica was visible in lungs of rats especially in the 12-week group. Pulmonary toxicity, as evidenced by an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and albumin content and accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), was seen in animals depending upon silica exposure duration. The most severe histological changes, noted in the 12-week exposure group, consisted of chronic active inflammation, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Microarray analysis of lung gene expression profiles detected significant differential expression of 38, 77, and 99 genes in rats exposed to silica for 3-, 6-, or 12-weeks, respectively, compared to time-matched controls. Among the significantly differentially expressed genes (SDEG), 32 genes were common in all exposure groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the SDEG identified enrichment of functions, networks and canonical pathways related to inflammation, cancer, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling in response to silica exposure. Collectively, these results provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity following sub-chronic inhalation exposure to crystalline silica in rats.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
19.
Inhal Toxicol ; 29(7): 322-339, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967277

RESUMO

The effects of acute pulmonary coexposures to silica and diesel particulate matter (DPM), which may occur in various mining operations, were investigated in vivo. Rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation (IT) to silica (50 or 233 µg), DPM (7.89 or 50 µg) or silica and DPM combined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to PBS alone (control). At one day, one week, one month, two months and three months postexposure bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology were performed to assess lung injury, inflammation and immune response. While higher doses of silica caused inflammation and injury at all time points, DPM exposure alone did not. DPM (50 µg) combined with silica (233 µg) increased inflammation at one week and one-month postexposure and caused an increase in the incidence of fibrosis at one month compared with exposure to silica alone. To assess susceptibility to lung infection following coexposure, rats were exposed by IT to 233 µg silica, 50 µg DPM, a combination of the two or PBS control one week before intratracheal inoculation with 5 × 105 Listeria monocytogenes. At 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days following infection, pulmonary immune response and bacterial clearance from the lung were evaluated. Coexposure to DPM and silica did not alter bacterial clearance from the lung compared to control. Although DPM and silica coexposure did not alter pulmonary susceptibility to infection in this model, the study showed that noninflammatory doses of DPM had the capacity to increase silica-induced lung injury, inflammation and onset/incidence of fibrosis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Quartzo/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Contagem de Células , Citocinas/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Listeriose , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
20.
Nanotoxicology ; 11(6): 725-736, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660804

RESUMO

Welding generates a complex aerosol of incidental nanoparticles and cytotoxic metals, such as chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe). The goal was to use both in vivo and in vitro methodologies to determine the mechanisms by which different welding fumes may damage the lungs. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation (ITI) with 2.0 mg of gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) or manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) fumes or saline (vehicle control). At 1, 3, and 10 days, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to measure lung toxicity. To assess molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, RAW264.7 cells were exposed to both welding fumes for 24 h (0-100 µg/ml). Fume composition was different: MMA-SS (41% Fe, 29% Cr, 17% Mn, 3% Ni) versus GMA-MS (85% Fe, 14% Mn). BAL indicators of lung injury and inflammation were increased by MMA-SS at all time points and by GMA-MS at 3 and 10 days after exposure. RAW264.7 cells exposed to MMA-SS had elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein-HNE (P-HNE) adduct formation, activation of ERK1/2, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) compared to GMA-MS and control. Increased generation of ROS due to MMA-SS exposure was confirmed by increased expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Results of in vitro studies provide evidence that stainless steel welding fume mediate inflammatory responses via activation of ROS/P-HNE/ERK1/2/Nrf2 signaling pathways. These findings were corroborated by elevated expression of COX-2, Nrf2, and HO-1 in homogenized lung tissue collected 1 day after in vivo exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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