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1.
Eur J Sport Sci ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282783

RESUMO

Background: Clinical electrocardiographic (ECG) guidelines for athlete's heart are based upon cross-sectional data. We aimed to longitudinally evaluate the influence of endurance training on the ECG and compare the prevalence of ECG abnormalities defined by contemporary criteria. Methods: A group of 66 training-naïve individuals completed a six-month training programme with resting ECGs and cardiopulmonary exercise tests performed at baseline, two and six months. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the prevalence of ECG abnormalities compared between proposed criteria. Results: Maximal oxygen consumption increased from 45.4 ± 7.1 to 50.3 ± 7.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 (p < 0.05) pre-to-post training. ECG changes included, bradycardia (60 ± 12 vs. 53 ± 8 beats·min-1; p < 0.05), shorter P wave duration (106 ± 10 vs. 103 ± 11 ms; p < 0.05), reduced QTc (413 ± 27 vs. 405 ± 22 ms; p < 0.05), and increased left ventricular Sokolow-Lyon index (2.45 ± 0.66 vs. 2.62 ± 0.78 mV; p < 0.05). 85% of individuals showed ≥1 'training-related' ECG finding at six months vs. 68% at baseline. Using the 2013 Seattle Criteria, 4 ECGs were 'abnormal' at baseline and 3 at month six vs. 2 at baseline and 1 at month six, using the 2017 International Consensus. Prevalence of 'borderline' findings did not increase with training (11% at baseline and six months). Conclusion: Six-months endurance training leads to a greater prevalence of 'training-related' but not 'borderline' or 'training-unrelated' ECGs. 'Borderline findings' may not necessarily represent training-related cardiac remodelling in novice athletes following a six-month training intervention. KEY MESSAGES This study aimed to assess the longitudinal ECG changes following six months of endurance training, in training-naïve individuals, and whether these ECG changes support the revisions made to the recent 2017 international consensus criteria. The prevalence of 'training-related' findings were increased with six months of endurance training, however the prevalence of the revised 'borderline' criteria, according to the 2017 international consensus, did not increase and the associated quantitative ECG data (e.g. P-wave amplitude, QRS axis and QRS duration) remained unchanged. Further clinical consideration may be warranted for individuals within the early phase of exercise engagement presenting with 'borderline' ECG abnormalities, defined by the International criteria.

2.
Nutrients ; 8(11)2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869661

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB4ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day-1 containing 10 billion CFU·day-1Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day-1Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9.5 billion CFU·day-1Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL-20 (NCIMB 30172) and 0.5 billion CFU·day-1Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL-34 (NCIMB 30153)/55.8 mg·day-1 fructooligosaccharides/ 400 mg·day-1 α-lipoic acid, 600 mg·day-1N-acetyl-carnitine); matched pro/prebiotic (LAB4) or placebo (PL) for 12 weeks preceding a long-distance triathlon. Plasma endotoxin units (via Limulus amebocyte lysate chromogenic quantification) and GI permeability (via 5 h urinary lactulose (L): mannitol (M) recovery) were assessed at baseline, pre-race and six days post-race. Endotoxin unit levels were not significantly different between groups at baseline (LAB4ANTI: 8.20 ± 1.60 pg·mL-1; LAB4: 8.92 ± 1.20 pg·mL-1; PL: 9.72 ± 2.42 pg·mL-1). The use of a 12-week LAB4ANTI intervention significantly reduced endotoxin units both pre-race (4.37 ± 0.51 pg·mL-1) and six days post-race (5.18 ± 0.57 pg·mL-1; p = 0.03, ηp² = 0.35), but only six days post-race with LAB4 (5.01 ± 0.28 pg·mL-1; p = 0.01, ηp² = 0.43). In contrast, endotoxin units remained unchanged with PL. L:M significantly increased from 0.01 ± 0.01 at baseline to 0.06 ± 0.01 with PL only (p = 0.004, ηp² = 0.51). Mean race times (h:min:s) were not statistically different between groups despite faster times with both pro/prebiotoic groups (LAB4ANTI: 13:17:07 ± 0:34:48; LAB4: 12:47:13 ± 0:25:06; PL: 14:12:51 ± 0:29:54; p > 0.05). Combined multistrain pro/prebiotic use may reduce endotoxin unit levels, with LAB4ANTI potentially conferring an additive effect via combined GI modulation and antioxidant protection.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carnosina/análogos & derivados , Endotoxemia/prevenção & controle , Endotoxinas/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Resistência Física , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tióctico/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Translocação Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cápsulas , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Endotoxemia/sangue , Endotoxemia/microbiologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida , Natação , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 12(1): 1, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25650043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardio-metabolic and antioxidant health benefits of caffeinated green tea (GT) relate to its catechin polyphenol content. Less is known about decaffeinated extracts, particularly in combination with exercise. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether a decaffeinated green tea extract (dGTE) positively influenced fat oxidation, body composition and exercise performance in recreationally active participants. METHODS: Fourteen, recreationally active males participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design intervention (mean ± SE; age = 21.4 ± 0.3 yrs; weight = 76.37 ± 1.73 kg; body fat = 16.84 ± 0.97%, peak oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]] = 3.00 ± 0.10 L·min(-1)). Participants were randomly assigned capsulated dGTE (571 mg·d(-1); n = 7) or placebo (PL; n = 7) for 4 weeks. Following body composition and resting cardiovascular measures, participants cycled for 1 hour at 50% [Formula: see text], followed by a 40 minute performance trial at week 0, 2 and 4. Fat and carbohydrate oxidation was assessed via indirect calorimetry. Pre-post exercise blood samples were collected for determination of total fatty acids (TFA). Distance covered (km) and average power output (W) were assessed as exercise performance criteria. RESULTS: Total fat oxidation rates increased by 24.9% from 0.241 ± 0.025 to 0.301 ± 0.009 g·min(-1) with dGTE (P = 0.05; ηp(2) = 0.45) by week 4, whereas substrate utilisation was unaltered with PL. Body fat significantly decreased with dGTE by 1.63 ± 0.16% in contrast to PL over the intervention period (P < 0.001; ηp(2) = 0.84). No significant changes for FFA or blood pressure between groups were observed. dGTE resulted in a 10.9% improvement in performance distance covered from 20.23 ± 0.54 km to 22.43 ± 0.40 km by week 4 (P < 0.001; ηp(2) = 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: A 4 week dGTE intervention favourably enhanced substrate utilisation and subsequent performance indices, but did not alter TFA concentrations in comparison to PL. The results support the use of catechin polyphenols from dGTE in combination with exercise training in recreationally active volunteers.

4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 11(1): 8, 2014 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24589205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) is influenced by mono- and disaccharide combinations, debate exists whether such beverages enhance fluid delivery and exercise performance. Therefore, this study aimed to ascertain CHOEXO, fluid delivery and performance times of a commercially available maltodextrin/ fructose beverage in comparison to an isocaloric maltodextrin beverage and placebo. METHODS: Fourteen club level cyclists (age: 31.79 ± 10.02 years; height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight: 73.69 ± 9.24 kg; VO2max: 60.38 ± 9.36 mL · kg·-1 min-1) performed three trials involving 2.5 hours continuous exercise at 50% maximum power output (Wmax: 176.71 ± 25.92 W) followed by a 60 km cycling performance test. Throughout each trial, athletes were randomly assigned, in a double-blind manner, either: (1) 1.1 g · min-1 maltodextrin + 0.6 g · min-1 fructose (MD + F), (2) 1.7 g · min-1 of maltodextrin (MD) or (3) flavoured water (P). In addition, the test beverage at 60 minutes contained 5.0 g of deuterium oxide (2H2O) to assess quantification of fluid delivery. Expired air samples were analysed for CHOEXO according to the 13C/12C ratio method using gas chromatography continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Peak CHOEXO was significantly greater in the final 30 minutes of submaximal exercise with MD + F and MD compared to P (1.45 ± 0.09 g · min-1, 1.07 ± 0.03 g · min-1and 0.00 ± 0.01 g · min-1 respectively, P < 0.0001), and significantly greater for MD + F compared to MD (P = 0.005). The overall appearance of 2H2O in plasma was significantly greater in both P and MD + F compared to MD (100.27 ± 3.57 ppm, 92.57 ± 2.94 ppm and 78.18 ± 4.07 ppm respectively, P < 0.003). There was no significant difference in fluid delivery between P and MD + F (P = 0.078). Performance times significantly improved with MD + F compared with both MD (by 7 min 22 s ± 1 min 56 s, or 7.2%) and P (by 6 min 35 s ± 2 min 33 s, or 6.5%, P < 0.05) over 60 km. CONCLUSIONS: A commercially available maltodextrin-fructose beverage improves CHOEXO and fluid delivery, which may benefit individuals during sustained moderate intensity exercise. The greater CHOEXO observed when consuming a maltodextrin-fructose beverage may support improved performance times.

5.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 38(12): 1245-53, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24195625

RESUMO

The study investigated the ingestion of maltodextrin, fructose, and protein on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) and exercise performance. Seven trained cyclists and (or) triathletes (maximal oxygen consumption, 59.20 ± 9.00 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 3 exercise trials that consisted of 150 min of cycling at 50% maximal power output (160 ± 11 W), followed by a 60-km time trial. One of 3 beverages were randomly assigned during each trial and consumed at 15-min intervals: (i) 0.84 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.52 g · min(-1) fructose + 0.34 g · min(-1) protein (MD+F+P); (ii) 1.10 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.60 g · min(-1) fructose (MD+F); or (iii) 1.70 g · min(-1) maltodextrin (MD). CHO(EXO) and fuel utilisation were assessed via measurement of expired air (13)C content and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Mean total CHO oxidation (CHOTOT) rates were 2.35 ± 0.18, 2.76 ± 0.08, and 2.61 ± 0.17 g · min(-1) with MD, MD+F, and MD+F+P, respectively, although not significantly different. Peak CHO(EXO) rates with MD+F were significantly greater by 41.4% (p = 0.001) and 45.4% (p = 0.0001) compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively (1.57 ± 0.22 g · min(-1), 1.11 ± 0.08 g · min(-1), and 1.08 ± 0.11 g · min(-1), respectively). Performance times were 2.2% and 5.0% faster with MD+F compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively; however, they were not statistically significant. Ingestion of an MD-fructose-protein commercial sports beverage significantly reduced peak and mean CHO(EXO) rates compared with MD+F, but did not significantly influence CHOTOT. The addition of protein to an MD+F beverage did not enhance performance times.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Frutose , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Humanos
6.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 9(1): 5, 2012 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22400992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to undertake an independent investigation into the effects of ingesting a carbohydrate-protein-electrolyte (CPE) beverage on repeated submaximal and time-trial cycling performance. METHODS: Sixteen recreationally trained males (height: 1.76 ± 0.07 m; weight: 70.05 ± 7.90 kg; VO2max: 49.69 ± 4.19 ml.kg-1.min-1) performed two exercise trials separated by 7 days. Each trial comprised two bouts of 90 minutes exercise separated by a 2 hour recovery period. Each bout comprised 45 minutes exercise on a cycle-ergometer at 60%VO2max (ST), followed immediately by a 45 minute performance test (PT). Participants were randomly assigned an 8% CPE beverage or colour/taste matched placebo (PL) prior to each trial. Participants consumed 100 ml of the assigned beverage every 10 minutes during each ST, and 500 ml at 0 and 60 minutes into recovery (total caloric delivery per trial: 617.6 kcal for CPE and12.8 kcal for PL). Mean power output (W), speed (km.hr-1) and distance covered (km) were assessed throughout both trials. Expired air was sampled at 10 minute intervals throughout ST. Blood glucose and lactate were assessed during ST and recovery. RESULTS: Distance covered during ST was significantly reduced with PL by 9.12% (20.18 ± 0.28 km in ST1 v 18.34 ± 0.36 km in ST2; P = 0.0001). With CPE, distance covered, power output and average speed were maintained between ST1 and ST2. Oxygen uptake was not significantly different between ST1 and ST2, or conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values decreased from 0.98 ± 0.02 in ST1 to 0.91 ± 0.02 in ST2 for PL (P = 0.003), supporting reduced total carbohydrate oxidation rates (P = 0.007). Mean blood glucose was maintained in CPE across ST trials, and was significantly greater than PL in ST2 (4.77 ± 0.09 mmol.L-1 for CPE compared with 4.18 ± 0.06 mmol.L-1 for PL, P < 0.001). Mean distance during PT2 was 2.96 km (or 17.1%) further with CPE than PL (P = 0.003). Mean power significantly decreased across PT with PL (134.21 ± 4.79 W and 106.90 ± 3.25 W, respectively; P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a CPE beverage improves short-term repeated exercise and subsequent performance compared to PL. Higher rates of carbohydrate oxidation, maintenance of plasma glucose, and decreased levels of fatigue may be beneficial for secondary bouts of performance and faster recovery turnover.

7.
Water Res ; 46(1): 247-57, 2012 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22100053

RESUMO

Bacteroidales markers are promising indicators of fecal pollution and are now widely used in microbial source tracking (MST) studies. However, a thorough understanding of the persistence of Bacteroidales population after being released into environmental waters is lacking. We investigated the persistence of two host specific markers (HF183 and CF193) and temporal change of Bacteroidales population over 14 days in freshwater microcosms seeded with human or bovine feces. The concentrations of HF183/CF193 and Escherichia coli were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and standard cultivation method, respectively. Shifts in the Bacteroidales population structure were fingerprinted using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and subsequent sequencing analysis targeting both 16S rDNA and rRNA-transcribed cDNA. Both HF183 and CF193 decayed significantly faster than E. coli but the decay curves fit poorly with first-order model. High diversity of Bacteroidales population was observed for both microcosms, and persistence of different species in the population varied. Sequence analysis indicated that most of the bovine Bacteroidales populations in our study are unexplored. DGGE and decay curve indicated that RNA decayed faster than DNA, further supporting the use of rRNA as indicator of metabolically active Bacteroidales population. Evaluations with more realistic scenarios are warranted prior to extending the results of this study to real field settings.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Adulto , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante , Escherichia coli/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Regressão , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Water Res ; 44(9): 2725-34, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20347113

RESUMO

Riverbank filtration has been shown to be effective for removing viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Drinking water systems that employ riverbank filtration may receive additional treatment credits beyond that which they can obtain using traditional engineering approaches. In order to develop guidance for removal effectiveness, screening level predictive modeling by colloid filtration theory combined with advection and dispersion modeling is potentially useful. Currently, only few studies have measured basic effective colloid filtration parameters for Cryptosporidium oocysts with naturally occurring riverbank sediments. In the focus of this study we conducted flow column experiments in triplicate and measured effective attachment rate coefficients for sandy river sediments of the Southern Great Plains which are low in organic matter. We found that for sediment sampled from these high-energy rivers there was no apparent dependency of C. parvum removal with carbon content, bacterial colony forming units, or with gross texture properties of the sands. The differences in particle size distribution for the sediments suggested that straining did not play a role in removal efficiency. First-order colloid attachment rate coefficients followed lognormal distribution functions. The coefficients also appeared to be unrelated to the differences in particle size distributions of the sediments, bacterial counts, or levels of total carbon or total organic carbon. Using Monte Carlo analyses, the lowest observed 5th percentile was 8.0 x 10(-6) min(-1) and the highest observed 95th percentile was 1.6 x 10(-3). Total log(10) removals ranged from 23 to 200 m(-1). These results have application for screening level colloid filtration modeling of riverbank filtration in these systems.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/parasitologia , Rios/parasitologia , Coloides , Filtração , Tamanho da Partícula , Dióxido de Silício , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 26(2): 358-60, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17713224

RESUMO

Smectite clays demonstrate high affinities for nitroaromatics that strongly depend on the exchangeable cation. The K-smectites have high affinities for nitroaromatics, but Ca-smectites do not. Here we evaluate the ability of K-smectite to attenuate the bioavailability and hence toxicity of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) to the aquatic plant duckweed. In the absence of K-smectite, 2,4-DNT was highly toxic to duckweed. Small amounts of K-smectite reduced toxicity substantially, presumably by reducing 2,4-DNT bioavailability via sorption.


Assuntos
Dinitrobenzenos/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicatos , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 41(5): 1641-5, 2007 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17396654

RESUMO

Nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) are prominent soil and sediment contaminants that are strongly adsorbed by smectites at extents that depend on hydration properties of the exchangeable cation. Potassium smectites adsorb nitroaromatics much more strongly than calcium smectites, so that adjustment of K+ versus Ca2+ occupation on cation exchange sites in smectites can be used to modulate the retention and release of nitroaromatics. We suggest that this modulation can be used to advantageously manage the bioavailability and toxicity of NACs during bioremedation. We have measured the toxicity of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) to duckweed grown in smectite suspensions and utilized Ca2+/K+ exchange to retain or release 2,4-DNT. Retention by potassium smectite reduced bioavailability and hence toxicity to duckweed. Addition of Ca2+ to replace K+ by ion exchange released adsorbed 2,4-DNT, which is toxic to duckweed. So smectites can be used to sequester or release 2,4-DNT predictably and provide means to control bioavailability and environmental toxicity.


Assuntos
Dinitrobenzenos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fenômenos Geológicos , Geologia
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