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1.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess test-retest repeatability of the accommodative response (AR) in children with and without amblyopia and adults using the Grand Seiko autorefractor. DESIGN: Prospective Reliability Assessment METHODS: Test-retest of accommodation was obtained while participants viewed 20/150 sized letters at 33 cm using the Grand Seiko autorefractor of children 5 to < 11 years with amblyopia (n=24) and without amblyopia (n=36), and adults 18 to < 35 years (n=34). Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess repeatability and reliability. The AR between the fellow and amblyopic eyes of children with amblyopia and Eye 1 and Eye 2 of the visually normal participants was assessed using group comparisons. RESULTS: The 95% LOA of the AR was greatest in the amblyopic eyes (-1.25 D, 1.62 D) of children with amblyopia. The 95% LOA were similar between the fellow eyes (-0.88 D, 0.74 D) of children with amblyopia and both eyes of the children without amblyopia (Eye 1: -0.68 D, 0.71 D; Eye 2: -0.59 D, 0.70 D) and the adults (Eye 1: 95% LOA = -0.49 D to 0.45 D; Eye 2: LOA = -0.66 D to 0.67 D). ICC revealed the Grand Seiko autorefractor as a reliable instrument for measuring AR. CONCLUSIONS: The Grand Seiko autorefractor was more repeatable and reliable when measuring the AR in children and adults without amblyopia than in the amblyopic eye in children with amblyopia. It is recommended that multiple measures of the AR is obtained in amblyopic eyes to improve the precision of measures.

2.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 47(9): 1161-1166, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics and incidence of children developing endophthalmitis within the first 90 days following pediatric cataract surgery. SETTING: Deidentified commercial and Medicare Advantage health claims across the United States. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. METHODS: In a retrospective review of approximately 58 million charts in Optum's deidentified Clinformatics Data Mart Database, patients aged <13 years who underwent cataract surgery in one or both eyes with or without primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation between 2003 and 2017 were identified. Excluded were patients with traumatic cataract, <90 days of continuous insurance coverage, a prior diagnosis of endophthalmitis, and a diagnosis of endophthalmitis occurring after 90 days of cataract surgery. The main outcome measure was the incidence of endophthalmitis occurring within the first 90 days of cataract surgery and the odds ratio for developing endophthalmitis according to demographic and intraoperative factors. RESULTS: Cataract surgery was performed on 789 eyes (52.6% male), with a median age of 4 (interquartile range 1-8) years. The rate of IOL implantation at the time of cataract surgery was 66.8%. Endophthalmitis was diagnosed in 4 of 789 eyes (0.51%). The median time to diagnosis of endophthalmitis was 6.5 days (range: 5-44 days). There was no significant association between endophthalmitis and age, sex, or primary IOL implantation. CONCLUSIONS: In this large insurance claims database, the incidence of endophthalmitis following pediatric cataract surgery reported was more than the rate previously reported by any study with patients of a similar age.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Endoftalmite , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Endoftalmite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Medicare , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Brain Inj ; 35(10): 1218-1228, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scores, Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores, and oculomotor deficits post-concussion. METHODS: Records of adolescent patients examined in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic between July 2014 and May 2019 were reviewed. PCSS and CISS scores, results of eye examination and oculomotor assessment, concussion history, and demographics were abstracted. RESULTS: One hundred and forty patient records (median age, 15.3 years; 52 males, presented 109 days (median) from their most recent concussion) met inclusion criteria. Mean total scores on PCSS and CISS were 46.67 ± 25.89 and 27.13 ± 13.22, respectively, and were moderately correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p < .001). Oculomotor deficits were observed in 123 (88%) patients. Step-wise linear regression identified increased PCSS total score to be significantly associated with decreased amplitude of accommodation (p < .001). Increased CISS total score was significantly associated with receded near point of convergence, developmental eye movement test error scores, and cause of concussion. CONCLUSION: High PCSS scores may indicate an accommodation deficit and thus prompt an oculomotor assessment in patients following a concussion. Using the CISS and a detailed oculomotor assessment may reveal underlying oculomotor deficits, which may benefit from treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/epidemiologia
4.
Vision Res ; 184: 30-36, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838503

RESUMO

Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients. This retrospective cross-sectional study included patients examined at the multidisciplinary concussion clinic (MDCC) at Boston Children's Hospital over four years. Patients aged 5-21 years who had a complete assessment of eye alignment, vergence, accommodation, and visual tracking, and had visual acuity better than or equal to 20/30 in each eye were included. Patients with history of amblyopia, strabismus, or ocular pathology were excluded. Chart review yielded 116 patients who met inclusion criteria (median age 15 years, 64% female). The majority of patients (52%) experienced a single concussion and most were sports-related (50%). Clinical data show vergence, accommodation, or visual tracking deficits in 95% of patients. A receded near point of convergence (NPC, 70/116) and reduced accommodative amplitude (63/116) were the most common deficits. Both NPC and accommodative amplitude were significantly correlated with one another (r = -0.5) and with measures of visual tracking (r = -0.34). Patients with chronic post-concussion symptoms show deficits in individual metrics of vergence, accommodation and visual tracking. The high incidence of these deficits, specifically NPC and accommodative amplitude, highlights the need for a detailed sensorimotor evaluation to guide personalized treatment following concussion.

5.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 41(1): 21-32, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of office-based vergence/accommodative therapy for improving accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency and accommodative dysfunction. METHODS: We report changes in accommodative function following therapy among participants in the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial - Attention and Reading Trial with decreased accommodative amplitude (115 participants in vergence/accommodative therapy; 65 in placebo therapy) or decreased accommodative facility (71 participants in vergence/accommodative therapy; 37 in placebo therapy) at baseline. The primary analysis compared mean change in amplitude and facility between the vergence/accommodative and placebo therapy groups using analyses of variance models after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of treatment. The proportions of participants with normal amplitude and facility at each time point were calculated. The average rate of change in amplitude and facility from baseline to week 4, and from weeks 4 to 16, were determined in the vergence/accommodative therapy group. RESULTS: From baseline to 16 weeks, the mean improvement in amplitude was 8.6 dioptres (D) and 5.2 D in the vergence/accommodative and placebo therapy groups, respectively (mean difference = 3.5 D, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5 to 5.5 D; p = 0.01). The mean improvement in facility was 13.5 cycles per minute (cpm) and 7.6 cpm in the vergence/accommodative and placebo therapy groups, respectively (mean difference = 5.8 cpm, 95% CI: 3.8 to 7.9 cpm; p < 0.0001). Significantly greater proportions of participants treated with vergence/accommodative therapy achieved a normal amplitude (69% vs. 32%, difference = 37%, 95% CI: 22 to 51%; p < 0.0001) and facility (85% vs. 49%, difference = 36%, 95% CI: 18 to 55%; p < 0.0001) than those who received placebo therapy. In the vergence/accommodative therapy group, amplitude increased at an average rate of 1.5 D per week during the first 4 weeks (p < 0.0001), then slowed to 0.2 D per week (p = 0.002) from weeks 4 to 16. Similarly, facility increased at an average rate of 1.5 cpm per week during the first 4 weeks (p < 0.0001), then slowed to 0.6 cpm per week from weeks 4 to 16 (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Office-based vergence/accommodative therapy is effective for improving accommodative function in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency and coexisting accommodative dysfunction.


Assuntos
Óculos , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/terapia , Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Criança , Convergência Ocular/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Hiperopia/terapia , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Miopia/terapia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/fisiopatologia , Ortóptica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(5): 1527-1537, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994863

RESUMO

Purpose: We investigated the effect of blur and disparity cues on accommodative accuracy (lag) and variability (time [RMS] and frequency domain [LFC]) in the developing visual system. Methods: A total of 59 children (3-9 years, spherical equivalent refractive error [RE] = -0.3- +4.91 diopters [D]) and 10 adults (23-31 years, RE = -0.37-+1.15D) participated. Accommodation was measured in the right eye for 1 minute at 100 and 33 cm using photorefraction (25 Hz) for three conditions: blur + disparity (binocular, 20/50 optotypes), blur-only (monocular, 20/50 optotypes), disparity-only (binocular, difference-of-Gaussian stimulus). The effect blur and disparity cues have on accommodative accuracy, RMS, and LFC was assessed. Results: Lag, RMS, and LFC increased (P < 0.001) from 100 to 33 cm for each condition in children and adults. In children, accommodation was most accurate and stable when blur and disparity cues remained in the stimulus and became significantly less accurate and more variable (P < 0.001) when blur or disparity cues were removed at 33 cm. In adults, accommodation was significantly less accurate and more variable only when blur was removed from the stimulus (P < 0.022). Children with RE matched to adults had less accurate and more variable accommodative responses at near than adults when cues were removed (P ≤ 0.02). Conclusions: In children and adults, an increase in RMS and LFC is related to an increase in accommodative lag. Children's accommodative systems do not compensate as efficiently as adults when blur and disparity cues are removed, suggesting children <10 years old do not have a mature afferent visual pathway.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emetropia/fisiologia , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pupila/fisiologia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ophthalmology ; 126(6): 876-887, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Two strategies were compared for managing moderate hyperopia without manifest strabismus among 1- and 2-year-old children: (1) immediate prescription of glasses versus (2) observation without glasses unless reduced distance visual acuity (VA), reduced stereoacuity, or manifest strabismus. DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 130 children aged 1 to 2 years with hyperopia between +3.00 diopters (D) and +6.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) in at least 1 eye, anisometropia ≤1.50 D SE, and astigmatism ≤1.50 D based on cycloplegic refraction and no manifest strabismus. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to glasses (1.00 D less than full cycloplegic hyperopia) versus observation and followed every 6 months for 3 years. Glasses were prescribed to those assigned to observation if they met prespecified deterioration criteria of distance VA or near stereoacuity below age norms, or development of manifest strabismus. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At the 3-year primary outcome examination, participants were classified as failing the randomized management regimen if distance VA or stereoacuity was below age norms or manifest strabismus was observed (each with and without correction in trial frames, confirmed by masked retest, irrespective of whether deterioration had occurred previously), or if strabismus surgery had been performed. RESULTS: Of the 106 participants (82%) completing the 3-year primary outcome examination, failure occurred in 11 (21%) of 53 in the glasses group and 18 (34%) of 53 in the observation group (difference = -13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -31 to 4; P = 0.14). Sixty-two percent (95% CI, 49-74) in the observation group and 34% (95% CI, 23-48) in the glasses group met deterioration criteria (requiring glasses if not wearing). CONCLUSIONS: For 1- and 2-year-olds with uncorrected moderate hyperopia (+3.00 D to +6.00 D SE), our estimates of failure, after 3 years of 6-month follow-ups, are inconclusive and consistent with a small to moderate benefit or no benefit of immediate prescription of glasses compared with careful observation (with glasses only if deteriorated).


Assuntos
Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Óculos , Hiperopia/terapia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Anisometropia/fisiopatologia , Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Prescrições , Estudos Prospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Testes Visuais
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(5): 1760-1768, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610862

RESUMO

Purpose: This study presents test-retest reliability of optotype visual acuity (OVA) across 60° of horizontal gaze position in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Also, the validity of the metric gaze-dependent functional vision space (GDFVS) is shown in patients with INS. Methods: In experiment 1, OVA was measured twice in seven horizontal gaze positions from 30° left to right in 10° steps in 20 subjects with INS and 14 without INS. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in each gaze. OVA area under the curve (AUC) was calculated with horizontal eye position on the x-axis, and logMAR visual acuity on the y-axis and then converted to GDFVS. In experiment 2, validity of GDFVS was determined over 40° horizontal gaze by applying the 95% limits of agreement from experiment 1 to pre- and post-treatment GDFVS values from 85 patients with INS. Results: In experiment 1, test-retest reliability for OVA was high (ICC ≥ 0.88) as the difference in test-retest was on average less than 0.1 logMAR in each gaze position. In experiment 2, as a group, INS subjects had a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the size of their GDFVS that exceeded the 95% limits of agreement found during test-retest. Conclusions: OVA is a reliable measure in INS patients across 60° of horizontal gaze position. GDFVS is a valid clinical method to be used to quantify OVA as a function of eye position in INS patients. This method captures the dynamic nature of OVA in INS patients and may be a valuable measure to quantify visual function patients with INS, particularly in quantifying change as part of clinical studies.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Nistagmo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Testes Visuais/normas , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(3): 212-222, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401180

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that blur detection thresholds are elevated in young children compared with adults, and poorer blur detection thresholds are significantly correlated with the magnitude of accommodative microfluctuations. Given that accommodative microfluctuations are greater with greater accommodative responses, these findings may have implications for young uncorrected hyperopes. PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between subjective blur detection thresholds and accommodative microfluctuations in children 3 years to younger than 10 years old and adults. METHODS: Blur detection thresholds were determined in 49 children with habitually uncorrected refractive error (+0.06 to +4.91 diopters [D] spherical equivalent) and 10 habitually uncorrected adults (+0.08 to +1.51 D spherical equivalent) using a custom blur chart with 1° sized optotypes at 33 cm. Letters were blurred by convolution using a Gaussian kernel (SDs of 0.71 to 11.31 arc minutes in √2 steps). Subjective depth of field was determined in subjects 6 years or older and adults. Accommodative microfluctuations, pupils, and lag were measured using infrared photorefraction (25 Hz). RESULTS: Children had greater blur detection thresholds (P < .001), accommodative microfluctuations (P = .001), and depth of field (P < .001) than adults. In children, increased blur detection thresholds were associated with increased accommodative microfluctuations (P < .001), increased uncorrected hyperopia (P = .01), decreased age (P < .001), and decreased pupil size (P = .01). In a multiple linear regression analysis, blur detection thresholds were associated with accommodative microfluctuations (P < .001) and age (P < .001). Increased accommodative microfluctuations were associated with increased uncorrected hyperopia (P = .004) and decreased pupil size (P = .003) and independently associated with uncorrected hyperopia (P = .001) and pupil size (P = .003) when controlling for age and lag. CONCLUSIONS: Children did not have adult-like blur detection thresholds or depth of field. Increased accommodative microfluctuations and decreased age were independently associated with greater blur detection thresholds in children 3 years to younger than 10 years. Larger amounts of uncorrected hyperopia in children appear to increase blur detection thresholds because the greater accommodative demand and resulting response increase accommodative microfluctuations.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Emetropia/fisiologia , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pupila/fisiologia , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(3): 223-233, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461410

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that accommodation in children is more accurate and less variable when performing a sustained near task with increased cognitive demand. In addition, children with increased uncorrected hyperopia have less stable accommodative responses, which may have visual implications during sustained near tasks. PURPOSE: This study investigated accommodative accuracy (lag) and variability during sustained viewing for passive and active tasks in children and adults with emmetropia and uncorrected hyperopia. METHODS: Lag and variability (root mean square [RMS] and low-frequency component) were measured in 54 children aged 3 to younger than 10 years with mean spherical equivalent of +1.31 ± 1.05 diopters (D) (range, -0.37 to +4.58 D) and 8 adults aged 22 to 32 years with mean spherical equivalent +0.65 ± 0.62 D (range, -0.13 to +1.15 D). Subjects viewed 20/50 stimuli at 33 cm during both a 10-minute passive and active task. Group 1 (<6 years or nonreaders) viewed shapes; group 2 (≥6 years and reading) and adults read passages. RESULTS: Groups 1 and 2 had larger lags, RMS, and low-frequency component for passive versus active tasks (P < .001). Lag and RMS did not differ between tasks in adults (P > .05), but low-frequency component was larger during passive viewing (P = .04). Group 1 had significantly higher RMS and low-frequency component than group 2 and the adults in the passive condition had greater low-frequency component in the active condition. In children, hyperopia was independently associated with RMS and low-frequency component under passive (RMS 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.15; low-frequency component 95% CI, 0.00011 to 0.00065) and active (RMS 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.06; 95% CI, 0.000014 to 0.00023) viewing. CONCLUSIONS: Accommodation is more accurate and less variable when children are engaged in the task. Children also have more variable accommodation than adults. In addition, children with greater hyperopia have more variable accommodation during sustained near tasks.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emetropia/fisiologia , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pupila/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Optom Vis Sci ; 92(11): 1092-102, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between target clarity and the magnitude of accommodative lag using the metric accommodative gain (AG). METHODS: Monocular accommodative responses were measured with Grand Seiko autorefraction using both proximal and minus lens techniques in 139 subjects aged 5 to 35 years. Subjects viewed a 1.5-mm letter at 13 discrete distances (range, 40 to 3.33 cm) for the proximal technique and fixed at 33 cm through minus lenses of increasing power for the lens technique. Subjects were instructed to keep the target clear and report when it blurred. The AG was calculated (accommodative response/accommodative demand) for the four greatest consecutive demands perceived clear (termed conditions 1 to 4) and the first demand perceived blurry (termed condition 5). RESULTS: Multivariate planned contrast, including age as a predictor, revealed that mean AG was significantly larger when the target was clear (range, 0.71 to 0.77 for conditions 1 to 4 across techniques) versus blurry (0.59 and 0.68 for condition 5 across techniques) (p < 0.001 for proximal and p < 0.036 for lens). Age was only a contributing factor for the proximal technique, with the youngest subjects having the largest decrease in AG when the target changed from clear to blurry (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that across age and technique, the AG is relatively constant when the target is perceived clear but drops below approximately 70%, on average, once the target is perceived as blurry for subjects aged 5 to 35 years. The AG may be a useful metric to compare accommodative responses across a range of demands and to identify accommodative responses that may not be sufficient to perceive a clear target.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Óculos , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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