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1.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357559

RESUMO

Genetic variation plays a crucial role in individual differences in food preferences which ultimately influence food selection and health. Our current understanding of this pathway has been informed through twin studies (to assess the heritability of food preferences), candidate gene studies, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, most of this literature is mainly focused on genes previously identified as having taste or smell functions. New data suggests that genes not associated with taste or smell perception may be involved in food preferences and contribute to health outcomes. This review highlights these emerging findings and suggests a polygenic risk assessment approach to explore new relationships between food preferences and health risks.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 952-962, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679814

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) traits in large consortia have identified more than 130 loci associated with QT interval, QRS duration, PR interval, and heart rate (RR interval). In the current study, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 30,000 mostly Dutch samples on four ECG traits: PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, and RR interval. SNP genotype data was imputed using the Genome of the Netherlands reference panel encompassing 19 million SNPs, including millions of rare SNPs (minor allele frequency < 5%). In addition to many known loci, we identified seven novel locus-trait associations: KCND3, NR3C1, and PLN for PR interval, KCNE1, SGIP1, and NFKB1 for QT interval, and ATP2A2 for QRS duration, of which six were successfully replicated. At these seven loci, we performed conditional analyses and annotated significant SNPs (in exons and regulatory regions), demonstrating involvement of cardiac-related pathways and regulation of nearby genes.

4.
J Periodontal Res ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a common oral disease caused by host inflammatory response towards bacteria biofilm. The chronic activation of immune response leads to destruction of teeth supporting tissue, bone loss and tooth detachment. Different factors could be involved in the development and severity of the disease; among them the host genetic background should be considered. OBJECTIVES: In our study, we analysed haploblocks in a genomic region within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus aimed at disclosing a possible correlation with the risk of periodontal disease in 602 adult subjects from North-East Italy. RESULTS: The CTTAC haploblock (formed by LTA-rs2857709, LTA-rs2844484, LTA- rs2229094, LTA-rs2229092 and LTA-rs1041981 polymorphisms) correlated with protection towards periodontitis condition, after regression analysis including age and smoking status as covariates (P-value = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a haplotype within LTA gene (encoding for lymphotoxin alpha) is involved in the susceptibility towards chronic periodontitis.

5.
J Periodontal Res ; 53(6): 992-998, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis in one of the most prevalent dental diseases. Despite numerous studies have investigated its aetiopathogenetic factors, few works have focused on its genetic predisposition and most of them took into account only candidate genes. Therefore, we conducted a Genome Wide Association Study in an Italian isolated population aimed at uncovering genetic variants that predispose to this disorder. METHODS: Diagnosis of chronic periodontitis was made following the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology. Patients with chronic periodontitis were grouped into different categories: slight, severe, localized and generalized. A control group composed by people without signs of periodontitis or gingivitis was defined. DNA was genotyped using 370k Illumina chips. Linear mixed model regression was used to test the association between each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (independent variable) and the periodontitis status (dependent variable), controlling for confounders sex, age and smoking. The genomic kinship matrix was also used as random effect. RESULTS: Four SNPs on the gene EFCAB4B resulted significantly associated to localized periodontitis (P < 5 × 10-8 ), with the best hit on the rs242016 SNP (P = 1.5 × 10-8 ). CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel significant association between the EFCAB4B gene and localized periodontitis. These results open a new perspective in the understanding of genetic factors contributing to this common disorder.

6.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-7, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304964

RESUMO

In this work we investigated, in populations located in Central Asia, the relationship between PROP taste perception and vegetables liking and consumption using FAOSTAT dataset. Collected data were analysed using distance matrices, Mantel test and Pearson correlation. Populations showing similar ability in tasting PROP bitterness are more similar as respect to vegetable consumption (r = 0.63, p-value = .05). Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of Non Taster (NT) in different countries and the percentage of vegetable consumption (r = -0.87, p-value = .02), while a significant positive correlation emerged between the percentage of Super Taster (ST) and the percentage of vegetable liking (r = 0.87, p-value = .02). In our work we showed that differences in bitter perception among populations contributes to differences in vegetable liking and vegetable consumption. More in detail, populations with higher percentage of ST consume more vegetables than population where the majority of individuals are NT.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2904, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046033

RESUMO

Electrocardiographic PR interval measures atrio-ventricular depolarization and conduction, and abnormal PR interval is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and heart block. Our genome-wide association study of over 92,000 European-descent individuals identifies 44 PR interval loci (34 novel). Examination of these loci reveals known and previously not-yet-reported biological processes involved in cardiac atrial electrical activity. Genes in these loci are over-represented in cardiac disease processes including heart block and atrial fibrillation. Variants in over half of the 44 loci were associated with atrial or blood transcript expression levels, or were in high linkage disequilibrium with missense variants. Six additional loci were identified either by meta-analysis of ~105,000 African and European-descent individuals and/or by pleiotropic analyses combining PR interval with heart rate, QRS interval, and atrial fibrillation. These findings implicate developmental pathways, and identify transcription factors, ion-channel genes, and cell-junction/cell-signaling proteins in atrio-ventricular conduction, identifying potential targets for drug development.

8.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 87, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies conducted on QRS duration, an electrocardiographic measurement associated with heart failure and sudden cardiac death, have led to novel biological insights into cardiac function. However, the variants identified fall predominantly in non-coding regions and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, we identify putative functional coding variation associated with changes in the QRS interval duration by combining Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data from 77,898 participants of European ancestry and 7695 of African descent in our discovery cohort, followed by replication in 111,874 individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank and deCODE cohorts. We identify ten novel loci, seven within coding regions, including ADAMTS6, significantly associated with QRS duration in gene-based analyses. ADAMTS6 encodes a secreted metalloprotease of currently unknown function. In vitro validation analysis shows that the QRS-associated variants lead to impaired ADAMTS6 secretion and loss-of function analysis in mice demonstrates a previously unappreciated role for ADAMTS6 in connexin 43 gap junction expression, which is essential for myocardial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identifies novel coding and non-coding variants underlying ventricular depolarization and provides a possible mechanism for the ADAMTS6-associated conduction changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Conexina 43/genética , Exoma , Loci Gênicos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 652-656, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662168

RESUMO

Hair color is one of the most recognizable visual traits in European populations and is under strong genetic control. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of almost 300,000 participants of European descent. We identified 123 autosomal and one X-chromosome loci significantly associated with hair color; all but 13 are novel. Collectively, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hair color within these loci explain 34.6% of red hair, 24.8% of blond hair, and 26.1% of black hair heritability in the study populations. These results confirm the polygenic nature of complex phenotypes and improve our understanding of melanin pigment metabolism in humans.

10.
J Nutr ; 148(2): 285-297, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490094

RESUMO

Background: Joint data analysis from multiple nutrition studies may improve the ability to answer complex questions regarding the role of nutritional status and diet in health and disease. Objective: The objective was to identify nutritional observational studies from partners participating in the European Nutritional Phenotype Assessment and Data Sharing Initiative (ENPADASI) Consortium, as well as minimal requirements for joint data analysis. Methods: A predefined template containing information on study design, exposure measurements (dietary intake, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, anthropometric measures, and sociodemographic and health status), main health-related outcomes, and laboratory measurements (traditional and omics biomarkers) was developed and circulated to those European research groups participating in the ENPADASI under the strategic research area of "diet-related chronic diseases." Information about raw data disposition and metadata sharing was requested. A set of minimal requirements was abstracted from the gathered information. Results: Studies (12 cohort, 12 cross-sectional, and 2 case-control) were identified. Two studies recruited children only and the rest recruited adults. All studies included dietary intake data. Twenty studies collected blood samples. Data on traditional biomarkers were available for 20 studies, of which 17 measured lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin and 13 measured inflammatory biomarkers. Metabolomics, proteomics, and genomics or transcriptomics data were available in 5, 3, and 12 studies, respectively. Although the study authors were willing to share metadata, most refused, were hesitant, or had legal or ethical issues related to sharing raw data. Forty-one descriptors of minimal requirements for the study data were identified to facilitate data integration. Conclusions: Combining study data sets will enable sufficiently powered, refined investigations to increase the knowledge and understanding of the relation between food, nutrition, and human health. Furthermore, the minimal requirements for study data may encourage more efficient secondary usage of existing data and provide sufficient information for researchers to draft future multicenter research proposals in nutrition.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Genômica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Metabolômica , Estatística como Assunto/métodos
11.
Immunobiology ; 222(5): 704-708, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122660

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a chronic oral pathology caused by impaired immune response against oral bacteria resulting in tissue inflammation and damage. Among the members of innate immune response, the first line of defence against pathogens, inflammasomes are macro-molecular protein complexes that can be activated by different stimuli, comprised bacteria infections. Different proteins are involved in inflammasoma formation; the most important are molecules belonging from the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). In this study, polymorphisms within 20 NLRs related genes were analysed in order to investigate their possible association with periodontitis susceptibility in a population from North-East Italy. One polymorphism, namely rs289723, in NLRC5 gene resulted associated with chronic slight and chronic localized periodontitis susceptibility, specifically A/A genotype was correlated with increased risk of disease development. Our study, for the first time, identified the possible involvement of a polymorphism within NLRC5 gene as a possible biomarker for periodontitis condition susceptibility among Italian individuals from genetic isolates.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(3): 981-994, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920155

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified >50 common variants associated with kidney function, but these variants do not fully explain the variation in eGFR. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of associations between genotypes from the Illumina exome array and eGFR on the basis of serum creatinine (eGFRcrea) among participants of European ancestry from the CKDGen Consortium (nStage1: 111,666; nStage2: 48,343). In single-variant analyses, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms at seven new loci associated with eGFRcrea (PPM1J, EDEM3, ACP1, SPEG, EYA4, CYP1A1, and ATXN2L; PStage1<3.7×10-7), of which most were common and annotated as nonsynonymous variants. Gene-based analysis identified associations of functional rare variants in three genes with eGFRcrea, including a novel association with the SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 gene, SOS2 (P=5.4×10-8 by sequence kernel association test). Experimental follow-up in zebrafish embryos revealed changes in glomerular gene expression and renal tubule morphology in the embryonic kidney of acp1- and sos2-knockdowns. These developmental abnormalities associated with altered blood clearance rate and heightened prevalence of edema. This study expands the number of loci associated with kidney function and identifies novel genes with potential roles in kidney formation.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Rim/embriologia , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Son Of Sevenless/genética , Animais , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(50): 14372-14377, 2016 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27911795

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem worldwide. Although drinking habits are known to be inherited, few genes have been identified that are robustly linked to alcohol drinking. We conducted a genome-wide association metaanalysis and replication study among >105,000 individuals of European ancestry and identified ß-Klotho (KLB) as a locus associated with alcohol consumption (rs11940694; P = 9.2 × 10-12). ß-Klotho is an obligate coreceptor for the hormone FGF21, which is secreted from the liver and implicated in macronutrient preference in humans. We show that brain-specific ß-Klotho KO mice have an increased alcohol preference and that FGF21 inhibits alcohol drinking by acting on the brain. These data suggest that a liver-brain endocrine axis may play an important role in the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior and provide a unique pharmacologic target for reducing alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Caries Res ; 50(6): 589-594, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DEFB1 gene, encoding for the constitutively expressed human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) antimicrobial peptide is a potential candidate when studying genetic susceptibility to caries. DEFB1 genetic variations have been reported as contributing to hBD1 production impairment, leading to a greater susceptibility to be infected by oral pathogens, also leading to periodontitis. METHODS: We analysed 5 DEFB1 polymorphisms, namely 3 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), and -20G>A (rs11362), 2 SNPs at the 3'-UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031) and c*87A>G (rs1800971) SNP located in potential miRNA binding sites, looking for possible correlations with the risk to develop caries in 654 adult subjects from isolated populations of north-eastern Italy. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated with the DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth) index, calculated after an accurate oral examination. DEFB1 SNP genotyping was performed with an Illumina 370k high-density SNP array. RESULTS: Two DEFB1 SNPs were significantly associated with the DMFT index: the strongest association emerged from rs11362 SNP (p = 0.008). In particular G/G homozygous individuals showed a higher DMFT index compared to both G/A heterozygous and A/A homozygous individuals; rs1799946 SNP was also significantly associated with DMFT (p = 0.030), and individuals homozygous for the T allele had a higher DMFT value compared to heterozygous C/T and homozygous C/C individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study replicated, on a larger number of individuals, previous findings showing the association between two 5'-UTR SNPs in the DEFB1 gene and DMFT, suggesting that these polymorphisms could be considered as potential markers for assessing the risk to develop caries.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , beta-Defensinas/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Saliva , beta-Defensinas/sangue
15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31590, 2016 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27561104

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Café , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Adulto , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Cafeína/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 17(2): 209-19, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27129595

RESUMO

Food preferences are the first factor driving food choice and thus nutrition. They involve numerous different senses such as taste and olfaction as well as various other factors such as personal experiences and hedonistic aspects. Although it is clear that several of these have a genetic basis, up to now studies have focused mostly on the effects of polymorphisms of taste receptor genes. Therefore, we have carried out one of the first large scale (4611 individuals) GWAS on food likings assessed for 20 specific food likings belonging to 4 different categories (vegetables, fatty, dairy and bitter). A two-step meta-analysis using three different isolated populations from Italy for the discovery step and two populations from The Netherlands and Central Asia for replication, revealed 15 independent genome-wide significant loci (p < 5 × 10(-8)) for 12 different foods. None of the identified genes coded for either taste or olfactory receptors suggesting that genetics impacts in determining food likings in a much broader way than simple differences in taste perception. These results represent a further step in uncovering the genes that underlie liking of common foods that in the end will greatly help understanding the genetics of human nutrition in general.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25506, 2016 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27138342

RESUMO

The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Paladar/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Feniltioureia/química , Propiltiouracila/química
19.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10023, 2016 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26831199

RESUMO

Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos
20.
Physiol Behav ; 157: 72-8, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805725

RESUMO

Taste perception and food preferences are influenced by a variety of factors, including personality characteristics. The aims of this study were to examine the role of personality characteristics, such as alexithymia (a personality construct characterized by inability to identify, describe, and work with one's own feelings), in: 1) taste responses to the bitter genetic taste-marker PROP and 2) food liking. We studied 649 healthy subjects residing in six genetically-isolated villages of Northeast Italy. Data on PROP taste responsiveness, food liking, personality characteristics and TAS2R28 genotypes were collected. Results showed that PROP non-tasters had higher alexithymia scores than PROP tasters. Moreover, the presence of alexithymia in heterozygous individuals for the rs1726886 polymorphism of the TAS2R38 gene was associated with a reduction in the perceived intensity of PROP. Finally, higher alexithymia scores were associated with liking of alcohol, sweets and fats/meats whereas lower alexithymia scores were related to liking of vegetables, condiments and strong cheeses, Measures of temperament, character, anxiety and depression were also related to food liking. Our findings suggest that: 1) alexithymia, in addition to the TAS2R38 polymorphism, may play a role in responsiveness to the aversive and bitter taste of PROP; and 2) alexithymia, in combination with other personality traits, may provide important insights for better understanding food liking.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Personalidade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Percepção Gustatória/genética , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/genética , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Exercício , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Inventário de Personalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Propiltiouracila/administração & dosagem , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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