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Curr Opin Crit Care ; 25(5): 423-429, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306182


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of patients with meningitis and encephalitis oftentimes requires ICU level of care. This article is an update on management for meningitis and encephalitis with focus on clinical care in the ICU. Information provided is based on a review of recent studies with focus on studies since 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in diagnostic and treatment approach for different pathogens are presented. Nosocomial meningitis now constitutes a major part of brain infections seen in ICUs in the developed world. Advances in ICU care of central nervous system (CNS) infections include application of newer diagnostic methods, improved understanding and delivery of antibiotics to the CNS, infection prevention for nosocomial infections, and application of neuromonitoring where indicated. SUMMARY: Advances in diagnostics and therapeutic approach to CNS infections are continually made. For intensivists, focus on neuromonitoring and brain resuscitation in critically ill patients with CNS infections may present a path to enhance preservation of brain function and improve outcomes. VIDEO ABSTRACT:

Cuidados Críticos , Encefalite/terapia , Meningite/terapia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
Neurology ; 92(9): e888-e894, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804063


OBJECTIVES: The degree of training and variability in the clinical brain death examination performed by physicians is not known. METHODS: Surveys were distributed to physicians (including physicians-in-training) practicing at 3 separate academic medical centers. Data, including level of practice, training received in completion of a brain death examination, examination components performed, and use of confirmatory tests were collected. Data were evaluated for accuracy in the brain death examination, self-perceived competence in the examination, and indications for confirmatory tests. RESULTS: Of 225 total respondents, 68 reported completing brain death examinations in practice. Most physicians who complete a brain death examination reported they had received training in how to complete the examination (76.1%). Seventeen respondents (25%) reported doing a brain death examination that is consistent with the current practice guideline. As a part of their brain death assessment, 10.3% of physicians did not report completing an apnea test. Of clinicians who obtain confirmatory tests on an as-needed basis, 28.3% do so if a patient breathes during an apnea test, a clinical finding that is not consistent with brain death. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variability in how physicians approach the adult brain death examination, but our survey also identified lack of training in nearly 1 in 4 academic physicians. A formal training course in the principles and proper technique of the brain death examination by physicians with expert knowledge of this clinical assessment is recommended.

Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Exame Neurológico/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Anestesiologistas , Educação Médica , Humanos , Neurologistas , Neurocirurgiões , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reflexo , Cirurgiões
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 5: 2050313X17745206, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238581


Synthetic cannabinoids refer to a wide variety of chemicals engineered to bind cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and mimic the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol. The potential for severe toxicity and limited in vivo data make synthetic cannabinoid intake an important public health and safety concern. Neurologic toxidromes associated with their use include mental status changes, panic attacks, memory distortions, acute psychosis (e.g. paranoia, delusional thoughts), disorganized behavior, and suicidal and homicidal thoughts. Systemic complications include vomiting, sinus tachycardia, myocardial infarction, and acute kidney injury. Seizures are common; however, status epilepticus is not widely reported. In this case report, we describe a patient who developed acute psychosis and new-onset refractory status epilepticus necessitating emergent neurological life-support and prolonged admission to an intensive care unit following abuse of synthetic cannabinoids. We include a brief review of the literature to prepare the treating clinician for the broad clinical spectrum of this increasingly common intoxication.