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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 796, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many of the factors that increase risk of child marriage are common among refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs). We sought to address the gaps in knowledge surrounding child marriage in displaced and host populations in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). METHODS: A multistage cluster sample design was employed collecting data of KRI host communities, Iraqi IDPs, and Syrian refugees. Interviews were conducted in eligible households, requiring at least one adult female and one female adolescent present, addressing views of marriage, demographics and socioeconomic factors. Household rosters were completed to assess WHO indicators, related to child marriage including completed child marriage in females 10-19 and completed risk of previously conducted child marriages in females 20-24. RESULTS: Interviews were completed in 617 hosts, 664 IDPs, and 580 refugee households, obtaining information on 10,281 household members and 1,970 adolescent females. Overall, 10.4% of girls age 10-19 were married. IDPs had the highest percentage of married 10-19-year-old females (12.9%), compared to the host community (9.8%) and refugees (8.1%). Heads of households with lower overall education had higher percentages of child marriage in their homes; this difference in prevalence was most notable in IDPs and refugees. When the head of the household was unemployed, 14.5% of households had child marriage present compared to 8.0% in those with employed heads of household. Refugees and IDPs had larger percentages of child marriage when heads of households were unemployed (refugees 13.1%, IDPs 16.9%) compared to hosts (11.9%). When asked about factors influencing marriage decisions, respondents predominately cited family tradition (52.5%), family honor (15.7%), money/resources (9.6%), or religion (8.0%). Over a third of those interviewed (38.9%) reported a change in influencing factors on marriage after displacement (or after the arrival of refugees in the area for hosts). CONCLUSIONS: Being an IDP in Iraq, unemployment and lower education were associated with an increase in risk for child marriage. Refugees had similar percentages of child marriage as hosts, though the risk of child marriage among refugees was higher in situations of low education and unemployment. Ultimately, child marriage remains a persistent practice worldwide, requiring continued efforts to understand and address sociocultural norms in low socioeconomic and humanitarian settings.


Assuntos
Casamento , Refugiados , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
2.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(1): 75-89, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194203

RESUMO

Both the fields of public health and that of human rights seek to improve human well-being, including through reducing and preventing all forms of violence, to help individuals attain the highest quality of life. In both fields, mathematical methods can help "visibilize" the hidden architecture of violence, bringing new methods to bear to understand the scope and nuance of how violence affects populations. An increasing number of studies have examined how residing in a conflict-affected place may impact one of the most pervasive forms of violence-intimate partner violence (IPV)-during and after conflict. This paper contributes to this effort by examining whether severe forms of IPV are associated with previous experience of political violence in one conflict-affected country: Liberia. Our findings indicate that living in a district with conflict fatalities increased the risk of IPV among women by roughly 60%. Additionally, living in a district with conflict fatalities increased the risk of a past-year injury from IPV by 50%. This analysis brings to light links between two of the most pervasive forms of violence-political violence and violence against women. The findings suggest that women residing in a district that is more highly affected by conflict, not only people experiencing direct trauma during conflict, may be at risk of increased violence long after peace is declared. These findings point to the need for targeted programs that address IPV postconflict.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Qualidade de Vida , Conflitos Armados , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Violência
3.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

4.
Confl Health ; 14: 41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To gain insights into the socio-economic and political determinants of ill health and access to healthcare in North Korea. METHODS: A retrospective survey using respondent-driven sampling conducted in 2014-15 among 383 North Korean refugees newly resettling in South Korea, asking about experiences of illness and utilization of healthcare while in North Korea, analyzed according to measures of political, economic and human rights indicators. RESULTS: Although the Public Health Act claims that North Korea provides the comprehensive free care system, respondents reported high levels of unmet need and, among those obtaining care, widespread informal expenditure. Of the respondents, 55.1% (95%CI, 47.7-63.7%) had received healthcare for the most recent illness episode. High informal costs (53.8%, 95%CI, 45.1-60.8%) and a lack of medicines (39.5%, 95%CI, 33.3-47.1%) were reported as major healthcare barriers resulting in extensive self-medication with narcotic analgesics (53.7%, 95%CI, 45.7-61.2%). In multivariate logistic regressions, party membership was associated with better access to healthcare (Adjusted OR (AOR) = 2.34, 95%CI, 1.31-4.18), but household income (AOR = 0.40, 95%CI 0.21-0.78) and informal market activity (AOR = 0.29, 95%CIs 0.15-0.50) with reduced access. Respondents who could not enjoy political and economic rights were substantially more likely to report illness and extremely reduced access to care, even with life-threatening conditions. CONCLUSIONS: There are large disparities in health and access to healthcare in North Korea, associated with political and economic inequalities. The scope to use these findings to bring about change is limited but they can inform international agencies and humanitarian organizations working in this unique setting.

5.
Glob Public Health ; 14(12): 1639-1652, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422752

RESUMO

War and interpersonal violence together account for a large burden on global health. Yet very few studies look at the relationship between these types of aggression. Non-partner physical violence (NPPV) is an often-understudied form of gender-based violence (GBV). This analysis draws on two datasets from one conflict-affected country, Liberia, to evaluate the impact of conflict on NPPV post-conflict. The Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset (ACLED) measures the intensity of the conflict in Liberia from 1999-2003, while the Demographic and Heath Survey (DHS) data measure women's experiences with violence four years post-conflict. Almost half of women surveyed (45%) indicated that they experienced any kind of NPPV, highlighting the widespread nature of this issue. A multilevel modelling approach was used to account for the nesting of individuals within districts. Women living in districts that experienced conflict events in four or five years were almost three times as likely (aOR 2.93, p < .001) to experience past-year NPPV compared to individuals living in no conflict districts. Findings from this study suggest women residing in a conflict event-affected district may be at heightened risk of increased violence even years after peace is declared.


Assuntos
Política , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Guerra , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Libéria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 68(7): 990-993, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the application of capture-recapture method as a potential strategy to estimate the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out from January to April 2013 in Karachi and comprised three public general hospitals, one public cardiac hospital, one private general hospital and two ambulance services. Two-sample capture-recapture method was used: first capture was through cardiac arrest data from two major emergency medical services and second capture was from the five teaching hospitals. Records from the hospitals and ambulance services were compared on 7 variables; name, age, gender, date and time of arrest, cause of arrest and destination hospital. Matched and unmatched cases were used in the equation to estimate the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Of the 630 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases reported, 191(30.3%) related to the emergency medical services records and 439(69.7%) to hospital records. The capture-recapture identified only 9(1.4%) matched cases even with the least restrictive criteria and estimated the annual out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence as 166/100,000 population (95% confidence interval: 142.9 to 189.6). CONCLUSIONS: Capture-recapture method could be a potential alternative for providing population level data in the absence of organised health information systems.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 987, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With 244 million international migrants, and significantly more people moving within their country of birth, there is an urgent need to engage with migration at all levels in order to support progress towards global health and development targets. In response to this, the 2nd Global Consultation on Migration and Health- held in Colombo, Sri Lanka in February 2017 - facilitated discussions concerning the role of research in supporting evidence-informed health responses that engage with migration. CONCLUSIONS: Drawing on discussions with policy makers, research scholars, civil society, and United Nations agencies held in Colombo, we emphasize the urgent need for quality research on international and domestic (in-country) migration and health to support efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs aim to 'leave no-one behind' irrespective of their legal status. An ethically sound human rights approach to research that involves engagement across multiple disciplines is required. Researchers need to be sensitive when designing and disseminating research findings as data on migration and health may be misused, both at an individual and population level. We emphasize the importance of creating an 'enabling environment' for migration and health research at national, regional and global levels, and call for the development of meaningful linkages - such as through research reference groups - to support evidence-informed inter-sectoral policy and priority setting processes.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/normas , Saúde Global/normas , Política de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/normas , Saúde Pública/normas , Migrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Sri Lanka , Nações Unidas
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(2): 271-279, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934018

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The gravity, scale, and nature of human rights violations are severe in North Korea. Little is known about the mental health consequences of the lifelong exposures to these violations. METHODS: In 2014-2015, a retrospective study was conducted among 383 North Korean refugees in South Korea using respondent-driven sampling to access this hidden population. This study collected information on the full range of political and economic rights violations and measured post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression symptoms, and social functioning by standard instruments. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with the adjustment of political, economic, and demographic variables in 2016-2017. RESULTS: The results indicate elevated symptoms of anxiety (60.1%, 95% CI=54.3%, 65.7%), depression (56.3%, 95% CI=50.8%, 61.9%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (22.8%, 95% CI=18.6%, 27.4%), which are significantly associated with exposures to political rights violations (ten to 19 items versus non-exposure: anxiety AOR=16.78, p<0.001, depression AOR=12.52, p<0.001, post-traumatic stress disorder AOR=16.71, p<0.05), and economic rights violations (seven to 13 items versus non-exposure: anxiety AOR=5.68, p<0.001, depression AOR=4.23, p<0.01, post-traumatic stress disorder AOR=5.85, p<0.05). The mean score of social functioning was also lower in those who were exposed to political (adjusted difference= -13.29, p<0.001) and economic rights violations (adjusted difference= -11.20, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights mental health consequences of lifelong human rights violations in North Korea. Beyond the conventional approach, it suggests the need for a collaborative preventive response from global health and human rights activists to address human rights in regard to mental health determinants of the 20 million people in North Korea.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Direitos Humanos , Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(2): e000668, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662694

RESUMO

Objectives: Assess the link between levels of armed conflict and postconflict intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women in Liberia. Methods: Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project data were used to measure conflict-related fatalities in districts in Liberia during the country's civil war from 1999 to 2003. These data were linked to individual-level data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, including past-year IPV. Multilevel logistic models accounting for the clustering of women within districts evaluated the relationship of conflict fatalities with postconflict past-year IPV. Additional conflict measures, including conflict events and cumulative years of conflict, were assessed. Results: After adjusting for individual-level characteristics correlated with IPV, residence in a conflict fatality-affected district was associated with a 50% increase in risk of IPV (adjusted OR (aOR): 1.55, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.92). Women living in a district that experienced 4-5 cumulative years of conflict were also more likely to experience IPV (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.75). Conclusion: Residing in a conflict-affected district even 5 years after conflict was associated with postconflict IPV. Policy implications: Recognising and preventing postconflict IPV violence is important to support long-term recovery in postconflict settings.

10.
Confl Health ; 11(Suppl 1): 26, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163667

RESUMO

Background: Kobe Refugee camp hosts roughly 39,000 refugees displaced from Somalia during the 2011-2012 Horn of Africa Crisis. Sexual and reproductive health, as with the greater issues of health and well-being for adolescents displaced from this crisis remain largely unknown and neglected. In 2013, the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins University, and International Medical Corps in Ethiopia, implemented qualitative and quantitative research to explore the factors and risks that impact the health of very young adolescents (VYAs), those 10-14 years of age, in this setting. This paper presents findings from the qualitative effort. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGD), incorporating community mapping and photo elicitation activities, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year-olds to obtain information about their own perspectives, experiences and values. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year-olds and adults, to consider their perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health needs and risks of VYAs. Results: This research identified several factors that were found to influence the health and well-being of VYAs in Kobe refugee camp, including newfound access to education and security, combined with gender divisions and parental communication around early SRH and puberty that remained intact from traditional Somali culture. Girls were found to face an additional risk of child marriage and early pregnancy exacerbated since displacement, which significantly limited their ability to access education and achieve future aspirations. Conclusion: Findings from this study could help to inform future programs in Kobe and similar contexts involving long-term displacement from conflict, focusing on the health and development needs of VYAs. Future programs should consider the determinants of positive VYA health and development, including access to education, gender equity, and safety.By better understanding the unique experiences, perspectives and needs of VYAs, practitioners, policy makers and donors can invest in the individual and community assets that reinforce positive behaviors established in early adolescence, in order to achieve long-term SRH impacts.

11.
Confl Health ; 11(Suppl 1): 30, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163668

RESUMO

Background: The very young adolescent (VYA) population age 10-14 years is often neglected in the field of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research due to the combined sensitivity of the topic and the young age group, resulting in little data about the SRH needs and concerns of VYA. In 2013, the Women's Refugee Commission (WRC), Johns Hopkins University (JHU), Adolescent and Reproductive Health Network (ARHN) and Karen Youth Organization (KYO) implemented qualitative participatory research to explore the SRH needs and risks of VYA. The study was conducted in Mae Sot town and Mae La refugee camp, both in Thailand, with migrant populations and refugees, respectively. Methods: A total of 22 focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with 176 participants. FGD were implemented with girls and boys aged 10-16, and adults in both settings. The FGD with 10-14 year olds included community mapping and photo elicitation interviews. These activities gathered information about their own perspectives, experiences and values regarding SRH, as well as SRH risks. The FGD with 15-16 year olds and adults focused on their perspectives regarding the SRH needs and risks of VYA. Results: Fourteen (64%) of FGD were conducted in Mae Sot town, and 8 (36%) were conducted in Mae La refugee camp.Schools, youth centers and religious institutions were identified as key locations for obtaining SRH information. Schools are most promising, but access to schools is unequal between boys and girls. Parents can provide support and education to adolescents if they are supported to do so and if trust and comfort can be built between adolescents and parents around SRH. Conclusions: To a large degree, the same themes emerged from both locations, in terms of the awareness of body changes and puberty, the centrality of peer influences, and the value of education. These findings call for rigorous study of youth-directed programs and policies that meaningfully involve key influential adults identified by vulnerable young adolescents and utilize the specific places young adolescents, themselves, voice as being critical settings for obtaining information on SRH issues.

12.
Confl Health ; 11(Suppl 1): 23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167697

RESUMO

Background: The conflict in Syria that began in 2011 has resulted in the exodus of over 5 million Syrian refugees to neighbouring countries, with more than one million refugees currently registered by UNHCR in Lebanon. While some are living in tented settlements, the majority are living in strained conditions in rented accommodation or collective shelters in the Bekaa Valley next to Syria. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable in any crisis. In 2013-4, the American University in Beirut in collaboration with the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins and Save the Children, sought to understand the specific experiences of very young adolescents, those 10-14 years of age, in this protracted crisis context. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014 in Barelias and Qabelias - two urban areas located close to each other in the Beka'a valley that has a large concentration of Syrian refugees. Focus group discussions (FGDs), including community mapping and photo elicitation, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year old Syrian refugee adolescents, in order to obtain information about their experiences and perspectives. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year old Syrian refugees and separately also with adult refugees, to consider their perspectives on the needs and risks of these adolescents. Results: A total of 16 FGD (8 for each sex, with 6-9 participants in each) were conducted in Arabic across the two sites, with 59 female participants and 59 male participants. The experiences and risks faced by these adolescents were significantly impacted by economic strain and loss of educational opportunities during displacement, and only a minority of adolescents in the study reported attending school. Additionally, on-going protection risks for girls were felt to be higher due to the crisis and displacement. In Lebanon this has resulted in increased risks of child marriage and limitations in mobility for adolescent girls. Adolescents, themselves expressed tensions with their Lebanese counterparts and feared verbal attacks and beatings from school-aged Lebanese male youth. Conclusions: Families and adolescents have been dramatically affected by the conflict in Syria, and the resulting forced displacement. The loss of educational opportunities is perhaps the most significant effect, with long-term devastating outcomes. Additionally, the futures of Syrian girls are deeply affected by new protection concerns, particularly as they are exposed to an unfamiliar and more liberal society in Lebanon. Child marriage and limitations in their mobility - particularly for girls - are presented by families as coping strategies to these risks. Programming is needed to ensure sustained education access for all adolescents, and to educate very young adolescents and their parents on managing their own health and well-being, given the multiple strains. More effort is needed to encourage positive interaction between adolescent Lebanese and adolescent Syrian refugees.

13.
Confl Health ; 11(Suppl 1): 24, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167698

RESUMO

Background: Very young adolescents (VYA) in humanitarian settings are largely neglected in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study describes the characteristics of VYA aged 10-14 years in two humanitarian settings, focusing on transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey with Somali VYA residing in the Kobe refugee camp in Ethiopia (N = 406) and VYA from Myanmar residing in the Mae Sot and Phop Phra migrant communities in Thailand (N = 399). The average age was 12 years (about half were girls) in both communities. Participants were recruited using multi-stage cluster-based sampling with probability proportional to size in each site. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sociodemographic, family, peer, and schooling characteristics and to explore transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Results: Most VYA in both sites reported living with both parents; nine in ten reported feeling that their parents/guardians care about them, and over half said that their parents/guardians monitor how and with whom they spend their free time. High proportions in both sites were currently enrolled in school (91.4% Somali, 87.0% from Myanmar). Few VYA, particularly those aged 10-12, reported starting puberty, although one in four Somali indicated not knowing whether they did so. Most girls from Myanmar who had started menstruating reported access to menstrual hygiene supplies (water, sanitation, cloths/pads). No Somali girls reported access to all these supplies. While over half of respondents in both sites reported learning about body changes, less than 20% had learnt about pregnancy and the majority (87.4% Somali, 78.6% from Myanmar) indicated a need for more information about body changes. Parents/guardians were the most common source of SRH information in both sites, however VYA indicated that they would like more information from friends, siblings, teachers and health workers. Conclusions: This study highlights gaps in SRH information necessary for healthy transitions through puberty and supplies for menstrual hygiene in two humanitarian settings. VYA in these settings expressed closeness to their parents/guardians and the majority were in school. Introducing early SRH interventions that involve parents and educational centers may thus yield promising results, providing VYA with the necessary skills for understanding and dealing with their pubertal and sexual development.

14.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 51(6): 702-709, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956427

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies indicate that alcohol use is increasing among Asian American populations and that acculturation impacts alcohol use among immigrants in the USA. We investigated the longitudinal relationship between three domains of acculturation (traditionalism, biculturalism, assimilation) and alcohol use among 302 Vietnamese and Cambodian women in Washington State. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Cross Cultural Families Project (CCF), a 5-year longitudinal investigation of a random sample of Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrant families living in Washington State. Alcohol use was measured with a three item scale assessing frequency and quantity of use, and binge drinking. Acculturation was measured with the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Linear mixed effects regression models were estimated to assess the impact of acculturation on alcohol use among the overall sample and among a sub-sample of only women who consumed any alcohol. RESULTS: A majority of the sample, 73.2%, reported no alcohol use. In the overall sample, none of the three acculturation domains were significantly associated with drinking. Among a sub-sample of only those who reported any alcohol use, however, a greater degree of traditional cultural identification (ß = -0.94, SE= 0.44, P= 0.03) and a greater degree of biculturalism (ß = -1.33, SE= 0.53, P =0.01) were associated with lower levels of use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that acculturation did not impact alcohol use prevalence but that it did affect the drinking pattern among alcohol consumers. Clinicians should be cognizant that certain aspects of cultural identification are important contributors to drinking behavior among alcohol consumers in these populations.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Camboja/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/etnologia
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 58(2): 174-80, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26598062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rates of alcohol use may be increasing among Asian-American adolescents. Among youth from Asian-immigrant families, intergenerational cultural dissonance (ICD), a difference in acculturation between children and caregivers, is associated with adverse childhood outcomes. This study investigates the longitudinal association of ICD and alcohol use among youth from immigrant Vietnamese and Cambodian families in the United States. METHODS: Two waves of annual data, wave 4 (baseline for this study) and wave 5 (follow-up), were obtained from the Cross-Cultural Families Project, a longitudinal study of 327 Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrant families in Washington State. The Asian-American Family Conflicts Scale was used to measure ICD. Adolescent alcohol use was measured as any drinking in the past 30 days. A multiple logistic regression model was estimated with the outcome, alcohol use, measured at the follow-up visit and all predictors, including ICD, measured at baseline. Sex, nationality, nativity, and acculturation were tested as modifiers of the ICD-alcohol use relationship. RESULTS: Nine percent of adolescents (age range 13-18 years) reported alcohol use at baseline and this increased significantly (p < .0001) to 16% one year later. ICD was associated with increased odds of alcohol use at follow-up (odds ratio: 1.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.41; p = .04). None of the interactions were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: ICD is a significant predictor of alcohol use among Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents. Interventions that should be targeted toward reducing ICD through enhancing parent-child communication and teaching bicultural competence skills may help prevent alcohol use problems among youth from immigrant families.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações/etnologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/etnologia , Adolescente , Camboja/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Vietnã/etnologia , Washington
16.
BMC Emerg Med ; 15 Suppl 2: S9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26689242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. METHODS: The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. RESULTS: Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender, cities, hospital type, presenting complaint group and disposition. The adjusted odds ratio of utilizing ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value < 0.001). Patients brought to the ED by ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. CONCLUSION: Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Vigilância da População , Distribuição por Sexo , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Confl Health ; 9: 33, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26430468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the Syrian crisis in 2011, civil unrest and armed conflict in the country have resulted in a rapidly increasing number of people displaced both within and outside of Syria. Those displaced face immense challenges in meeting their basic needs. This study sought to characterize internal displacement in Syria, including trends in both time and place, and to provide insights on the association between displacement and selected measures of household well-being and humanitarian needs. METHODS: This study presents findings from two complementary methods: a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements and a needs assessment of 3930 Syrian households affected by the crisis. The first method, a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements, provides a retrospective analysis of national trends in displacement from March 2011 through June 2014. The second method, analysis of findings from a 2014 needs assessment by displacement status, provides insight into the displaced population and the association between displacement and humanitarian needs. RESULTS: Findings indicate that while displacement often corresponds to conflict levels, such trends were not uniformly observed in governorate-level analysis. Governorate level IDP estimates do not provide information on a scale detailed enough to adequately plan humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, such estimates are often influenced by obstructed access to certain areas, unsubstantiated reports, and substantial discrepancies in reporting. Secondary displacement is not consistently reported across sources nor are additional details about displacement, including whether displaced individuals originated within the current governorate or outside of the governorate. More than half (56.4 %) of households reported being displaced more than once, with a majority displaced for more than one year (73.3 %). Some differences between displaced and non-displaced population were observed in residence crowding, food consumption, health access, and education. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in reported living conditions and key health, nutrition, and education indicators between displaced and non-displaced populations indicate a need to better understand migration trends in order to inform planning and provision of live saving humanitarian assistance.

18.
PLoS Med ; 11(11): e1001757, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25386945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing studies of mental health interventions in low-resource settings have employed highly structured interventions delivered by non-professionals that typically do not vary by client. Given high comorbidity among mental health problems and implementation challenges with scaling up multiple structured evidence-based treatments (EBTs), a transdiagnostic treatment could provide an additional option for approaching community-based treatment of mental health problems. Our objective was to test such an approach specifically designed for flexible treatments of varying and comorbid disorders among trauma survivors in a low-resource setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a single-blinded, wait-list randomized controlled trial of a newly developed transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), for low-resource settings, compared with wait-list control (WLC). CETA was delivered by lay workers to Burmese survivors of imprisonment, torture, and related traumas, with flexibility based on client presentation. Eligible participants reported trauma exposure and met severity criteria for depression and/or posttraumatic stress (PTS). Participants were randomly assigned to CETA (n = 182) or WLC (n = 165). Outcomes were assessed by interviewers blinded to participant allocation using locally adapted standard measures of depression and PTS (primary outcomes) and functional impairment, anxiety symptoms, aggression, and alcohol use (secondary outcomes). Primary analysis was intent-to-treat (n = 347), including 73 participants lost to follow-up. CETA participants experienced significantly greater reductions of baseline symptoms across all outcomes with the exception of alcohol use (alcohol use analysis was confined to problem drinkers). The difference in mean change from pre-intervention to post-intervention between intervention and control groups was -0.49 (95% CI: -0.59, -0.40) for depression, -0.43 (95% CI: -0.51, -0.35) for PTS, -0.42 (95% CI: -0.58, -0.27) for functional impairment, -0.48 (95% CI: -0.61, -0.34) for anxiety, -0.24 (95% CI: -0.34, -0.15) for aggression, and -0.03 (95% CI: -0.44, 0.50) for alcohol use. This corresponds to a 77% reduction in mean baseline depression score among CETA participants compared to a 40% reduction among controls, with respective values for the other outcomes of 76% and 41% for anxiety, 75% and 37% for PTS, 67% and 22% for functional impairment, and 71% and 32% for aggression. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large for depression (d = 1.16) and PTS (d = 1.19); moderate for impaired function (d = 0.63), anxiety (d = 0.79), and aggression (d = 0.58); and none for alcohol use. There were no adverse events. Limitations of the study include the lack of long-term follow-up, non-blinding of service providers and participants, and no placebo or active comparison intervention. CONCLUSIONS: CETA provided by lay counselors was highly effective across disorders among trauma survivors compared to WLCs. These results support the further development and testing of transdiagnostic approaches as possible treatment options alongside existing EBTs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01459068 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agressão , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/terapia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar , Prisões , Método Simples-Cego , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Tailândia , Tortura , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 1168, 2014 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25403896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There exists little agreement on the choice of indicators to be used to assess the impact of humanitarian assistance. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami led to significant mortality and displacement in Aceh Province, Indonesia, as well as a nearly unprecedented humanitarian response. Six years after the disaster we conducted an impact assessment of humanitarian services rendered in Aceh using a comprehensive set of rights-based indicators and sought to determine modifiable predictors of improved outcomes in disaster-affected households. METHODS: A sample of 597 returned and non-returned households in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh was selected using a multistage stratified cluster survey design. We employed principle components analysis and the Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons to develop a comprehensive and rights-based approach to humanitarian impact measurement using multivariate regression models. RESULTS: The attainment of durable solutions was equivalent in both returned households 100.1 [CI] 97.63-102.5) and households that integrated elsewhere (99.37 [CI] 95.43-103.3, P = 0.781). Standard of living as well as education and health facility satisfaction increased significantly whereas monthly income decreased after the tsunami, from 2585241 IDR ([CI] 2357202-2813279 IDR) to 2038963 ([CI] 1786627-2291298 IDR, P < 0.001). Shelter (P = 0.007) and legal assistance (P < 0.001) were both significantly associated with positive durable solutions outcomes, whereas prolonged displacement duration was significantly associated with poorer outcomes (P < 0.001). Livelihood assistance received after one year was associated with higher odds of increasing or maintaining pre-tsunami income levels (OR = 3.02, P = 0.008), whereas livelihood assistance received within one year was associated with lower odds of attaining pre-tsunami income (OR = 0.52, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: We find that after adjusting for pre-tsunami conditions and tsunami-related damages, the impact of sectoral responses can be assessed. The duration of displacement was the strongest negative predictive factor for the attainment of durable solutions, suggesting that measures to reduce displacement time may be effective in mitigating the long-term effects of disaster on households. The durable solutions framework is a novel and effective impact measurement tool and can be used to identify factors amenable to intervention and inform future disaster recovery efforts.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Características da Família , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Socorro em Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Tsunamis , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Psychol ; 2(1): 31, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25685351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop valid and reliable instruments to assess priority psychosocial problems and functioning among adult survivors of systematic violence from Burma living in Thailand. METHODS: The process involved four steps: 1) instrument drafting and piloting; 2) reliability and validity testing; 3) instrument revision; and 4) retesting revised instrument. RESULTS: A total of N = 158 interviews were completed. Overall subscales showed good internal consistency (0.73-0.92) and satisfactory combined test-retest/inter rater reliability (0.63-0.84). Criterion validity, was not demonstrated for any scale. The alcohol and functioning scales underperformed and were revised (step 3) and retested (step 4). Upon retesting, the function scale showed good internal consistency reliability (0.91-0.92), and the alcohol scale showed acceptable internal consistency (0.79) and strong test-retest/inter-rater reliability (0.86-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes the importance and process of adaptation and testing, illustrated by the experiences and results for selected instruments in this population.

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