Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 169
Filtrar
1.
Appetite ; 162: 105160, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556391

RESUMO

External influences on eating behaviour, such as portion size, have been reliably shown to influence food intake in the laboratory. However, little research has examined whether laboratory settings under or overestimate the effect that external influences have on food intake compared to when studied in the real-world. In Study 1, 60 participants (mean age = 32 years) were randomized to consume a large (200 g) or small (100 g) portion of popcorn under controlled laboratory conditions and during a separate session in their home. Results showed that the effect of portion size on food intake was larger at home (d = 0.97) than in the laboratory (d = 0.56). Furthermore, participants reported feeling more relaxed eating at home compared to the laboratory. In Study 2, we examined whether comparable results were observed in a semi-naturalistic laboratory designed to resemble a home setting. 59 participants (mean age = 28 years) completed the same procedure as Study 1 in a standard and a semi-naturalistic laboratory setting. Although participants reported having higher levels of private self-awareness in the standard laboratory, the effect that portion size had on food intake did not differ between the standard laboratory (d = 0.50) and the semi-naturalistic laboratory (d = 0.49). The impact that external influences on eating, such as portion size, have on food intake in the real-world may be underestimated when studied under laboratory conditions.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2809, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531581

RESUMO

Accurate prognostic biomarkers in early-stage melanoma are urgently needed to stratify patients for clinical trials of adjuvant therapy. We applied a previously developed open source deep learning algorithm to detect tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) images of early-stage melanomas. We tested whether automated digital (TIL) analysis (ADTA) improved accuracy of prediction of disease specific survival (DSS) based on current pathology standards. ADTA was applied to a training cohort (n = 80) and a cutoff value was defined based on a Receiver Operating Curve. ADTA was then applied to a validation cohort (n = 145) and the previously determined cutoff value was used to stratify high and low risk patients, as demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p ≤ 0.001). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed using ADTA, depth, and ulceration as co-variables and showed that ADTA contributed to DSS prediction (HR: 4.18, CI 1.51-11.58, p = 0.006). ADTA provides an effective and attainable assessment of TILs and should be further evaluated in larger studies for inclusion in staging algorithms.

3.
Obes Rev ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533133

RESUMO

Mandatory energy (calorie) labeling of alcoholic drinks is a public health measure that could be used to address both alcohol consumption and obesity. We systematically reviewed studies examining consumer knowledge of the energy content of alcoholic drinks, public support for energy labeling, and the effect of energy labeling of alcoholic drinks on consumption behavior. Eighteen studies were included. Among studies examining consumer knowledge of the energy content of alcoholic drinks (N = 8) and support for energy labeling (N = 9), there was moderate evidence that people are unaware of the energy content of alcoholic drinks (pooled estimate: 74% [95% CI: 64%-82%] of participants inaccurate) and support energy labeling (pooled estimate: 64% [95% CI: 53%-73%] of participants support policy). Six studies examined the effect of energy labeling on consumption behavior. In these studies, there was no evidence of a beneficial effect of labeling on alcohol drinking-related outcome measures. However, the majority of studies were of low methodological quality and used proxy outcome measures, and none of the studies were conducted in real-world settings, resulting in a very low level of evidence and high degree of uncertainty. Further research is required to determine whether energy labeling of alcoholic drinks is likely to be an effective public health policy.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 131-135, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated social distancing and lockdown restrictions are expected to have substantial and enduring mental health effects. In this study, we aimed to assess depression levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. METHODS: We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) brief screening instrument to detect probable depression in two nationally representative surveys of US adults. Pre-pandemic levels of depression were assessed in a sample of 5,075 adults from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Depression was assessed in March (N = 6,819) and April 2020 (N = 5,428) in the Understanding America Study, a representative sample of the US population. RESULTS: The percentage of US adults with depression increased significantly from 8.7% (95% CI[7.6%-9.8%]) in 2017-2018 to 10.6% (95% CI[9.6%-11.6%) in March 2020 and 14.4% (95% CI[13.1%-15.7%]) in April 2020. Statistically significant increases in depression levels were observed for all population subgroups examined with the exception of those aged 65+ years and Black participants. Young adults (aged 18-34) experienced a marked increase in depression of 13.4 percentage points (95% CI [9.5%-17.2%]) that was larger than any other age group. Additional analyses of depression trends in NHANES from 2007/2008-2017/2018 showed that the substantial increase in depression in April 2020 was unlikely to be due to typical year-to-year variation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that depression levels have risen substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce recent findings indicating that young adults may be particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sex Med ; 18(1): 50-62, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of sex to cope with negative affective states during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may be influenced by various sociodemographic and psychological characteristics. AIM: We aimed to examine the effects of social distancing, loneliness, difficulties in emotion regulation, and self-regulation on participants self-reported coping using sex during lockdown in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Participants had to be residents of the United Kingdom, aged between 18-60 years, fluent in English, and had to have an Internet connection. They were instructed not to participate if they had consumed alcohol in the previous 24 hours. A total of 789 participants aged 18-59 years completed an online survey. Participants provided self-report measures of social distancing, loneliness, and difficulties in emotion regulation. A Go/No-Go task was used to assess self-regulation. OUTCOMES: Participants self-reported their use of sex to cope over a 14-day period during lockdown, as well as retrospectively for a 14-day period immediately preceding lockdown. Coping using sex items included consensual and non-consensual themes. RESULTS: Overall, there was no increase in coping using sex during lockdown compared with before lockdown. Findings showed that 30% of participants reported increased coping using sex during lockdown compared with before, 29% reported decreased coping using sex, and 41% reported no change. All regression models included age, gender, ethnicity, diagnosis of psychiatric condition, level of education, being at high-risk for difficulties relating to COVID-19, living alone, and diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 as covariates. Being younger, being male, and greater emotion dysregulation were associated with higher coping using sex total and consent subscale scores during lockdown. Being younger, being male, not living alone, and less adherence to social distancing advice were associated with coping using sex with a theme of rape/violence during lockdown. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: A proportion of participants used sex to cope more often during lockdown compared with before. Less adherence to social distancing advice and emotion dysregulation were associated with using sex to cope during lockdown. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Strengths of this study were the large sample size and inclusion of key sociodemographic characteristics as covariates. The main limitations were the cross-sectional design and a sample that was mostly white, educated, and female. CONCLUSION: Participants who had difficulty regulating emotions were more likely to use sex to cope. It is important that support is available for people who have problems regulating their emotions during the pandemic and that they have access to appropriate help and advice. Gillespie SM, Jones A, Uzieblo K, et al. Coping Using Sex During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in the United Kingdom. J Sex Med 2021;18:50-62.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Appetite ; 156: 104853, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038479

RESUMO

Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N = 2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde Mental , Obesidade , Pandemias , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Lanches , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255579

RESUMO

Reducing the energy density (ED) of product selections made during online supermarket food shopping has potential to decrease energy intake. Yet it is unclear which types of intervention are likely to be most effective and equitable. We recruited 899 UK adults of lower and higher socioeconomic position (SEP) who completed a shopping task in an online experimental supermarket. Participants were randomised in a 2 × 2 between-subjects design to test the effects of two interventions on the ED of shopping basket selections: labelling lower-ED products as healthier choices and increasing the relative availability of lower-ED products within a range (referred to as proportion). Labelling of lower-ED products resulted in a small but significant decrease (-4.2 kcal/100 g, 95% CIs -7.8 to -0.6) in the ED of the shopping basket. Increasing the proportion of lower-ED products significantly decreased the ED of the shopping basket (-17 kcal/100 g, 95% CIs -21 to -14). There was no evidence that the effect of either intervention was moderated by SEP. Thus, both types of intervention decreased the ED of foods selected in an online experimental supermarket. There was no evidence that the effectiveness of either intervention differed in people of lower vs. higher SEP.

9.
Br J Health Psychol ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It has been shown that psychological distress rose rapidly as the COVID-19 pandemic emerged and then recovered to pre-crisis levels as social lockdown restrictions were eased in the United States. The aim of the current study was to investigate psychosocial and behavioural factors that may explain the rise and fall of distress during the initial months of the COVID-19 crisis. DESIGN: This study examined six waves of longitudinal nationally representative data from the Understanding America Study (UAS) collected between March and June 2020 (N = 7,138, observations = 34,125). METHODS: Mediation analysis was used to identify whether changes in distress (PHQ-4) during the COVID-19 pandemic were explained by the following factors: perceived infection risk and risk of death, perceived financial risks, lifestyle changes resulting from the virus, perceived discrimination related to the virus, and changes in substance use and employment status. RESULTS: All mediating factors played a role in explaining changes in distress and together accounted for 70% of the increase in distress between 10-18 March and 1-14 April and 46.4% of the decline in distress between 1-14 April and early June 2020. Changes in perceived health risks were most important in explaining changes in distress followed by changes in lifestyle and the perceived financial risks associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides longitudinal population-based evidence detailing the mediating factors explaining changes in distress during the COVID-19 crisis. Perceived health risks associated with the virus may play a key role in explaining rising and falling levels of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269354

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed in unprecedented time. However, the effectiveness of any vaccine is dictated by the proportion of the population willing to be vaccinated. In this observational population-based study we examined intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19 over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of 7,547 US adults enrolled in the Understanding America Study (UAS). Participants reporting being willing, undecided and unwilling to get vaccinated against coronavirus across 13 assessments conducted from April-October, 2020. Public attitudes to vaccination against the coronavirus were also assessed. RESULTS: Willingness to vaccinate declined from 71% in April to 53.6% in October. This was explained by an increase in the percentage of participants undecided about vaccinating (from 10.5% to 14.4%) and the portion of the sample unwilling to vaccinate (from 18.5% to 32%). The population subgroups most likely to be undecided/unwilling to vaccinate were those without a degree (undecided: RRR=2.47, 95% CI: 2.04-3.00; unwilling: RRR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.67-2.20), Black participants (undecided: RRR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.73-2.74; unwilling: RRR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.63-2.42), and females (undecided: RRR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.20-1.65; unwilling: RRR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.14-1.46). Those aged 65+, those on high incomes, and other race/ethnicity participants were least likely to be undecided or unwilling to vaccinate. Concerns about potential side effects of a vaccine were common. CONCLUSIONS: Intentions to be vaccinated against coronavirus have declined rapidly during the pandemic and close to half of Americans are undecided or unwilling to be vaccinated.

11.
Appetite ; 159: 105047, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227385

RESUMO

Portion size impacts on the amount of energy consumed during a meal. However, research findings on participant characteristics that moderate the effect of portion size on energy intake are mixed. Using data pooled across three randomized control trials, we examined the impact of reducing meal portion size on meal energy intake in 111 adult participants varying in sex (55 M, 56 F), body weight (BMI range = 19-42) and a broad range of participant characteristics, including usual portion size, restrained, emotional and external eating, satiety responsiveness, plate clearing tendencies, concerns about wasting food and self-control. In each trial, a repeated-measures design was used and participants consumed three ad-libitum lunchtime meals differing in portion size; large-normal portion size condition (100%) vs. small-normal portion size condition (~ 75%) vs. smaller than normal portion size condition (~ 50%). In mixed ANOVAs, we did not find convincing evidence that any participant characteristic reliably moderated the impact that reducing portion size had on energy intake. For the majority of participants energy intake decreased when portion size was reduced and it was more common for participants to consistently reduce their energy intake than consume a similar amount when portion size was reduced. We also found little evidence that a sub-group of participants existed whose energy intake was consistently resistant to portion size reductions. Portion size may be a universal driver of energy intake, as reducing meal portion size appears to decrease meal energy intake among most people. Food portion downsizing may therefore be an equitable intervention approach to reducing population level energy intake.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a range of negative social and economic effects that may contribute to a rise in mental health problems. In this observational population-based study, we examined longitudinal changes in the prevalence of mental health problems from before to during the COVID-19 crisis and identified subgroups that are psychologically vulnerable during the pandemic. METHODS: Participants (N = 14 393; observations = 48 486) were adults drawn from wave 9 (2017-2019) of the nationally representative United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) and followed-up across three waves of assessment in April, May, and June 2020. Mental health problems were assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). RESULTS: The population prevalence of mental health problems (GHQ-12 score ⩾3) increased by 13.5 percentage points from 24.3% in 2017-2019 to 37.8% in April 2020 and remained elevated in May (34.7%) and June (31.9%) 2020. All sociodemographic groups examined showed statistically significant increases in mental health problems in April 2020. The increase was largest among those aged 18-34 years (18.6 percentage points, 95% CI 14.3-22.9%), followed by females and high-income and education groups. Levels of mental health problems subsequently declined between April and June 2020 but remained significantly above pre-COVID-19 levels. Additional analyses showed that the rise in mental health problems observed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic was unlikely to be due to seasonality or year-to-year variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a pronounced and prolonged deterioration in mental health occurred as the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in the UK between April and June 2020.

13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138985

RESUMO

There is growing concern that the COVID-19 crisis may have long-standing mental health effects across society particularly amongst those with pre-existing mental health conditions. In this observational population-based study, we examined how psychological distress changed following the emergence of the COVID-19 crisis in the United States and tested whether certain population subgroups were vulnerable to persistent distress during the crisis. We analyzed longitudinal nationally representative data from eight waves of the Understanding America Study (UAS) collected between March 10th and July 20th, 2020 (N = 7319 Observations = 46,145). Differences in distress trends were examined by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and household income and by the presence of a pre-existing mental health diagnosis. Psychological distress was assessed using the standardized total score on the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). On average psychological distress increased significantly by 0.27 standard deviations (95% CI [0.23,0.31], p < .001) from March 10-18 to April 1-14, 2020 as the COVID-19 crisis emerged and lockdown restrictions began in the US. Distress levels subsequently declined to mid-March levels by June 2020 (d = -0.31, 95% CI [-0.34, -0.27], p < .001). Across the sociodemographic groups examined and those with pre-existing mental health conditions we observed a sharp rise in distress followed by a recovery to baseline distress levels. This study identified substantial increases in distress in the US during the emergence of the COVID-19 crisis that largely diminished in the weeks that followed and suggests that population level resilience in mental health may be occurring in response to the pandemic.

14.
Am J Prev Med ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown restrictions may have influenced alcohol consumption. This study examines changes in high-risk alcohol consumption from before to during the COVID-19 crisis in an established cohort of middle-aged British adults. METHODS: Participants consisted of 3,358 middle-aged adults from the 1970 British Cohort Study who completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for detecting hazardous drinkers in primary care settings in 2016-2018 (when aged 46-48 years) and May 2020 (aged 50 years). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine changes in high-risk drinking (scores of ≥5), and multinomial regression was used to compare responses with individual test items in 2016-2018 and May 2020. RESULTS: Among middle-aged British adults, high-risk drinking increased by 5.2 percentage points from 19.4% to 24.6% (p <0.001) between 2016-2018 and May 2020. The increase in high-risk drinking was not moderated by sex, marital status, educational attainment, the presence of a chronic illness, or the year the baseline survey was completed. The prevalence of drinking ≥4 times a week doubled from 12.5% to 26% from before to during the pandemic (p<0.001), and there was also evidence of an increase in the frequency of being unable to stop drinking. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence linking the COVID-19 crisis and associated lockdown restrictions to an increase in high-risk drinking patterns and particularly frequent drinking in British adults. Potential long-term changes in drinking habits should be monitored following the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 119: 468-480, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086131

RESUMO

Psychological factors may explain why some people develop obesity and others remain a normal weight during their life course. We use an umbrella review approach to build an evidence-based map of the psychological correlates of heavier body weight. Synthesising findings from 42 meta-analyses that have examined associations between psychological factors and heavier body weight, we assessed level of evidence for a range of cognitive, psychosocial and mental health individual difference factors. There is convincing evidence that impaired mental health is associated with heavier body weight and highly suggestive evidence that numerous cognitive factors are associated with heavier body weight. However, the relatively low methodological quality of meta-analyses resulted in lower evidential certainty for most psychosocial factors. Psychological correlates of heavier body weight tended to be small in statistical size and on average, people with obesity were likely to be more psychologically similar than different to people with normal weight. We consider implications for understanding the development of heavier body weight and identifying effective public health interventions to reduce obesity.

16.
Obes Sci Pract ; 6(5): 552-561, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082997

RESUMO

The obesity crisis is one of the largest public health challenges of the 21st century. Population-level adiposity has increased dramatically in recent times, and people not recognizing that they have overweight or obesity is now common. It has been widely assumed that not recognizing oneself as having overweight is detrimental to weight management and long-term health. Here, diverse research is reviewed that converges on the counterintuitive conclusion that not recognizing oneself as having overweight is actually associated with more favourable physical and mental health outcomes than recognizing oneself as having overweight. Drawing on existing models in social psychology and weight stigma research, an explanatory model of the health effects of self-perception of overweight is outlined. This model proposes that self-perception of overweight triggers social rejection concerns and the internalization of weight stigma, which in turn induce psychological distress and negatively impact health-promoting lifestyle behaviours. How self-perception of overweight may in part explain progression from overweight to obesity, and the public health implications of self-perception of overweight and obesity are also discussed.

17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(10): e16780, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term laboratory studies suggest that eating attentively can reduce food intake. However, in a recent randomized controlled trial we found no evidence that using an attentive eating smartphone app outside of the laboratory had an effect on energy intake or weight loss over 8 weeks. OBJECTIVE: This research examined trial participants' experiences of using an attentive eating smartphone app and whether app usage was associated with energy intake and weight loss outcomes over 8 weeks. METHODS: We conducted thematic analysis of semistructured interviews (N=38) among participants in the attentive eating smartphone app group of the trial who completed the 8-week assessment. Linear regression models examined the associations between energy intake and weight loss outcomes at 8 weeks and app usage. RESULTS: Participants reported several barriers and facilitators to using the smartphone app, including repetition of app content, social setting, motivation, and habitual use of the app. Participants believed that using the app had some beneficial effects on their eating behavior and diet. Exploratory analyses indicated that more frequent recording of eating episodes in the app was associated with lower body weight (B=-0.02, P=.004) and greater self-reported energy intake (B=5.98, P=.01) at 8 weeks, but not body fat percentage or taste-test energy intake. Total audio clip plays, gallery views, and percentage of food entries recorded using an image were not significantly associated with energy intake or weight. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent recording of eating episodes in a smartphone app was associated with greater weight loss. There are barriers and facilitators to frequent use of an attentive eating smartphone app that may be useful to address when designing dietary behavior change smartphone apps. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03602001; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03602001; Open Science Framework DOI 10.17605/osf.io/btzhw; https://osf.io/btzhw/.

18.
Health Psychol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955278

RESUMO

Objectives: Laboratory studies have contributed important information about the determinants of food and alcohol intake, and they have prompted the development of behavior change interventions that have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials conducted in the field. In this article we apply a recent experimental medicine (EM) framework to this body of research. Method: A conceptual review and focused discussion of the relevant literature is presented. Results: We illustrate how it is possible to translate findings from studies of food and alcohol intake in the laboratory into interventions that are effective for changing behavior in the real world. We go on to demonstrate how systematic failures can occur at different stages within the EM framework, and how these failures ultimately result in interventions that are ineffective for changing behavior. We also consider methodological issues that may constrain the external validity of findings from laboratory studies including demand effects, participant characteristics, and the timing and dose of behavioral interventions. Throughout, we make recommendations to improve the translation of findings from laboratory studies into behavior change interventions that are effective in the field. Conclusions: Consideration of the EM framework will help to ensure that promising candidate interventions for eating and drinking that are identified in laboratory studies can fulfill their translational promise. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

19.
J Pers ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The historical factors and contemporary mechanisms underlying geographical inequalities in obesity levels remain uncertain. In this study, we examine whether modern regional variation in obesity is partly a result of the impact of large-scale industry on the personality traits of those living in regions once at the center of the Industrial Revolution. METHOD: Exposure to the effects of the Industrial Revolution was assessed using unique historical data from English/Welsh counties (N = 111). Specifically, we examined the relationship between the regional employment share in large-scale coal-based industries in 1813-1820 and contemporary regional obesity levels (2013-2015). The Big Five personality traits and regional unemployment levels were examined as potential mediators of this association. RESULTS: The historical regional employment share in large-scale industries positively predicted the modern-day regional prevalence of obesity. Mediation analysis showed that areas exposed to the decline of large-scale industries experienced elevated Neuroticism and unemployment levels that explained almost half of the association between the historical dominance of large-scale industry and modern-day obesity levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide initial evidence that raised regional Neuroticism levels may play a key role in explaining why exposure to the rapid growth and subsequent decline of large-scale industries forecasts modern-day obesity levels.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13257, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764701

RESUMO

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare cancer of the mesothelial cells of the peritoneum. Computed tomography (CT) is considered the standard for first-line imaging of MPeM, diagnosis and risk stratification remains challenging. Peritoneal cancer index (PCI), as assessed by CT, is utilized in the prognostic assessment of other malignant intra-abdominal conditions; however, there is limited data concerning the utility of PCI in the diagnosis and workup of MPeM. We studied a retrospective cohort of all patients diagnosed with MPeM from 2000 to 2012 in Finland. CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed and scored by an experienced and blinded, board-certified abdominal radiologist. Additional clinical data and outcomes were obtained from Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR), the Workers' Compensations Center (WCC), and Statistics Finland (SF). Abdominal CT or MRI was available for 53 of 90 patients. The median radiographic PCI was 25. PCI score was correlated with overall survival (p = 0.004, Exp(B) = 1.064, 95% CI 1.020-1.110). PCI score ≥ 30 was associated with worse survival (p = 0.002), while PCI ≤ 19 was associated with improved overall survival (p = 0.001). Our study indicates that radiological PCI is prognostic in MPeM and should be assessed during radiographic workup and integrated into clinical decision-making.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA