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Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 313-316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571732


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers with 2 doses of a killed-virus (KV) vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) on the serum concentrations of antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 in heifers and their calves and on the IgG concentration in the calves. Of the 47 pregnant beef heifers selected, 26 received 2 doses of the vaccine at 6.5 to 8 mo of gestation (at pregnancy check), and 21 received 2 doses of saline. The mean log2 serum titers of neutralizing antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 before vaccination did not differ significantly between the treatment groups; however, at calving all 3 mean titers were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the vaccinated heifers than in the control heifers. At 24 h after birth the mean serum IgG levels in the calves did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, at 30.18 and 32.28 g/L, respectively (P < 0.05); however, the mean log2 serum titers of antibody to all 3 viruses were greater in the calves nursing colostrum from the vaccinated heifers than in the calves nursing colostrum from the nonvaccinated heifers and significantly so for BoHV-1 and BVDV-1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Thus, late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers could result in a greater and more consistent deposition of specific antibodies in colostrum, reducing the variability of initial titers in calves and increasing the duration of maternal immunity.

Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Gravidez , Vacinação/veterinária
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 381-392, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247266


Many notable advances in drug allergy, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis were reported in 2018. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use and, consequently, antibiotic resistance are widespread, and algorithms to clarify ß-lactam allergy and optimize antibiotic use were described. Meaningful data emerged on the pathogenesis of delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. Progress not only in defining biomarkers but also in understanding the effect on quality of life and developing better treatments has been made for patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) have gained additional access to highly efficacious therapies, with associated improvements in quality of life, and some progress was made in our understanding of recurrent angioedema in patients with normal laboratory results. Guidelines have defined clear goals to help providers optimize therapies in patients with HAE. The epidemiology and triggers of anaphylaxis and the mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis were elucidated further. In summary, these disorders (and labels) cause substantial burdens for individual persons and even society. Fortunately, publications in 2018 have informed on advancements in diagnosis and management and have provided better understanding of mechanisms that potentially could yield new therapies. This progress should lead to better health outcomes and paths forward in patients with drug allergy, urticaria, HAE, and anaphylaxis.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(9): 771-780, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113236


INTRODUCTION: Acid suppressant medications (ASMs), such as proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists, are used often and throughout the lifespan. These medications have been linked to the development of a variety of allergic diseases. Areas covered: This review discusses prior studies investigating the association between acid ASM exposure and the development of allergic diseases. We performed a thorough literature search to identify potentially relevant studies for inclusion. In summary, exposure to these medications prenatally, in childhood and in adulthood, may increase the risk of allergic diseases. The current evidence is limited by primarily observational study design and potential bias and confounding. The mechanism of action is not yet known, but there are several proposed theories. Expert commentary: There is a growing body of evidence to support that exposure to acid ASMs increases the risk of developing allergic diseases. Further research is needed to not only clarify this relationship but to define the potential mechanism of action. If further research confirms these observations, we believe that could warrant changes in the patterns of prescribing and use of acid ASMs.

Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Viés , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Gravidez , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Risco
ERJ Open Res ; 3(3)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845429


In chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP), lack of improvement or declining lung function may prompt use of immunosuppressive therapy. We hypothesised that use of azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil with prednisone reduces adverse events and lung function decline, and improves transplant-free survival. Patients with CHP were identified. Demographic features, pulmonary function tests, incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and transplant-free survival were characterised, compared and analysed between patients stratified by immunosuppressive therapy. A multicentre comparison was performed across four independent tertiary medical centres. Among 131 CHP patients at the University of Chicago medical centre (Chicago, IL, USA), 93 (71%) received immunosuppressive therapy, and had worse baseline forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity, and increased mortality compared with those who did not. Compared to patients treated with prednisone alone, TEAEs were 54% less frequent with azathioprine therapy (p=0.04) and 66% less frequent with mycophenolate mofetil (p=0.002). FVC decline and survival were similar between treatment groups. Analyses of datasets from four external tertiary medical centres confirmed these findings. CHP patients who did not receive immunosuppressive therapy had better survival than those who did. Use of mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine was associated with a decreased incidence of TEAEs, and no difference in lung function decline or survival when compared with prednisone alone. Early transition to mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine may be an appropriate therapeutic approach in CHP, but more studies are needed.

Curr Environ Health Rep ; 2(4): 379-87, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26337065


In recent years, the impact of environmental exposure to chemicals and their immunological effects, including the development of allergy, has been a topic of great interest. Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals produced in high volumes, including bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, is ubiquitous. The links between their exposure and the development of allergy, asthma, and immune dysfunction have been studied in vitro, in vivo, and through human cohort studies. The purpose of this review is to examine the current body of research and to highlight deficits and strengths of current findings. Emerging science indicates that deleterious immunologic changes, including increased propensity to develop wheeze, allergy, and asthma after dietary and inhalation exposure to these chemicals, may be occurring.

Asma/imunologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Animais
Cardiol Rev ; 22(5): 253-61, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24618931


Anacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor currently in Phase III of development as a treatment for those with dyslipidemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The agent acts by inhibiting the CETP, which mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters from high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to other lipoproteins. HDL-C has been inversely linked to cardiac risk and is thus a potential target for decreasing residual cardiovascular risk, which remains despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol therapy with statin drugs. Anacetrapib has been shown to raise HDL-C by up to 138% and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by up to 39% compared with placebo. The HDL-C molecules treated with anacetrapib have also been shown to retain their function in cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport and their anti-inflammatory properties. Unlike the previously tested CETP inhibitor torcetrapib, anacetrapib has not been shown to elevate blood pressure, alter electrolytes, or cause any significant side effects. Future studies will determine whether these alterations in the lipid profile decrease the cardiovascular risk of morbidity and mortality. If these studies show promising results, anacetrapib could become a vital pharmacologic therapy for decreasing cardiovascular risk in patients.

Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Oxazolidinonas/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia