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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901825, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate childhood cancer survivors' adherence to surveillance protocols for late effects of treatment and to determine the factors affecting adherence. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, 11,337 survivors and 2,146 siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed a survey ascertaining adherence to Children's Oncology Group (COG) guidelines for survivors at high risk for second malignant neoplasms or cardiac dysfunction and to the American Cancer Society (ACS) cancer screening guidelines for average-risk populations. Adherence rates and factors affecting adherence were analyzed. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 7 years (range, 0-20.9 years), and median time from diagnosis was 29 years (range, 15-47 years). Among high-risk survivors, adherence to COG breast, colorectal, skin, and cardiac surveillance was 12.6% (95% CI, 10.0% to 15.3%), 37.0% (34.1% to 39.9%), 22.3% (21.2% to 23.4%), and 41.4% (40.1% to 42.7%), respectively. Among average-risk survivors, adherence to ACS breast, cervical, and colorectal screening was 57.1% (53.2% to 61.0%), 83.6% (82.7% to 84.5%), and 68.5% (64.7% to 72.2%), respectively. Twenty-seven percent of survivors and 20.0% of primary care providers (PCPs) had a survivorship care plan (SCP). For high-risk survivors, SCP possession was associated with increased adherence to COG breast (22.3% v. 8.1%; prevalence ratio [PR], 2.52; CI, 1.59 to 4.01), skin (34.8% v 23.0%; PR, 1.16; CI, 1.01 to 1.33), and cardiac (67.0% v 33.1%; PR, 1.73; CI, 1.55 to 1.92) surveillance. For high-risk survivors, PCP possession of a SCP was associated only with increased adherence to COG skin cancer surveillance (36.9% v 23.2%; PR, 1.24; CI, 1.08 to 1.43). CONCLUSION: Guideline adherence is suboptimal. Although survivor SCP possession is associated with better adherence, few survivors and PCPs have one. New strategies to improve adherence are needed.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191290

RESUMO

Importance: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, occurs in a high number of cancer predisposition syndromes that are defined by highly penetrant germline mutations. The germline genetic susceptibility to osteosarcoma outside of familial cancer syndromes remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the germline genetic architecture of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (n = 1104) or targeted sequencing (n = 140) of the DNA of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma from 10 participating international centers or studies was conducted from April 21, 2014, to September 1, 2017. The results were compared with the DNA of 1062 individuals without cancer assembled internally from 4 participating studies who underwent comparable whole-exome sequencing and 27 173 individuals of non-Finnish European ancestry who were identified through the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In the analysis, 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes were assessed followed by testing of the mutational burden across 736 additional candidate genes. Principal component analyses were used to identify 732 European patients with osteosarcoma and 994 European individuals without cancer, with outliers removed for patient-control group comparisons. Patients were subsequently compared with individuals in the ExAC group. All data were analyzed from June 1, 2017, to July 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The frequency of rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants. Results: Among 1244 patients with osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 16 [8.9] years [range, 2-80 years]; 684 patients [55.0%] were male), an analysis restricted to individuals with European ancestry indicated a significantly higher pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant burden in 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes among patients with osteosarcoma compared with the control group (732 vs 994, respectively; P = 1.3 × 10-18). A pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was identified in 281 of 1004 patients with osteosarcoma (28.0%), of which nearly three-quarters had a variant that mapped to an autosomal-dominant gene or a known osteosarcoma-associated cancer predisposition syndrome gene. The frequency of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was 128 of 1062 individuals (12.1%) in the control group and 2527 of 27 173 individuals (9.3%) in the ExAC group. A higher than expected frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants was observed in genes not previously linked to osteosarcoma (eg, CDKN2A, MEN1, VHL, POT1, APC, MSH2, and ATRX) and in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome-associated gene, TP53. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately one-fourth of patients with osteosarcoma unselected for family history had a highly penetrant germline mutation requiring additional follow-up analysis and possible genetic counseling with cascade testing.

3.
Phys Ther ; 100(3): 509-522, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids used to treat childhood leukemia and lymphoma can result in osteonecrosis, leading to physical dysfunction and pain. Improving survival rates warrants research into long-term outcomes among this population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the physical function and quality of life (QOL) of survivors of childhood cancer who had an osteonecrosis history with that of survivors who had no osteonecrosis history and with that of people who were healthy (controls). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study included St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study participants who were ≥ 10 years from the diagnosis of childhood leukemia or lymphoma and ≥ 18 years old; 135 had osteonecrosis (52.5% men; mean age = 27.7 [SD = 6.08] years) and 1560 had no osteonecrosis history (52.4% men; mean age = 33.3 [SD = 8.54] years). This study also included 272 people who were from the community and who were healthy (community controls) (47.7% men; mean age = 35.1 [SD = 10.46] years). The participants completed functional assessments and questionnaires about QOL. RESULTS: Survivors with osteonecrosis scored lower than other survivors and controls for dorsiflexion strength (mean score = 16.50 [SD = 7.91] vs 24.17 [SD = 8.61] N·m/kg) and scored lower than controls for flexibility with the sit-and-reach test (20.61 [SD = 9.70] vs 23.96 [SD = 10.73] cm), function on the Physical Performance Test (mean score = 22.73 [SD = 2.05] vs 23.58 [SD = 0.88]), and mobility on the Timed "Up & Go" Test (5.66 [SD = 2.25] vs 5.12 [SD = 1.28] seconds). Survivors with hip osteonecrosis requiring surgery scored lower than survivors without osteonecrosis for dorsiflexion strength (13.75 [SD = 8.82] vs 18.48 [SD = 9.04] N·m/kg), flexibility (15.79 [SD = 8.93] vs 20.37 [SD = 10.14] cm), and endurance on the 6-minute walk test (523.50 [SD = 103.00] vs 572.10 [SD = 102.40] m). LIMITATIONS: Because some eligible survivors declined to participate, possible selection bias was a limitation of this study. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of childhood leukemia and lymphoma with and without osteonecrosis demonstrated impaired physical performance and reported reduced QOL compared with controls, with those requiring surgery for osteonecrosis most at risk for impairments. It may be beneficial to provide strengthening, flexibility, and endurance interventions for patients who have pediatric cancer and osteonecrosis for long-term function.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(3): 421-435, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes among survivors of cancer diagnosed during adolescence and early young adulthood have not been characterised independently of survivors of cancers diagnosed during childhood. We aimed to describe chronic health conditions and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among survivors of early-adolescent and young adult cancer. METHODS: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a retrospective cohort study with longitudinal follow-up of 5-year survivors diagnosed with cancer before the age of 21 years at 27 academic institutions in the USA and Canada between 1970 and 1999. We evaluated outcomes among survivors of early-adolescent and young adult cancer (aged 15-20 years at diagnosis) and survivors diagnosed at age younger than 15 years (matched on primary cancer diagnosis, including leukaemia, lymphoma, CNS tumours, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumour, soft-tissue sarcomas, and bone cancer) by comparing both groups to siblings of the same age. Mortality was ascertained with the National Death Index. Chronic health conditions were classified with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated with age-specific, sex-specific, and calendar year-specific US rates. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for chronic health conditions and 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Among 5804 early-adolescent and young adult survivors (median age 42 years, IQR 34-50) the SMR compared to the general population for all-cause mortality was 5·9 (95% CI 5·5-6·2) and among 5804 childhood cancer survivors (median age 34 years; 27-42), it was 6·2 (5·8-6·6). Early-adolescent and young adult survivors had lower SMRs for death from health-related causes (ie, conditions that exclude recurrence or progression of the primary cancer and external causes, but include the late effects of cancer therapy) than did childhood cancer survivors (SMR 4·8 [95% CI 4·4-5·1] vs 6·8 [6·2-7·4]), which was primarily evident more than 20 years after cancer diagnosis. Early-adolescent and young adult cancer survivors and childhood cancer survivors were both at greater risk of developing severe and disabling, life-threatening, or fatal (grade 3-5) health conditions than siblings of the same age (HR 4·2 [95% CI 3·7-4·8] for early adolescent and young adult cancer survivors and 5·6 [4·9-6·3] for childhood cancer survivors), and at increased risk of developing grade 3-5 cardiac (4·3 [3·5-5·4] and 5·6 [4·5-7·1]), endocrine (3·9 [2·9-5·1] and 6·4 [5·1-8·0]), and musculoskeletal conditions (6·5 [3·9-11·1] and 8·0 [4·6-14·0]) when compared with siblings of the same age, although all these risks were lower for early-adolescent and young adult survivors than for childhood cancer survivors. INTERPRETATION: Early-adolescent and young adult cancer survivors had higher risks of mortality and severe and life threatening chronic health conditions than the general population. However, early-adolescent and young adult cancer survivors had lower non-recurrent, health-related SMRs and relative risks of developing grade 3-5 chronic health conditions than childhood cancer survivors, by comparison with siblings of the same age, which were most notable more than 20 years after their original cancer. These results highlight the need for long-term screening of both childhood and early-adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute and American Lebanese-Syrian Associated Charities.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is associated with risk for thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm in survivors of childhood cancer. Here, we investigated associations between thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm and inherited variation in telomere maintenance genes. METHODS: We used RegulomeDB to annotate the functional impact of variants mapping to 14 telomere maintenance genes among 5,066 five-or-more year survivors who participate in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and who are longitudinally followed for incidence of subsequent cancers. Hazard ratios for thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm were calculated for 60 putatively functional variants with minor allele frequency ≥1% in or near telomere maintenance genes. Functional impact was further assessed by measuring telomere length in leukocyte subsets. RESULTS: The minor allele at Protection of Telomeres-1 (POT1) rs58722976 was associated with increased risk for thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm (adjusted HR = 6.1, 95% CI: 2.4, 15.5, P = 0.0001; Fisher's exact P = 0.001). This imputed SNP was present in three out of 110 survivors who developed thyroid cancer vs. 14 out of 4,956 survivors who did not develop thyroid cancer. In a subset of 83 survivors with leukocyte telomere length data available, this variant was associated with longer telomeres in B lymphocytes (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Using a functional variant approach, we identified and confirmed an association between a low frequency intronic regulatory POT1 variant and thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm in survivors of childhood cancer. These results suggest that intronic variation in POT1 may affect key protein binding interactions that impact telomere maintenance and genomic integrity.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(3): 436-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer treatment can cause gonadal impairment. Acute ovarian failure is defined as the permanent loss of ovarian function within 5 years of cancer diagnosis. We aimed to develop and validate risk prediction tools to provide accurate clinical guidance for paediatric patients with cancer. METHODS: In this cohort study, prediction models of acute ovarian failure risk were developed using eligible female US and Canadian participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort and validated in the St Jude Lifetime Cohort (SJLIFE) Study. 5-year survivors from the CCSS cohort were included if they were at least 18 years old at their most recent follow-up and had complete treatment exposure and adequate menstrual history (including age at menarche, current menstrual status, age at last menstruation, and menopausal aetiology) information available. Participants in the SJLIFE cohort were at least 10-year survivors. Participants were excluded from the prediction analysis if they had an ovarian hormone deficiency, had missing exposure information, or had indeterminate ovarian status. The outcome of acute ovarian failure was defined as permanent loss of ovarian function within 5 years of cancer diagnosis or no menarche after cancer treatment by the age of 18 years. Logistic regression, random forest, and support vector machines were used as candidate methods to develop the risk prediction models in the CCSS cohort. Prediction performance was evaluated internally (in the CCSS cohort) and externally (in the SJLIFE cohort) using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the precision-recall curve (average precision [AP; average positive predictive value]). FINDINGS: Data from the CCSS cohort were collected for participants followed up between Nov 3, 1992, and Nov 25, 2016, and from the SJLIFE cohort for participants followed up between Oct 17, 2007, and April 16, 2012. Of 11 336 female CCSS participants, 5886 (51·9%) met all inclusion criteria for analysis. 1644 participants were identified from the SJLIFE cohort, of whom 875 (53·2%) were eligible for analysis. 353 (6·0%) of analysed CCSS participants and 50 (5·7%) of analysed SJLIFE participants had acute ovarian failure. The overall median follow-up for the CCSS cohort was 23·9 years (IQR 20·4-27·9), and for SJLIFE it was 23·9 years (19·0-30·0). The three candidate methods (logistic regression, random forest, and support vector machines) yielded similar results, and a prescribed dose model with abdominal and pelvic radiation doses and an ovarian dose model with ovarian radiation dosimetry using logistic regression were selected. Common predictors in both models were history of haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cumulative alkylating drug dose, and an interaction between age at cancer diagnosis and haematopoietic stem-cell transplant. External validation of the model in the SJLIFE cohort produced an estimated AUC of 0·94 (95% CI 0·90-0·98) and AP of 0·68 (95% CI 0·53-0·81) for the ovarian dose model, and AUC of 0·96 (0·94-0·97) and AP of 0·46 (0·34-0·61) for the prescribed dose model. Based on these models, an online risk calculator has been developed for clinical use. INTERPRETATION: Both acute ovarian failure risk prediction models performed well. The ovarian dose model is preferred if ovarian radiation dosimetry is available. The models, along with the online risk calculator, could help clinical discussions regarding the need for fertility preservation interventions in girls and young women newly diagnosed with cancer. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Women and Children's Health Research Institute, National Cancer Institute, and American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

7.
BMJ ; 368: l6794, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of modifications to contemporary cancer protocols, which minimize exposures to cardiotoxic treatments and preserve long term health, on serious cardiac outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 27 institutions participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. PARTICIPANTS: 23 462 five year survivors (6193 (26.4%) treated in the 1970s, 9363 (39.9%) treated in the 1980s, and 7906 (33.6%) treated in the 1990s) of leukemia, brain cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcomas, and bone sarcomas diagnosed prior to age 21 years between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1999. Median age at diagnosis was 6.1 years (range 0-20.9) and 27.7 years (8.2-58.3) at last follow-up. A comparison group of 5057 siblings of cancer survivors were also included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative incidence and 95% confidence intervals of reported heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias by treatment decade. Events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Multivariable subdistribution hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios by decade, and mediation analysis examined risks with and without exposure to cardiotoxic treatments. RESULTS: The 20 year cumulative incidence of heart failure (0.69% for those treated in the 1970s, 0.74% for those treated in the 1980s, 0.54% for those treated in the 1990s) and coronary artery disease (0.38%, 0.24%, 0.19%, respectively), decreased in more recent eras (P<0.01), though not for valvular disease (0.06%, 0.06%, 0.05%), pericardial disease (0.04%, 0.02%, 0.03%), or arrhythmias (0.08%, 0.09%, 0.13%). Compared with survivors with a diagnosis in the 1970s, the risk of heart failure, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease decreased in the 1980s and 1990s but only significantly for coronary artery disease (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.92 and 0.53, 0.36 to 0.77, respectively). The overall risk of coronary artery disease was attenuated by adjustment for cardiac radiation (0.90, 0.78 to 1.05), particularly among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (unadjusted for radiation: 0.77, 0.66 to 0.89; adjusted for radiation: 0.87, 0.69 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Historical reductions in exposure to cardiac radiation have been associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Additional follow-up is needed to investigate risk reductions for other cardiac outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01120353.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias , Neoplasias , Radioterapia , Risco Ajustado , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/classificação , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Risco Ajustado/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 10-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared the measurement properties for multiple modes of survey administration, including postal mail, telephone interview, and Web-based completion of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: The population included 6,974 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), which measured anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms. Scale reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity related to health status were tested for each mode of completion. The multiple indicators and multiple causes technique was used to identify differential item functioning (DIF) for the BSI-18 items that responded through a specific survey mode. The impact of the administration mode was tested by comparing differences in BSI-18 scores between the modes accounting for DIF effects. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 58%, 27%, and 15% completed postal mail, Web-based, and telephone surveys, respectively. Survivors who were male; had lower education, lower household income, or poorer health status; or were treated with cranial radiotherapy were more likely to complete a telephone-based survey compared with either a postal mail or Web-based survey (all P < .05). Scale reliability and validity were equivalent across the 3 survey options. One, 2, and 5 items from the anxiety, depression, and somatization domains, respectively, were identified as having significant DIF among survivors who responded by telephone (P < .05). However, estimated BSI-18 domain scores, especially depression and anxiety, between modes did not differ after accounting for DIF effects. CONCLUSION: Certain survivor characteristics were associated with choosing a specific mode for PRO survey completion. However, measurement properties among these modes were equivalent, and the impact of using a specific mode on scores was minimal.

9.
Cancer ; 126(6): 1330-1338, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to characterize chronic disease, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), emotional distress, and social attainment among long-term survivors of neuroblastoma. METHODS: Chronic health conditions among 136 ≥10-year neuroblastoma survivors (median age, 31.9 years; range, 20.2-54.6 years) and 272 community controls (median age, 34.7 years; range, 18.3-59.6 years) were graded with a modified version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03). HRQOL and emotional distress were assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Log-binomial regression and logistic regression were used to compare the prevalence of chronic conditions and the frequency of reduced HRQOL, distress, and social attainment between survivors and controls. The cumulative burden approach was used to estimate multimorbidity. RESULTS: By the age of 35 years, survivors had experienced, on average, 8.5 grade 1 to 5 conditions (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.6-9.3), which was higher than the average for controls (3.3; 95% CI, 2.9-3.7). Compared with controls, survivors had a higher prevalence of any pulmonary (P = .003), auditory (P < .001), gastrointestinal (P < .001), neurological (P = .003), or renal condition (P < .001); were more likely to report poor physical HRQOL (P = .01) and symptoms of anxiety (P = .01) and somatization (P = .01); and were less likely to live independently (P = .01) or marry (P = .01). In analyses limited to survivors, those with 1 or more grade 3 to 5 conditions were more likely to report reduced general health (odds ratio [OR], 6.6; 95% CI, 1.6-26.9), greater bodily pain (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-17.0), and unemployment (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.5). CONCLUSIONS: Because of the high burden of chronic diseases and the associations of these morbidities with reduced HRQOL and social attainment, screening and interventions that provide opportunities to optimize health are important among neuroblastoma survivors.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 692, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959839

RESUMO

Cranial radiation therapy is associated with white matter-specific brain injury, cortical volume loss, mineralization, microangiopathy and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis, neurocognitive testing and 3 T brain MRI's were obtained in 101 survivors treated with cranial radiation. Small focal intracerebral hemorrhages only visible on exquisitely sensitive MRI sequences were identified and localized using susceptibility weighted imaging. Modified Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of cranial radiation on cumulative number and location of microbleeds in each brain region, and multiple linear regression was used to evaluate microbleeds on neurocognitive outcomes, adjusting for age at diagnosis and sex. At least one microbleed was present in 85% of survivors, occurring more frequently in frontal lobes. Radiation dose of 24 Gy conveyed a 5-fold greater risk (95% CI 2.57-10.32) of having multiple microbleeds compared to a dose of 18 Gy. No significant difference was found in neurocognitive scores with either the absence or presence of microbleeds or their location. Greater prevalence of microbleeds in our study compared to prior reports is likely related to longer time since treatment, better sensitivity of SWI for detection of microbleeds and the use of a 3 T MRI platform.

11.
Cancer ; 126(7): 1576-1584, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined long-term neurocognitive outcomes in survivors of childhood soft-tissue sarcoma. METHODS: A total of 150 survivors (41% of whom were female with a mean current age of 33 years [SD, 8.9 years] and a time since diagnosis of 24 years [SD, 8.7 years]) and 349 community controls (56% of whom were female with a mean current age of 35 years [SD, 10.2 years]) completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing, echocardiography, electrocardiography, pulmonary function tests, endocrine evaluation, and physical examination. Patient-reported outcomes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and social attainment were collected. Survivors were compared with norms and controls on neurocognitive outcomes using general linear models, and on HRQOL and social attainment using modified Poisson models. The impacts of treatment and chronic health conditions on outcomes were examined using multivariable general linear models (effect size was expressed as unstandardized ß estimates that reflected the unit of change from a mean of 0 and an SD of 1) and modified Poisson models (effect size expressed as relative risks). RESULTS: Compared with controls and population norms, survivors demonstrated lower performance on measures of verbal reasoning (mean z score, -0.45 [SD, 1.15]; P < .001) mathematics (mean z score, -0.63 [SD, 1.07]; P < .001), and long-term memory (mean z score, -0.37 [SD, 1.14]; P < .001). Cumulative anthracycline exposure (per 100 mg/m2 ) was found to be associated with poorer verbal reasoning (ß = -0.14 z scores; P = .04), reading (ß = -0.09 z score; P = .04), and patient-reported vitality (relative risk, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.59). Neurologic and neurosensory chronic conditions were associated with poorer mathematics (neurologic conditions: ß = -0.63 z score [P = 0.02]; and hearing impairment: ß = -0.75 z scores [P < 0.01]). Better cognitive performance was associated with higher social attainment. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survivors of soft-tissue sarcoma are at risk of neurocognitive problems and poor HRQOL associated with anthracycline treatment and chronic health conditions.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze and compare leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and age-dependent LTL attrition between childhood cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, and to evaluate the associations of LTL with treatment exposures, chronic health conditions (CHCs), and health behaviors among survivors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We included 2,427 survivors and 293 non-cancer controls of European ancestry, drawn from the participants in St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE), a retrospective hospital-based study with prospective follow-up (2007-2016). Common non-neoplastic CHCs (59 types) and subsequent malignant neoplasms (5 types) were clinically assessed. LTL was measured with whole-genome sequencing data. RESULTS: After adjusting for age at DNA sampling, gender, genetic risk score based on 9 SNPs known to be associated with telomere length, and eigenvectors, LTL among survivors was significantly shorter both overall (adjusted mean [AM]=6.20kb; SE=0.03kb) and across diagnoses than controls (AM=6.69kb; SE=0.07kb). Among survivors, specific treatment exposures associated with shorter LTL included chest or abdominal irradiation, glucocorticoid, and vincristine chemotherapies. Significant negative associations of LTL with 14 different CHCs, and a positive association with subsequent thyroid cancer occurring out of irradiation field were identified. Health behaviors were significantly associated with LTL among survivors aged 18-35 years (p trend=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: LTL is significantly shorter among childhood cancer survivors than non-cancer controls, and is associated with CHCs and health behaviors, suggesting LTL as an aging biomarker may be a potential mechanistic target for future intervention studies designed to prevent or delay onset of CHCs in childhood cancer survivors.

13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(2): e28047, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the absolute number of adult survivors of childhood cancer in the U.S. population who carry a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in a cancer predisposition gene. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, we estimated the number of childhood cancer survivors on December 31, 2016 for each childhood cancer diagnosis, multiplied this by the proportion of carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (SJLIFE) study, and projected the resulting number onto the U.S. RESULTS: Based on genome sequence data, 11.8% of 2450 SJLIFE participants carry a pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in one of 156 cancer predisposition genes. Given this information, we estimate that 21 800 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the United States carry a pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in one of these genes. The highest estimated absolute number of variant carriers are among survivors of central nervous system tumors (n = 4300), particularly astrocytoma (n = 1800) and other gliomas (n = 1700), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4300), and retinoblastoma (n = 3500). The most frequently mutated genes are RB1 (n = 3000), NF1 (n = 2300), and BRCA2 (n = 800). CONCLUSION: Given the increasing number of childhood cancer survivors in the United States, clinicians should counsel survivors regarding their potential genetic risk, consider referral for genetic counseling and testing, and, as appropriate, implement syndrome-specific cancer surveillance or risk-reducing measures.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 232-247, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of frailty among childhood cancer survivors and to determine the direct and indirect effects of treatment exposures, lifestyle factors, and severe, disabling, and life-threatening chronic condition on frailty. METHODS: Childhood cancer survivors (≥ 5 years since diagnosis), treated between 1970 and 1999 when < 21 years old (n = 10,899; mean age, 37.6 ± 9.4 years; 48% male, 86% white) and siblings were included (n = 2,097; mean age, 42.9 ± 9.4 years). Frailty was defined as ≥ 3 of the following: low lean mass, exhaustion, low energy expenditure, walking limitations, and weakness. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate direct and indirect associations between frailty and treatment exposures, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and chronic condition. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of frailty among survivors was 3 times higher compared with siblings (6.4%; 95% CI, 4.1% to 8.7%; v 2.2%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 3.2%). Survivors of CNS tumors (9.5%; 95% CI, 5.2% to 13.8%) and bone tumors (8.1%; 95% CI, 5.1% to 11.1%) had the highest prevalence of frailty. Survivors exposed to cranial radiation, pelvic radiation ≥ 34 Gy, abdominal radiation > 40 Gy, cisplatin ≥ 600 mg/m2, amputation, or lung surgery had increased risk for frailty. These associations were partially but not completely attenuated when sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and chronic conditions were added to multivariable models. Cranial radiation (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.76), pelvic radiation ≥ 34 Gy (PR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.11), and lung surgery (PR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.38) remained significant after sociodemographic, lifestyle, and chronic conditions were accounted for. CONCLUSION: Childhood cancer survivors reported a higher prevalence of frailty compared with siblings. Radiation and lung surgery exposures were associated with increased risk for frailty. Interventions to prevent, delay onset, or remediate chronic disease and/or promote healthy lifestyle are needed to decrease the prevalence of frailty and preserve function in this at-risk population.

15.
Cancer ; 126(5): 1051-1059, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor socioeconomic and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes in survivors of childhood cancer can lead to distress and overall negatively impact the lives of these individuals. The current report has highlighted the impact of stroke and stroke recurrence on mortality, psychological HRQOL, and socioeconomic outcomes within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). METHODS: The CCSS is a retrospective cohort study with longitudinal follow-up concerning survivors of pediatric cancer who were diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. Mortality rates per 100 person-years were calculated across 3 periods: 1) prior to stroke; 2) after first stroke and before recurrent stroke; and 3) after recurrent stroke. Socioeconomic outcomes, the standardized Brief Symptoms Inventory-18, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and the CCSS-Neurocognitive Questionnaire also were assessed. RESULTS: Among 14,358 participants (median age, 39.7 years), 224 had a stroke after their cancer diagnosis (single stroke in 161 patients and recurrent stroke in 63 patients). Based on 2636 deaths, all-cause late mortality rates were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.68-0.73) prior to stroke, 1.03 (95% CI, 0.73-1.46) after the first stroke, and 2.42 (95% CI, 1.48-3.94) after the recurrent stroke. Among 7304 survivors, those with stroke were more likely to live with a caregiver (single stroke odds ratio [OR], 2.3 [95% CI, 1.4-3.8]; and recurrent stroke OR, 5.3 [95% CI, 1.7-16.8]) compared with stroke-free survivors. Stroke negatively impacted task efficiency (single stroke OR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.4-4.1] and recurrent stroke OR, 3.3 [95% CI, 1.1-10.3]) and memory (single stroke OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.7]; and recurrent stroke OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.1-10.5]). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke and stroke recurrence are associated with increased mortality and negatively impact HRQOL measures in survivors of pediatric cancer.

16.
Radiat Res ; 193(2): 95-106, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794291

RESUMO

Quantification of radiation dose to normal tissue during radiotherapy is critical for assessing risk for radiotherapy-related late effects, including subsequent neoplasms (SNs). Case-control studies of SNs typically reconstruct absorbed radiation dose to the specific SN location using individual treatment parameters. A simplified method estimates the maximum prescribed target dose to the body region in which the SN arises. We compared doses and risk estimates from these methods using data from case-control studies of subsequent brain tumors (64 cases, 244 controls) and breast cancer (94 cases, 358 controls) nested within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (≥5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed 1970-1986). The weighted kappa statistic [95% confidence interval (CI)] evaluating agreement between categorical (>0-9.9/10-19.9/20-29.9/≥30 Gy) body-region and tumor location-specific doses was 0.95 (0.91-0.98) for brain and 0.76 (0.69-0.82) for breast. The body-region and location-specific doses were assigned to the same dose category for a smaller proportion of patients treated with fields delivering a heterogeneous dose across the tissue of interest (e.g., partial brain field = 57.1%; mantle field = 61.3%) than patients treated with fields delivering a more homogeneous dose (e.g., whole brain field = 100%). Excess odds ratios per Gy (95% CI) from conditional logistic regression were 1.25 (0.33-6.33) and 1.20 (0.31-6.14) for brain tumors and 0.21 (0.05-0.77) and 0.10 (0.02-0.44) for breast cancer, using location-specific and body-region doses, respectively. We observed that body-region doses can approximate location-specific doses when the tissue of interest is clearly in the radiation field or outside the treated body region. Agreement is lower when there is greater ambiguity of SN location relative to the treatment field.

17.
Cancer ; 126(4): 870-878, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater than one-half of children who are treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) develop ≥1 treatment-related medical conditions in their lifetime, many of which are known risk factors for diabetes mellitus. In the current study, the authors evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among clinically assessed adult survivors of childhood ALL METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective evaluation of data from survivors of ALL and community controls who were enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study between October 1, 2007, and June 30, 2016. Participants were adults with ≥10 years of survival of childhood ALL and community controls who completed clinical and laboratory evaluations. Data for the current analysis were abstracted from medical records. Exposures evaluated herein included chemotherapy and radiation exposures and medical history, including drug-induced diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Of 1360 eligible adults who were ≥10-year survivors of childhood ALL, a total of 1044 completed the evaluations; these individuals had a mean age of 33.97±9.14 years and 50.86% were male. The 368 controls, 45.65% of whom were male, had a mean age of 35.33±10.21 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was found in approximately 7.47% of survivors and 3.80% of controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.11-3.87). In adjusted models, among survivors, older age (OR, 1.05 for each additional year; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR, 7.40; 95% CI, 2.61-20.97), and drug-induced diabetes mellitus occurring during ALL therapy (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.53-8.61) were found to be associated with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Adult survivors of childhood ALL are at an increased risk of T2DM. Adult survivors of childhood ALL who are of older age, with an overweight or obese body mass index, and/or who developed drug-induced diabetes mellitus during treatment should be closely monitored for T2DM during long-term follow-up.

18.
Cancer ; 126(3): 640-648, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for both treatment-related exercise intolerance and neurocognitive deficits. This analysis aimed to identify the association between exercise intolerance and neurocognitive impairments in ALL survivors. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, results from a 2-hour standardized neuropsychological assessment, and self-report questionnaires were obtained for 341 adult survivors of childhood ALL and 288 controls. Multivariable modeling was used to test associations between oxygen uptake at 85% estimated heart rate (rpkVO2 ) and neuropsychological test and self-reported questionnaire domains, adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis, cranial radiation, anthracycline, and methotrexate exposure and tobacco smoking status. RESULTS: Compared with controls, survivors had worse rpkVO2 and performance on verbal intelligence, focused attention, verbal fluency, working memory, dominant/nondominant motor speed, visual-motor speed, memory span, and reading and math measures (all P < .001). In adjusted models, exercise intolerance was associated with decreases in performance of verbal ability, focused attention, verbal fluency, working memory, dominant motor speed, nondominant motor speed, visual-motor speed, memory span, reading academics, and math academics in survivors. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association between exercise intolerance and neurocognitive outcomes. Research is needed to determine whether interventions that improve exercise tolerance impact neurocognitive function in ALL survivors.

19.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(1): 29-42, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622133

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exercise intolerance, associated with heart failure and death in general populations, is not well studied in survivors of childhood cancer. We examined prevalence of exercise intolerance in survivors exposed or not to cardiotoxic therapy, and associations among organ system function, exercise intolerance, and mortality. METHODS: Participants consisted of 1,041 people who had survived cancer ≥ 10 years (and had or did not have exposure to anthracyclines and/or chest-directed radiation) and 285 control subjects. Exercise intolerance was defined as peak oxygen uptake < 85% predicted from maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing; organ functions were ascertained with imaging or clinical testing. Multivariable regression of the data was performed to compare exercise capacity between survivors exposed or unexposed to cardiotoxic therapy and control subjects, and to evaluate associations between treatment and organ function, and organ function and exercise intolerance. Propensity score methods in time-to-event analyses evaluated associations between exercise intolerance and mortality. RESULTS: Survivors (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 35.6 ± 8.8 years) had lower mean (± SD) peak oxygen uptake (exposed: 25.74 ± 8.36 mL/kg/min; unexposed: 26.82 ± 8.36 mL/kg/min) than did control subjects (32.69 ± 7.75 mL/kg/min; P for all < .001). Exercise intolerance was present in 63.8% (95% CI, 62.0% to 65.8%) of exposed survivors, 55.7% (95% CI, 53.2% to 58.2%) of unexposed survivors, and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.0% to 28.3%) of control subjects, and was associated with mortality (hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.09 to 14.14). Global longitudinal strain (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.63), chronotropic incompetence (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.75 to 7.31); forced expiratory volume in 1 second < 80% (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.65 to 4.09), and 1 SD decrease in quadriceps strength (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.82) were associated with exercise intolerance. Ejection fraction < 53% was not associated with exercise intolerance. CONCLUSION: Exercise intolerance is prevalent among childhood cancer survivors and associated with all-cause mortality. Treatment-related cardiac (detected by global longitudinal strain), autonomic, pulmonary, and muscular impairments increased risk. Survivors with impairments may require referral to trained specialists to learn to accommodate specific deficits when engaging in exercise.

20.
Cancer ; 126(3): 619-627, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal risk-based survivor health care includes surveillance for late effects and education targeted at reducing or preventing risky health behaviors. Understanding the reasons for a lack of risk-based follow-up care is essential. METHODS: Adult participants from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were surveyed about having a cancer-related visit in the past 2 years and the likelihood of having a cancer-related visit in the future. Additional factors thought to be related to the primary outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS: Nine hundred seventy-five survivors completed the survey. Twenty-seven percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 24%-30%) had a cancer-related medical visit in the previous 2 years, and 41% (95% CI, 38%-44%) planned to have such a visit within the next 2 years. The likelihood of having had a cancer-related visit within the last 2 years was higher among survivors assigning greater importance to these visits (relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), perceiving greater susceptibility to health problems (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), having a moderate to life-threatening chronic health problem related to their cancer (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.7), seeing a primary care provider for a cancer-related problem (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6), having a cancer treatment summary (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6), and endorsing greater confidence in physicians' abilities to address questions and concerns (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3). CONCLUSIONS: Educational interventions improving awareness of treatment history and susceptibility to cancer-related late effects and corresponding risk-based care are likely to be beneficial for survivors of childhood cancers.

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