Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 622
Filtrar
1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28988, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine associations between phenotypes of short sleep duration and clinically assessed health conditions in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Survivors recruited from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (n = 911; 52% female; mean age 34 years; 26 years postdiagnosis) completed behavioral health surveys and underwent comprehensive physical examinations. Sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Short sleep was defined as ≤6 h per night with phenotypes of short sleep including poor sleep efficiency (<85%), prolonged sleep onset latency (SOL; ≥30 min), and wake after sleep onset (≥3 times per week). Covariates included childhood cancer treatment exposures, demographics, body mass index, and physical inactivity. Separate modified Poisson regression models were computed for each health category to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multinomial logistic regression models examined associations between sleep and an aggregated burden of chronic health conditions. RESULTS: Short sleep duration was reported among 44% (95% CI 41%-47%) of survivors. In multivariable models, short sleep duration alone was associated with pulmonary (RR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.69), endocrine (RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.39) and gastrointestinal/hepatic conditions (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.79), and anxiety (RR 3.24, 95% CI 1.64-6.41) and depression (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.27-4.27). Short sleep with prolonged SOL was associated with a high/severe burden of health conditions (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.12-4.94). CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration was associated with multiple clinically ascertained adverse health conditions. Although the temporality of these associations cannot be determined in this cross-sectional study, sleep is modifiable and improving sleep may improve long-term health in survivors.

2.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 53, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well-established that cancer treatment substantially increases the risk of long-term adverse health outcomes among childhood cancer survivors. However, there is limited research on the underlying mechanisms. To elucidate the pathophysiology and a possible causal pathway from treatment exposures to cardiometabolic conditions, we conducted epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) to identify the DNA methylation (DNAm) sites associated with cancer treatment exposures and examined whether treatment-associated DNAm sites mediate associations between specific treatments and cardiometabolic conditions. METHODS: We included 2052 survivors (median age 33.7 years) of European ancestry from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, a retrospective hospital-based study with prospective clinical follow-up. Cumulative doses of chemotherapy and region-specific radiation were abstracted from medical records. Seven cardiometabolic conditions were clinically assessed. DNAm profile was measured using MethylationEPIC BeadChip with blood-derived DNA. RESULTS: By performing multiple treatment-specific EWAS, we identified 935 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' (CpG) sites mapped to 538 genes/regions associated with one or more cancer treatments at the epigenome-wide significance level (p < 9 × 10-8). Among the treatment-associated CpGs, 8 were associated with obesity, 63 with hypercholesterolemia, and 17 with hypertriglyceridemia (false discovery rate-adjusted p < 0.05). We observed substantial mediation by methylation at four independent CpGs (cg06963130, cg21922478, cg22976567, cg07403981) for the association between abdominal field radiotherapy (abdominal-RT) and risk of hypercholesterolemia (70.3%) and by methylation at three CpGs (cg19634849, cg13552692, cg09853238) for the association between abdominal-RT and hypertriglyceridemia (54.6%). In addition, three CpGs (cg26572901, cg12715065, cg21163477) partially mediated the association between brain-RT and obesity with a 32.9% mediation effect, and two CpGs mediated the association between corticosteroids and obesity (cg22351187, 14.2%) and between brain-RT and hypertriglyceridemia (cg13360224, 10.5%). Notably, several mediator CpGs reside in the proximity of well-established dyslipidemia genes: cg21922478 (ITGA1) and cg22976567 (LMNA). CONCLUSIONS: In childhood cancer survivors, cancer treatment exposures are associated with DNAm patterns present decades following the exposure. Treatment-associated DNAm sites may mediate the causal pathway from specific treatment exposures to certain cardiometabolic conditions, suggesting the utility of DNAm sites as risk predictors and potential mechanistic targets for future intervention studies.

4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29030, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788394

RESUMO

The cumulative burden of chronic health conditions as childhood cancer survivors transition to adult health care and insurance systems is unknown. We estimated the cumulative burden (N = 4612 survivors, 625 controls) in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. At 18 and 26 years old, survivors experienced (per 100 individuals) an average of 22.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.2-27.4) and 40.3 (95% CI: 34.8-45.8) disabling conditions versus 3.5 (95% CI: 2.0-5.0) and 5.7 (95% CI: 3.7-7.7) in controls, and 128.7 (95% CI: 119.5-137.8) and 240.5 (95% CI: 229.9-251.0) lower severity conditions versus 12.4 (95% CI: 8.9-16.0) and 51.3 (95% CI: 43.1-59.4) in controls. Survivors experience a high cumulative burden at key health care transition ages, underscoring the need to optimize access to care.

5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer may be at increased risk for treatment-related kidney dysfunction. Although associations with acute kidney toxicity are well described, evidence informing late kidney sequelae is less robust. METHODS: To define the prevalence of and risk factors for impaired kidney function among adult survivors of childhood cancer who had been diagnosed ≥10 years earlier, we evaluated kidney function (eGFR and proteinuria). We abstracted information from medical records about exposure to chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation treatment and evaluated the latter as the percentage of the total kidney volume treated with ≥5 Gy (V5), ≥10 Gy (V10), ≥15 Gy (V15), and ≥20 Gy (V20). We also used multivariable logistic regression models to assess demographic and clinical factors associated with impaired kidney function and Elastic Net to perform model selection for outcomes of kidney function. RESULTS: Of the 2753 survivors, 51.3% were men, and 82.5% were non-Hispanic White. Median age at diagnosis was 7.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-13.2), and mean age was 31.4 years (IQR, 25.8-37.8) at evaluation. Time from diagnosis was 23.2 years (IQR, 17.6-29.7). Approximately 2.1% had stages 3-5 CKD. Older age at evaluation; grade ≥2 hypertension; increasing cumulative dose of ifosfamide, cisplatin, or carboplatin; treatment ever with a calcineurin inhibitor; and volume of kidney irradiated to ≥5 or ≥10 Gy increased the odds for stages 3-5 CKD. Nephrectomy was significantly associated with stages 3-5 CKD in models for V15 or V20. CONCLUSIONS: We found that 2.1% of our cohort of childhood cancer survivors had stages 3-5 CKD. These data may inform screening guidelines and new protocol development.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some adult survivors of childhood cancers develop frailty at higher rates than expected based on their chronological age. This study examined the incidence of frailty among survivors at ten or more years after diagnosis, frailty prevalence 5 years later, and risk factors for becoming frail. METHODS: Frailty was measured at study entry and five years later. Logistic regression tested the associations of several factors with having frailty at five years for all participants and separately by sex and by study entry frailty status. Cox models evaluated the hazard of death associated with entry frailty considering covariates. RESULTS: Cancer survivors (range = 0-22 years at diagnosis, median = 7 years) were age 18-45 years (median = 30 years) at study entry. Frailty prevalence increased from 6.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.0%-7.5%) to 13.6% (95% CI = 11.9%-15.4%) at 5 years. Risk factors for frailty at follow-up among all survivors included chest radiation ≥20 Gy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.29-3.05), cardiac (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.46) and neurological (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.69-3.92) conditions, lack of strength training (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.14-2.66), sedentary lifestyle (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.18-2.59), and frailty at study entry (OR = 11.12, 95% CI = 6.64-18.61). The strongest risk factor for death during follow-up was prior frailty (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.95-6.32). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalent frailty more than doubled at 5 years after study entry among adult childhood cancer survivors. Frailty at entry was the strongest risk factor for death. Because treatment exposures cannot be changed, mitigation of other risk factors for frailty, including lack of strength training and sedentary lifestyle may decrease risk of adverse health events and improve longevity in survivors.

7.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young adult cancer survivors are at risk for subsequent human papillomavirus (HPV)-related malignancies. High-risk sexual behavior increases risk for HPV acquisition; HPV vaccination protects against infection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual behaviors, factors related to high-risk sexual behaviors, and the relationship between sexual behaviors and HPV vaccine non-initiation among survivors. METHODS: Survivors at comprehensive cancer centers, aged 18-26 years and 1-5 years post-treatment, reported sexual behaviors and HPV vaccine initiation (i.e., ≥ 1 dose). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviors (age at first intercourse < 16 years, ≥ 3 lifetime sexual partners, or condom use ≤ 50% of the time) and to explore the relationship between sexual behaviors and vaccine non-initiation. RESULTS: Of the 312 participants (48.1% female, median age at cancer diagnosis 17.2 years and at survey 20.9 years), sexual intercourse was reported by 63.1%. Of those reporting intercourse, 74.6% reported high-risk sexual behavior. Factors related to high-risk sexual behavior included currently dating/partnered (OR = 4.39, 95%CI 2.5-7.7, P < 0.001) and perceived susceptibility to HPV (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.3-2.5, P < 0.001). Most survivors (75.3%) reported HPV vaccine non-initiation; sexual behaviors were not associated with vaccine non-initiation (P = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Many survivors participate in high-risk sexual behaviors, yet HPV vaccine initiation rates are low. Factors related to high-risk sexual behaviors can inform interventions to reduce risk for HPV acquisition among survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Cancer survivors participate in sexual behaviors that increase risk for HPV acquisition and would benefit from vaccination.

8.
Hum Reprod ; 36(4): 1120-1133, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582778

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do genetic variations in the DNA damage response pathway modify the adverse effect of alkylating agents on ovarian function in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Female CCS carrying a common BR serine/threonine kinase 1 (BRSK1) gene variant appear to be at 2.5-fold increased odds of reduced ovarian function after treatment with high doses of alkylating chemotherapy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Female CCS show large inter-individual variability in the impact of DNA-damaging alkylating chemotherapy, given as treatment of childhood cancer, on adult ovarian function. Genetic variants in DNA repair genes affecting ovarian function might explain this variability. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CCS for the discovery cohort were identified from the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER VEVO-study, a multi-centre retrospective cohort study evaluating fertility, ovarian reserve and risk of premature menopause among adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Female 5-year CCS, diagnosed with cancer and treated with chemotherapy before the age of 25 years, and aged 18 years or older at time of study were enrolled in the current study. Results from the discovery Dutch DCOG-LATER VEVO cohort (n = 285) were validated in the pan-European PanCareLIFE (n = 465) and the USA-based St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (n = 391). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: To evaluate ovarian function, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were assessed in both the discovery cohort and the replication cohorts. Using additive genetic models in linear and logistic regression, five genetic variants involved in DNA damage response were analysed in relation to cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) score and their impact on ovarian function. Results were then examined using fixed-effect meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Meta-analysis across the three independent cohorts showed a significant interaction effect (P = 3.0 × 10-4) between rs11668344 of BRSK1 (allele frequency = 0.34) among CCS treated with high-dose alkylating agents (CED score ≥8000 mg/m2), resulting in a 2.5-fold increased odds of a reduced ovarian function (lowest AMH tertile) for CCS carrying one G allele compared to CCS without this allele (odds ratio genotype AA: 2.01 vs AG: 5.00). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: While low AMH levels can also identify poor responders in assisted reproductive technology, it needs to be emphasized that AMH remains a surrogate marker of ovarian function. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Further research, validating our findings and identifying additional risk-contributing genetic variants, may enable individualized counselling regarding treatment-related risks and necessity of fertility preservation procedures in girls with cancer. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by the PanCareLIFE project that has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 602030. In addition, the DCOG-LATER VEVO study was funded by the Dutch Cancer Society (Grant no. VU 2006-3622) and by the Children Cancer Free Foundation (Project no. 20) and the St Jude Lifetime cohort study by NCI U01 CA195547. The authors declare no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2001186, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630659

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of serious chronic health conditions among survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), compare by era of therapy and by selected cancer therapies, and provide estimates of risks associated with contemporary therapy. METHODS: Assessing 2,996 5-year HL survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study diagnosed from 1970 to 1999, we examined the cumulative incidence of severe to fatal chronic conditions (grades 3-5) using self-report conditions, medically confirmed subsequent malignant neoplasms, and cause of death based on the National Death Index. We used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) per decade and by key treatment exposures. RESULTS: HL survivors were of a mean age of 35.6 years (range, 12-58 years). The cumulative incidence of any grade 3-5 condition by 35 years of age was 31.4% (95% CI, 29.2 to 33.5). Females were twice as likely (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 2.4) to have a grade 3-5 condition compared with males. From the 1970s to the 1990s, there was a 20% reduction (HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.9) in decade-specific risk of a grade 3-5 condition (P trend = .002). In survivors who had a recurrence and/or hematopoietic cell transplant, the risk of a grade 3-5 condition was substantially elevated, similar to that of survivors treated with high-dose, extended-field radiotherapy (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.5). Compared with survivors treated with chest radiotherapy ≥ 35 Gy in combination with an anthracycline or alkylator, a contemporary regimen for low-intermediate risk HL was estimated to lead to a 40% reduction in risk of a grade 3-5 condition (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4 to 0.8). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that risk-adapted therapy for pediatric HL has resulted in a significant reduction in serious long-term outcomes.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(4): e28873, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501778

RESUMO

We assessed breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening practices in adult retinoblastoma (Rb) survivors and non-Rb controls. We found that most Rb survivors adhered to general population cancer screening recommendations. Rates did not differ among Rb survivors and non-Rb controls, or among survivors by laterality, even though bilateral survivors reported higher levels of concern about future health and cancer risk. Older age, being overweight/obese, and lack of recent contact with medical personnel were independently associated with decreased utilization of Pap smear among female Rb survivors. Future studies are warranted to determine whether these associations might provide an opportunity for intervention.

11.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 37, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently no method to precisely measure the errors that occur in the sequencing instrument/sequencer, which is critical for next-generation sequencing applications aimed at discovering the genetic makeup of heterogeneous cellular populations. RESULTS: We propose a novel computational method, SequencErr, to address this challenge by measuring the base correspondence between overlapping regions in forward and reverse reads. An analysis of 3777 public datasets from 75 research institutions in 18 countries revealed the sequencer error rate to be ~ 10 per million (pm) and 1.4% of sequencers and 2.7% of flow cells have error rates > 100 pm. At the flow cell level, error rates are elevated in the bottom surfaces and > 90% of HiSeq and NovaSeq flow cells have at least one outlier error-prone tile. By sequencing a common DNA library on different sequencers, we demonstrate that sequencers with high error rates have reduced overall sequencing accuracy, and removal of outlier error-prone tiles improves sequencing accuracy. We demonstrate that SequencErr can reveal novel insights relative to the popular quality control method FastQC and achieve a 10-fold lower error rate than popular error correction methods including Lighter and Musket. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals novel insights into the nature of DNA sequencing errors incurred on DNA sequencers. Our method can be used to assess, calibrate, and monitor sequencer accuracy, and to computationally suppress sequencer errors in existing datasets.

12.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495497

RESUMO

Cumulative burden of chronic health conditions and neurocognitive and physical function were examined among survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT; n = 66) or conventional therapy (CT; n = 67). Survivors and controls underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, and health conditions were graded using a modified version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. By age 40 years, HCT and CT survivors had an average 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-20.1) and 9.3 (7.7-11.1) grade 1-4 conditions versus 3.8 (3.3-4.2) in community controls. Compared to controls, HCT survivors had a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (45.5% vs. 18.3%), hypercholesterolemia (47.0% vs. 30.9%), hypothyroidism (27.3% vs. 4.0%), and primary hypogonadism (p < 0.001). CT survivors had a higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy (11.9% vs. 2.7%) and hypertension (53.7% vs. 44.3%). Neurocognitive impairment was elevated across all domains compared to controls but did not differ by treatment modality. Compared to controls, a higher proportion of HCT survivors had impairments in strength and endurance; whereas flexibility and mobility impairments were noted among CT survivors. Despite successful advances in childhood AML therapy, many therapeutic exposures remain unchanged. These findings support ongoing investigations of novel therapies and strategies to ameliorate the risk of late morbidities.

14.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288658

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathy occurs at significantly higher rates in survivors of childhood cancer than the general population, but few studies have evaluated racial or ethnic disparities, and none have assessed potential genetic factors contributing to this outcome. In this study, childhood cancer survivors of African ancestry exposed to cardiotoxic therapies (anthracyclines and/or heart radiation) (n=246) were compared to cardiotoxic-exposed survivors of European ancestry (n=1645) in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. Genetic variants were examined using whole-genome sequencing data among survivors of African ancestry, first based on ejection fraction (EF) as a continuous outcome, followed by clinical history of cardiomyopathy. Survivors of African ancestry showed 1.53- and 2.47-fold risks of CTCAE grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 cardiomyopathy than survivors of European ancestry. A novel locus at 1p13.2 showed significant association with EF [rs6689879*C: EF reduction=4.2%; P=2.8×10-8] in 246 survivors of African ancestry, which was successfully replicated in 1645 survivors of European ancestry but with attenuated magnitude (EF reduction=0.4%; P=0.042). In survivors of African ancestry, rs6689879*C showed a 5.43-fold risk of cardiomyopathy and 1.31-fold risk in those of European ancestry. Among survivors of African ancestry with rs6689879*C and CTCAE grade 2-4 cardiomyopathy, the PHTF1 promoter region was hypomethylated. Similar results were observed in survivors of European ancestry, albeit with reduced magnitudes of hypomethylation among those with rs6689879*C and CTCAE grade 2-4 cardiomyopathy. PHTF1 was upregulated in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from patients with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These findings have potential implications for long-term cardiac surveillance and up-front cancer care for patients of African ancestry.

15.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use childhood cancer survivors as a novel model to study whether children who experience central nervous system (CNS) injury are at higher risk for neurocognitive impairment associated with subsequent late onset chronic health conditions (CHC). METHODS: Adult survivors of childhood cancer (n=2,859, ≥10 years from diagnosis, ≥18 years old) completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery and clinical exam. Neurocognitive impairment was defined as age-adjusted Z-score <10th percentile. Participants impaired on ≥3 tests had global impairment. CHC were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.3 (grade 1:mild, 2:moderate, 3:severe/disabling), 4:life-threatening), and were combined into a severity/burden score by frequency and grade (none/low, medium, high, and very high). 1,598 survivors received CNS directed therapy including cranial radiation, intrathecal methotrexate, or neurosurgery. Logistic regression estimated the odds of neurocognitive impairment associated with severity/burden score and grade 2-4 conditions, stratified by CNS treatment. RESULTS: CNS-treated survivors performed worse than non-CNS-treated survivors on all neurocognitive tests and were more likely to have global neurocognitive impairment (46.9% vs 35.3%, p<0.001). After adjusting for demographic and treatment factors, there was a dose-response association between severity/burden score and global neurocognitive impairment, but only among CNS-treated survivors (high OR=2.24, 95%CI 1.42-3.53; very high OR=4.07, 95%CI 2.30-7.17). Cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions were associated with processing speed, executive function, and memory impairments in CNS-treated but not non-CNS-treated survivors, who were impacted by neurologic conditions. INTERPRETATION: Reduced cognitive/brain reserve associated with CNS-directed therapy during childhood may make survivors vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects of cardiopulmonary conditions during adulthood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338273

RESUMO

Childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation therapy (RT) and osteotoxic chemotherapies are at increased risk for fractures. However, understanding of how genetic and clinical susceptibility factors jointly contribute to fracture risk among survivors is limited. To address this gap, we conducted genome-wide association studies of fracture risk after cancer diagnosis in 2453 participants of European ancestry from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) with 930 incident fractures using Cox regression models (ie, time-to-event analysis) and prioritized sex- and treatment-stratified genetic associations. We performed replication analyses in 1417 survivors of European ancestry with 652 incident fractures from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE). In discovery, we identified a genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) fracture risk locus, 16p13.3 (HAGHL), among female CCSS survivors (n = 1289) with strong evidence of sex-specific effects (psex-heterogeneity < 7 × 10-6 ). Combining discovery and replication data, rs1406815 showed the strongest association (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43, p = 8.2 × 10-9 ; n = 1935 women) at this locus. In treatment-stratified analyses in the discovery cohort, the association between rs1406815 and fracture risk among female survivors with no RT exposures was weak (HR = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.57, p = 0.11) but increased substantially among those with greater head/neck RT doses (any RT: HR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.54-2.28, p = 2.4 × 10-10 ; >36 Gray only: HR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.95-7.34, p = 8.2 × 10-5 ). These head/neck RT-specific HAGHL single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects were replicated in female SJLIFE survivors. In silico bioinformatics analyses suggest these fracture risk alleles regulate HAGHL gene expression and related bone resorption pathways. Genetic risk profiles integrating this locus may help identify female survivors who would benefit from targeted interventions to reduce fracture risk. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

17.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of chronic pain, the impact of pain on daily functioning is not well understood. METHODS: A total of 2836 survivors (mean age, 32.2 years [SD, 8.5 years]; mean time since diagnosis, 23.7 years [SD, 8.2 years]) and 343 noncancer community controls (mean age, 35.5 years [SD, 10.2 years]) underwent comprehensive medical, neurocognitive, and physical performance assessments, and completed measures of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and social functioning. Multinomial logistic regression models, using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), examined associations between diagnosis, treatment exposures, chronic health conditions, and pain. Relative risks (RRs) between pain and neurocognition, physical performance, social functioning, and HRQOL were examined using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Approximately 18% of survivors (95% CI, 16.1%-18.9%) versus 8% of controls (95% CI, 5.0%-10.9%) reported moderate to very severe pain with moderate to extreme daily interference (P < .001). Severe and life-threatening chronic health conditions were associated with an increased likelihood of pain with interference (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.62-2.54). Pain with daily interference was found to be associated with an increased risk of impaired neurocognition (attention: RR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.46-2.41]; and memory: RR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.25-2.17]), physical functioning (aerobic capacity: RR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.84-2.84]; and mobility: RR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.42-2.06]), social functioning (inability to hold a job and/or attend school: RR, 4.46 [95% CI, 3.45-5.76]; and assistance with routine and/or personal care needs: RR, 5.64 [95% CI, 3.92-8.10]), and HRQOL (physical: RR, 6.34 [95% CI, 5.04-7.98]; and emotional: RR, 2.83 [95% CI, 2.28-3.50]). CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of pain and associated functional impairments. Survivors should be screened routinely for pain and interventions targeting pain interference are needed.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that is not fully explained by cancer-directed therapies. We examined the contribution of emotional stress and distress to cardiac health in adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Participants included 3,267 adult survivors enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (median[range] 29.9 [18.1-64.5] years of age; 7.7 [0-24.8] years at diagnosis; 48.4% female). Survivors completed comprehensive medical assessments and standardized measures of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and perceived stress. Cardiovascular-related conditions included hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmia, myocardial infarction (severity graded 0-4), and metabolic syndrome (yes/no). Multivariable modified Poisson models examined associations between symptoms of stress/distress and cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal associations between stress/distress and new onset cardiovascular outcomes, defined as a change from grade ≤1 at initial evaluation to grade ≥2 at follow-up (median 3.9 years) were examined in 1,748 participants. RESULTS: In multivariable cross-sectional models, stress/distress was associated with hypertension (RR=1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43), dyslipidemia (RR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.61), and metabolic syndrome (RR=1.35, 95% CI 1.17-1.54) independent of known cardiovascular risk factors. In longitudinal models, stress/distress was associated with new onset dysrhythmia (RR=2.87, 95% CI 1.21-6.78), perceived stress with hypertension (RR=1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.95), and PTSS and anxiety with dyslipidemia (RR=1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62; RR=1.54 95% CI 1.01-2.35, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Stress/distress is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among childhood cancer survivors. IMPACT: Improving psychological health may serve as a potential intervention target for optimizing cardiac health among childhood cancer survivors.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025839, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216140

RESUMO

Importance: Treatment with contemporary chemotherapy-only protocols is associated with risk for neurocognitive impairment among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Objective: To determine whether concurrent use of methotrexate and glucocorticoids is associated with interference with the antioxidant system of the brain and damage and disruption of glucocorticoid-sensitive regions of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to July 2019 in a single pediatric cancer tertiary care center. Participants included survivors of childhood ALL who were more than 5 years from cancer diagnosis, age 8 years or older, and treated on an institutional chemotherapy-only protocol. Age-matched community members were recruited as a control group. Data were analyzed from August 2017 to August 2020. Exposure: ALL treatment using chemotherapy-only protocols. Main Outcomes and Measures: This study compared brain volumes between survivors and individuals in a community control group and examined associations among survivors of methotrexate and dexamethasone exposure with neurocognitive outcomes. Functional and effective connectivity measures were compared between survivors with and without cognitive impairment. The Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, a neurocognitive evaluation in which individuals are asked to copy a figure and then draw the figure from memory, was scored according to published guidelines and transformed into age-adjusted z scores based on nationally representative reference data and used to measure organization and planning deficits. ß values for neurocognitive tests represented the amount of change in cerebellar volume or chemotherapy exposure associated with 1 SD change in neurocognitive outcome by z score (mm3/1 SD in z score for cerebellum, mm3/[g×hr/L] for dexamethasone and methotrexate AUC, and mm3/intrathecal count for total intrathecal count). Results: Among 302 eligible individuals, 218 (72%) participated in the study and 176 (58%) had usable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. Among these, 89 (51%) were female participants and the mean (range) age was 6.8 (1-18) years at diagnosis and 14.5 (8-27) years at evaluation. Of 100 community individuals recruited as the control group, 82 had usable MRI results; among these, 35 (43%) were female individuals and the mean (range) age was 13.8 (8-26) years at evaluation. There was no significant difference in total brain volume between survivors and individuals in the control group. Survivors of both sexes showed decreased mean (SD) cerebellar volumes compared with the control population (female: 70 568 [6465] mm3 vs 75 134 [6780] mm3; P < .001; male: 77 335 [6210] mm3 vs 79 020 [7420] mm3; P < .001). In female survivors, decreased cerebellar volume was associated with worse performance in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (left cerebellum: ß = 55.54; SE = 25.55; P = .03; right cerebellum: ß = 52.57; SE = 25.50; P = .04) and poorer dominant-hand motor processing speed (ie, grooved pegboard performance) (left cerebellum: ß = 82.71; SE = 31.04; P = .009; right cerebellum: ß = 91.06; SE = 30.72; P = .004). In female survivors, increased number of intrathecal treatments (ie, number of separate injections) was also associated with Worse Rey-Osterrieth test performance (ß = -0.154; SE = 0.063; P = .02), as was increased dexamethasone exposure (ß = -0.0014; SE = 0.0005; P = .01). Executive dysfunction was correlated with increased global efficiency between smaller brain regions (Pearson r = -0.24; P = .01) compared with individuals without dysfunction. Anatomical connectivity showed differences between impaired and nonimpaired survivors. Analysis of variance of effective-connectivity weights identified a significant interaction association (F = 3.99; P = .02) among the direction and strength of connectivity between the cerebellum and DLPFC, female sex, and executive dysfunction. Finally, no effective connectivity was found between the precuneus and DLPFC in female survivors with executive dysfunction. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that dexamethasone exposure was associated with smaller cerebello-thalamo-cortical regions in survivors of ALL and that disruption of effective connectivity was associated with impairment of executive function in female survivors.

20.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 1014-1026, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Approximately 40% of childhood cancer survivors experience chronic pain, with many also reporting pain-related disability. Given associations established in the general population among respiration, anxiety, and pain, continuous tracking and feedback of respiration may help survivors manage pain. METHODS: A feasibility, nonblinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing wearable respiratory monitoring with a control group examined feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy among survivors of childhood cancer with chronic pain who were ≥ 18 years of age, able to speak and read English, lived in the United States, and had access to a smartphone and the Internet. The primary outcomes were pain interference, pain severity, anxiety, negative affect, and perceived stress. The intervention group (n = 32) received a wearable respiratory monitor, used the device, and completed an in-application breathing exercise daily for 30 days. The control group (n = 33) received psychoeducation after completion of the study. RESULTS: Almost all participants in the intervention group (n = 31 of 32) and control group (n = 32 of 33) completed the study. Of those who completed the intervention, 90.3% wore the device for ≥ 50% of the trial. Posttreatment improvement for negative affect (Cohen d = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.10) was significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group. A follow-up study (n = 24) examined acceptability and feasibility of a second-generation device among those who completed the RCT. Most survivors (81.0%) wore the device daily during the trial and 85.7% reported satisfaction with the device and the application. CONCLUSION: The results of this pilot study support the acceptability and feasibility of wearable respiratory monitoring among survivors of childhood cancer. Larger randomized trials are needed to assess efficacy and maintenance of this intervention for chronic pain.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...