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1.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 31(1): 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on our previous findings that postmenopausal women with estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) concentrations at or above 1.3 pg/ml and 0.5 pg/ml, respectively, after 6 months of adjuvant anastrozole therapy had a three-fold risk of recurrence, we aimed to identify a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based model that would predict elevated E1 and E2 and then validate it in an independent dataset. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The test set consisted of 322 women from the M3 study and the validation set consisted of 152 patients from MA.27. All patients were treated with adjuvant anastrozole, had on-anastrozole E1 and E2 concentrations and genome-wide genotyping. RESULTS: SNPs were identified from the M3 genome-wide association study. The best model to predict the E1-E2 phenotype with high balanced accuracy was a support vector machine model using clinical factors plus 46 SNPs. We did not have an independent cohort that is similar to the M3 study with clinical, E1-E2 phenotypes and genotype data to test our model. Hence, we chose a nested matched case-control cohort (MA.27 study) for testing. Our E1-E2 model was not validated but we found the MA.27 validation cohort was both clinically and genomically different. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a SNP-based model that had excellent performance characteristics for predicting the phenotype of elevated E1 and E2 in women treated with anastrozole. This model was not validated in an independent dataset but that dataset was clinically and genomically substantially different. The model will need validation in a prospective study.

2.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(6): pkaa048, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225208

RESUMO

Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common, debilitating side effect that worsens quality of life and increases the risk of falls in cancer survivors. Evidence of yoga's safety and efficacy in treating CIPN is lacking. Methods: In a randomized controlled study, we assigned breast and gynecological cancer survivors with persistent moderate-to-severe CIPN pain, numbness, or tingling with a score of 4 or greater (0-10 numeric rating scale [NRS]) for at least 3 months after chemotherapy to 8 weeks of usual care or yoga focused on breathwork and musculoskeletal conditioning. Primary endpoint was treatment arm differences for NRS, and secondary endpoints were Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity subscale (FACT/GOG-Ntx), and Functional Reach Test after week 8. We tested treatment arm differences for each outcome measure using linear mixed models with treatment-by-time interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We randomly assigned 41 participants into yoga (n = 21) or usual care (n = 20). At week 8, mean NRS pain decreased by 1.95 points (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.20 to -0.70) in yoga vs 0.65 (95% CI = -1.81 to 0.51) in usual care (P = .14). FACT/GOG-Ntx improved by 4.25 (95% CI = 2.29 to 6.20) in yoga vs 1.36 (95% CI = -0.47 to 3.19) in usual care (P = .035). Functional reach, an objective functional measure predicting the risk of falls, improved by 7.14 cm (95% CI = 3.68 to 10.59) in yoga and decreased by 1.65 cm (95% CI = -5.00 to 1.72) in usual care (P = .001). Four grade 1 adverse events were observed in the yoga arm. Conclusion: Among breast and gynecological cancer survivors with moderate-to-severe CIPN, yoga was safe and showed promising efficacy in improving CIPN symptoms.

3.
J Adv Nurs ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245144

RESUMO

AIM: This study will test the feasibility and effectiveness of mobile technology intervention on the patients' self-management of oral anticancer medication. Secondary objectives include acceptability, the usefulness of text messages, and satisfaction by participants and nurses. METHODS: This prospective two-arm study will recruit patients (N = 220) with metastatic breast cancer and initiating treatment with palbociclib (Ibrance ®). Allowing for attrition, patients will be randomized into the control (N = 100) or intervention (N = 100) group. Unidirectional text message reminders will be sent during the treatment cycle through a secure web application using the patient's smartphone. Self-reported survey responses will be collected at three time points; at consent, end of treatment cycles, and the follow-up clinic visit and include a demographic questionnaire, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Post study questionnaire and the R-15 Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. Nurses providing care for study patients will complete the Adaptation of Stamps Nurse Workload questionnaire. Data will be analysed an intent-to-treat analysis comparing the two arms. Study approval was obtained in December 2019 and funded in January 2020. DISCUSSION: Smartphones are globally available and have text messaging capability which is increasingly being used as an intervention in healthcare studies. This study will test a low-cost, nurse-led intervention that enhances the patient's experience with oral anti-cancer medications, improves access to care, reduces costs, and improves the satisfaction of nurses caring for oncology patients. IMPACT: Despite the ease of administering oral anti-cancer medications, oncology patients maynot take them as prescribed and consequently, these factors affect patient outcomes and disease control. Given the importance of taking oral anti-cancer medications and the difficulties patients experience in achieving it, the effective use of mobile technology interventions can actively engage patients in their care and improve medication self-management of anticancer treatment regimens.

4.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1219-1226, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106634

RESUMO

Acquired mutations are pervasive across normal tissues. However, understanding of the processes that drive transformation of certain clones to cancer is limited. Here we study this phenomenon in the context of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) and the development of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMNs). We find that mutations are selected differentially based on exposures. Mutations in ASXL1 are enriched in current or former smokers, whereas cancer therapy with radiation, platinum and topoisomerase II inhibitors preferentially selects for mutations in DNA damage response genes (TP53, PPM1D, CHEK2). Sequential sampling provides definitive evidence that DNA damage response clones outcompete other clones when exposed to certain therapies. Among cases in which CH was previously detected, the CH mutation was present at tMN diagnosis. We identify the molecular characteristics of CH that increase risk of tMN. The increasing implementation of clinical sequencing at diagnosis provides an opportunity to identify patients at risk of tMN for prevention strategies.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2002151, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi), is approved for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in germline (g)BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Olaparib Expanded, an investigator-initiated, phase II study, assessed olaparib response in patients with MBC with somatic (s)BRCA1/2 mutations or g/s mutations in homologous recombination (HR)-related genes other than BRCA1/2. METHODS: Eligible patients had MBC with measurable disease and germline mutations in non-BRCA1/2 HR-related genes (cohort 1) or somatic mutations in these genes or BRCA1/2 (cohort 2). Prior PARPi, platinum-refractory disease, or progression on more than two chemotherapy regimens (metastatic setting) was not allowed. Patients received olaparib 300 mg orally twice a day until progression. A single-arm, two-stage design was used. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR); the null hypothesis (≤ 5% ORR) would be rejected within each cohort if there were four or more responses in 27 patients. Secondary endpoints included clinical benefit rate and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Fifty-four patients enrolled. Seventy-six percent had estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative disease. Eighty-seven percent had mutations in PALB2, sBRCA1/2, ATM, or CHEK2. In cohort 1, ORR was 33% (90% CI, 19% to 51%) and in cohort 2, 31% (90% CI, 15% to 49%). Confirmed responses were seen only with gPALB2 (ORR, 82%) and sBRCA1/2 (ORR, 50%) mutations. Median PFS was 13.3 months (90% CI, 12 months to not available/computable [NA]) for gPALB2 and 6.3 months (90% CI, 4.4 months to NA) for sBRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No responses were observed with ATM or CHEK2 mutations alone. CONCLUSION: PARP inhibition is an effective treatment for patients with MBC and gPALB2 or sBRCA1/2 mutations, significantly expanding the population of patients with breast cancer likely to benefit from PARPi beyond gBRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These results emphasize the value of molecular characterization for treatment decisions in MBC.

6.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083532

RESUMO

Histologic special types of breast cancer (BC) account for ~20% of BCs. Large sequencing studies of metastatic BC have focused on invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). We sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations of metastatic histologic special types of BC. We reanalyzed targeted capture sequencing data of 309 special types of BC, including metastatic and primary invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs; n = 132 and n = 127, respectively), mixed mucinous (n = 5 metastatic and n = 14 primary), micropapillary (n = 12 metastatic and n = 8 primary), and metaplastic BCs (n = 6 metastatic and n = 5 primary), and compared metastatic histologic special types of BC to metastatic IDC-NSTs matched according to clinicopathologic characteristics and to primary special type BCs. The genomic profiles of metastatic and primary special types of BC were similar. Important differences, however, were noted: metastatic ILCs harbored a higher frequency of genetic alterations in TP53, ESR1, FAT1, RFWD2, and NF1 than primary ILCs, and in CDH1, PIK3CA, ERBB2, TBX3, NCOR1, and RFWD2 than metastatic IDC-NSTs. Metastatic ILCs displayed a higher mutational burden, and more frequently dominant APOBEC mutational signatures than primary ILCs and matched metastatic IDC-NSTs. ESR1 and NCOR mutations were frequently detected in metastatic mixed mucinous BCs, whereas PIK3CA and TP53 were the most frequently altered genes in metastatic micropapillary and metaplastic BCs, respectively. Taken together, primary and metastatic BCs histologic special types have remarkably similar repertoires of somatic genetic alterations. Metastatic ILCs more frequently harbor APOBEC mutational signatures than primary ILCs and metastatic IDC-NSTs.

7.
Nat Cancer ; 1(4): 382-393, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864625

RESUMO

Alpelisib is a selective inhibitor of PI3Kα, shown to improve outcomes for PIK3CA mutant, hormone receptor positive (HR+) metastatic breast cancers (MBC) when combined with antiestrogen therapy. To uncover mechanisms of resistance, we conducted a detailed, longitudinal analysis of tumor and plasma circulating tumor DNA among such patients from a phase I/II trial combining alpelisib with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) (NCT01870505). The trial's primary objective was to establish safety with maculopapular rash emerging as the most common grade 3 adverse event (33%). Among 44 evaluable patients, the observed clinical benefit rate was 52%. Correlating genetic alterations with outcome, we identified loss-of-function PTEN mutations in 25% of patients with resistance. ESR1 activating mutations also expanded in number and allele fraction during treatment and were associated with resistance. These data indicate that genomic alterations that mediate resistance to alpelisib or antiestrogen may promote disease progression and highlight PTEN loss as a recurrent mechanism of resistance to PI3Kα inhibition.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with a family history of breast cancer are frequently referred for hereditary cancer genetic testing, yet < 10% are found to have pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes. Large-scale genotyping studies have identified common variants (primarily single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with individually modest breast cancer risk that, in aggregate, account for considerable breast cancer susceptibility. Here, we describe the development and empirical validation of an SNP-based polygenic breast cancer risk score. METHODS: A panel of 94 SNPs was examined for association with breast cancer in women of European ancestry undergoing hereditary cancer genetic testing and negative for pathogenic variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes. Candidate polygenic risk scores (PRSs) as predictors of personal breast cancer history were developed through multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, cancer history, and ancestry. An optimized PRS was validated in 2 independent cohorts (n = 13,174; n = 141,160). RESULTS: Within the training cohort (n = 24,259), 4,291 women (18%) had a personal history of breast cancer and 8,725 women (36%) reported breast cancer in a first-degree relative. The optimized PRS included 86 variants and was highly predictive of breast cancer status in both validation cohorts (P = 6.4 × 10-66; P < 10-325). The odds ratio (OR) per unit standard deviation was consistent between validations (OR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.39 to 1.52]; OR 1.47 [95% CI, 1.45 to 1.49]). In a direct comparison, the 86-SNP PRS outperformed a previously described PRS of 77 SNPs. CONCLUSION: The validation and implementation of a PRS for women without pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes offers potential for risk stratification to guide surveillance recommendations.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 33(11): 2221-2232, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612248

RESUMO

The Ventana PD-L1 SP142 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay is the FDA-approved companion diagnostic assay for atezolizumab therapy selection for patients with PD-L1-positive locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC). We aimed to elucidate clinical, pathologic, and molecular features associated with PD-L1 expression in TNBCs. Clinical, pathologic, and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular data for TNBCs tested with PD-L1 (SP142) IHC at our institution between 11/2018 and 12/2019 were retrieved and reviewed. PD-L1 positivity was defined as ≥1% IC staining. Patients with metastatic TNBC treated at first line with atezolizumab regimens were evaluated for treatment response and for time to treatment failure (TTF). Among 156 TNBCs, PD-L1 was positive in 47.4% of cases. Primary TNBCs were significantly more frequently PD-L1 positive, compared with recurrent/metastatic samples (p = 0.002). PD-L1-positive TNBCs had increased stromal IC, compared with PD-L1-negative samples (p < 0.001). The repertoire of somatic genetic alterations of PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative TNBCs was similar. Matched primary and recurrent/metastatic TNBC samples were available for eight patients, in whom four had discordant results. Thirty patients with metastatic TNBC were treated with atezolizumab regimens, with treatment failure occurring in 16 patients and a median TTF of 5.1 months in this early evaluation. The findings of this study show stromal ICs in primary TNBCs are more likely to show PD-L1 positivity than in recurrent or metastatic samples. This information should guide selection of samples suitable for testing. Further studies are needed to identify other features associated with PD-L1-positive breast carcinomas and clinical benefit of treatment.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e208501, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609350

RESUMO

Importance: To date, few studies have examined the extent to which polygenic single-nucleotide variation (SNV) (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism) scores modify risk for carriers of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer susceptibility genes. In previous reports, polygenic risk modification was reduced for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers, but limited information is available for carriers of CHEK2, ATM, or PALB2 PVs. Objective: To examine an 86-SNV polygenic risk score (PRS) for BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective case-control study using data on 150 962 women tested with a multigene hereditary cancer panel between July 19, 2016, and January 11, 2019, was conducted in a commercial testing laboratory. Participants included women of European ancestry between the ages of 18 and 84 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of the 86-SNV score with invasive breast cancer after adjusting for age, ancestry, and personal and/or family cancer history. Effect sizes, expressed as standardized odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs, were assessed for carriers of PVs in each gene as well as for noncarriers. Results: The median age at hereditary cancer testing of the population was 48 years (range, 18-84 years); there were 141 160 noncarriers in addition to carriers of BRCA1 (n = 2249), BRCA2 (n = 2638), CHEK2 (n = 2564), ATM (n = 1445), and PALB2 (n = 906) PVs included in the analysis. The 86-SNV score was associated with breast cancer risk in each of the carrier populations (P < 1 × 10-4). Stratification was more pronounced for noncarriers (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.45-1.49) and CHEK2 PV carriers (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.36-1.64) than for carriers of BRCA1 (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32) or BRCA2 (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.34) PVs. Odds ratios for ATM (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.55) and PALB2 (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55) PV carrier populations were intermediate between those for BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 noncarriers. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the 86-SNV score was associated with modified risk for carriers of BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PVs. This finding supports previous reports of reduced PRS stratification for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers. Modification of risk in CHEK2 carriers associated with the 86-SNV score appeared to be similar to that observed in women without a PV. Larger studies are needed to provide more refined estimates of polygenic modification of risk for women with PVs in other moderate-penetrance genes.

12.
JCI Insight ; 5(16)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701512

RESUMO

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduce breast cancer recurrence and prolong survival, but up to 30% of patients exhibit recurrence. Using a genome-wide association study of patients entered on MA.27, a phase III randomized trial of anastrozole versus exemestane, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CUB And Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) associated with breast cancer-free interval, with the variant allele associated with fewer distant recurrences. Mechanistically, CSMD1 regulates CYP19 expression in an SNP- and drug-dependent fashion, and this regulation is different among 3 AIs: anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. Overexpression of CSMD1 sensitized AI-resistant cells to anastrozole but not to the other 2 AIs. The SNP in CSMD1 that was associated with increased CSMD1 and CYP19 expression levels increased anastrozole sensitivity, but not letrozole or exemestane sensitivity. Anastrozole degrades estrogen receptor α (ERα), especially in the presence of estradiol (E2). ER+ breast cancer organoids and AI- or fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer cells were more sensitive to anastrozole plus E2 than to AI alone. Our findings suggest that the CSMD1 SNP might help to predict AI response, and anastrozole plus E2 serves as a potential new therapeutic strategy for patients with AI- or fulvestrant-resistant breast cancers.

13.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(3): txaa084, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705075

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether rotational grazing generates horse, pasture, or cost benefits over continuous grazing. The study established two replicates (1.57 ha each) of rotational (R; four grazing sections and a stress lot per replicate, where horses were fed a moderate quality grass hay at 2% of body weight when not grazing) and continuous (C) grazing systems (treatments). Twelve Standardbred mares were grazed for an overall stocking rate of 0.52 ha/horse (n = 3 in each pasture). Recommended management practices for each grazing system were followed for 27 mo including three grazing seasons. Samples were collected monthly between 0800 and 1000. Results were analyzed in SAS (V9.4) using mixed model repeated-measures analysis of covariance, chi-square tests of association, and two-sample t-tests. Alpha level was set at P < 0.05. The C horses were maintained on pasture for 100% of the study duration (844 d; August 1, 2014 to November 22, 2016), while R horses had access to pasture for approximately half of this time (408 ± 33 d). The average length of grazing bout per rotational grazing section during the grazing season increased numerically each year from 7.88 ± 0.76 d in 2014, 10.0 ± 0.61 d in 2015, and 10.9 ± 0.80 d in 2016. Average horse body condition score (BCS) and body fat differed by treatment, with C horses (BCS 6.3 ± 0.05, 17.9 ± 0.15% body fat) greater than R horses (BCS 5.9 ± 0.05, 16.8 ± 0.15% body fat). Both sward height and herbage mass were greater in R (11.8 ± 0.1 cm tall; 1,513 ± 41 kg/ha) than C pastures (6.9 ± 0.1 cm tall; 781 ± 35 kg/ha). The R pastures had higher proportions of vegetative and total cover, planted grasses (tall fescue and orchardgrass), and weeds but lower proportions of grass weeds (nonplanted grasses) and other (rocks, litter, bare ground, etc.) as compared with C pastures. Digestible energy, acid detergent fiber, and calcium were higher in R vs. C pastures; however, crude protein was lower in R vs. C pastures. There were no significant differences between treatments for average monthly amount of hay fed (C, 597 ± 34.1 vs. R, 659 ± 34.1 kg) or average monthly pasture maintenance cost (C, $17.55 ± 3.14 vs. R, $20.50 ± 3.14). This study is one of few replicated experiments comparing the effects of rotational and continuous grazing for horses on pasture quality, horse condition, and production costs. The results here support the recommendation of rotational grazing for production, environmental, and ecological purposes.

14.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 55, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523875

RESUMO

Background: Pyrethroid exposure in the household environment affects children directly via inhalation or dermal exposure. Hand wipes can effectively predict pyrethroid exposure to young children along with the children's activities. The main purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between 3-PBA metabolites, hand wipe sample concentrations and multiple exposure factors, within the population of households with young children in urban Bangkok, Thailand. Methods: Interviews were conducted with the parents of 80 children (aged 2-3 years). Urine was collected to analyze for 3-PBA metabolites and hand wipe samples were collected to analyze for cypermethrin. Both were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/MS). Results: A Spearmen's correlation test of the increase of 3-PBA metabolites was significantly associated with an increase in hand wipe samples (cypermethrin) in children (rs = 0.226-0.274, p-value < 0.05). The binary logistic regression test presented an association between exposure factors with 3-PBA metabolite concentration. Gender presented a significant association with 3-PBA metabolites (p-value = 0.035, OR = 0.326, 95% CI 0.115-0.926), and frequency of bare feet inside the household presented a significant association with 3-PBA metabolites (p-value < 0.01, OR = 7.072, 95% CI 1.707-29.291). In addition, exposure factors were not significantly associated with wipe sample concentration (cypermethrin) but showed high risk of exposure to young children. Conclusions: Suggestions to reduce the risk from long-term pyrethroid insecticide exposure to children living in households include increased education, awareness, and management.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8753, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472001

RESUMO

The OlympiAD Phase III study (NCT02000622) established the clinical benefits of olaparib tablet monotherapy (300 mg twice daily) over chemotherapy treatment of physician's choice (TPC) in patients with a germline BRCA1/2 mutation (gBRCAm) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer who had received ≤2 chemotherapy lines in the metastatic setting. Here, we report pre-specified analyses of data from Asian (China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan) patients in the study. All patients were randomized 2:1 to olaparib tablets (300 mg twice daily) or single-agent chemotherapy TPC (21-day cycles of either capecitabine, eribulin or vinorelbine). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by blinded independent central review. The prevalence of gBRCAm in the OlympiAD Asian subgroup screened for study recruitment was 13.5%. Patient demographics and disease characteristics of the Asian subgroup (87/302 patients) were generally well balanced between treatment arms. Asian patients in the olaparib arm achieved longer median progression-free survival, assessed by blinded independent central review, versus the chemotherapy TPC arm (5.7 vs 4.2 months; HR = 0.53 [95% CI: 0.29-0.97]), which was consistent with findings in the global OlympiAD study population. Findings on secondary efficacy and safety/tolerability outcome measures in Asian patients were also similar to those observed in the global OlympiAD study population. The OlympiAD study was not powered to detect race-related differences between treatment groups; however, the consistency of our findings with the global OlympiAD study population suggests that previously reported findings are generalizable to Asian patients.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(13): 3239-3247, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genomic methods can identify homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). Rigorous evaluation of their outcome association to DNA damage response-targeted therapies like platinum in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is essential in maximizing therapeutic outcome. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced-stage PDAC, who had both germline- and somatic-targeted gene sequencing. Homologous recombination gene mutations (HRm) were evaluated: BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, BAP1, BARD1, BLM, BRIP1, CHEK2, FAM175A, FANCA, FANCC, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, RAD51C, and RTEL1 HRm status was grouped as: (i) germline versus somatic; (ii) core (BRCAs and PALB2) versus non-core (other HRm); and (iii) monoallelic versus biallelic. Genomic instability was compared using large-scale state transition, signature 3, and tumor mutation burden. RESULTS: Among 262 patients, 50 (19%) had HRD (15% germline and 4% somatic). Both groups were analyzed together due to lack of difference in their genomic instability and outcome. Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] follow-up was 21.9 (1.4-57.0) months. Median OS and PFS were 15.5 (14.6-19) and 7 (6.1-8.1) months, respectively. Patients with HRD had improved PFS compared with no HRD when treated with first-line (1L) platinum [HR, 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67); P < 0.01], but not with 1L-non-platinum. Multivariate analysis showed HRD patients had improved OS regardless of their first-line treatment, but most had platinum exposure during their course. Biallelic HRm (11%) and core HRm (12%) had higher genomic instability, which translated to improved PFS on first-line platinum (1L-platinum) versus 1L-non-platinum. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenic HRm identifies HRD in patients with PDAC with the best outcome when treated with 1L-platinum. Biallelic HRm and core HRm further enriched benefit from 1L-platinum from HRD.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(18): 2080-2106, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop recommendations for management of patients with breast cancer (BC) with germline mutations in BC susceptibility genes. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Society for Radiation Oncology, and Society of Surgical Oncology convened an Expert Panel to develop recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature and a formal consensus process. RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles met eligibility criteria and formed the evidentiary basis for the local therapy recommendations; six randomized controlled trials of systemic therapy met eligibility criteria. RECOMMENDATIONS: Patients with newly diagnosed BC and BRCA1/2 mutations may be considered for breast-conserving therapy (BCT), with local control of the index cancer similar to that of noncarriers. The significant risk of a contralateral BC (CBC), especially in young women, and the higher risk of new cancers in the ipsilateral breast warrant discussion of bilateral mastectomy. Patients with mutations in moderate-risk genes should be offered BCT. For women with mutations in BRCA1/2 or moderate-penetrance genes who are eligible for mastectomy, nipple-sparing mastectomy is a reasonable approach. There is no evidence of increased toxicity or CBC events from radiation exposure in BRCA1/2 carriers. Radiation therapy should not be withheld in ATM carriers. For patients with germline TP53 mutations, mastectomy is advised; radiation therapy is contraindicated except in those with significant risk of locoregional recurrence. Platinum agents are recommended versus taxanes to treat advanced BC in BRCA carriers. In the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting, data do not support the routine addition of platinum to anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (olaparib and talazoparib) are preferable to nonplatinum single-agent chemotherapy for treatment of advanced BC in BRCA1/2 carriers. Data are insufficient to recommend PARP inhibitor use in the early setting or in moderate-penetrance carriers. Additional information available at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines.

18.
Fertil Steril ; 113(6): 1251-1260.e1, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether woman who have BRCA mutations (WBM) experience more declines in ovarian reserve after chemotherapy treatment, as it induces oocyte death by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and BRCA mutations result in DNA damage repair deficiency. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Academic centers. PATIENT(S): The 108 evaluable women with breast cancer were stratified into those never tested (negative family history; n = 35) and those negative (n = 59) or positive (n = 14) for a pathogenic BRCA mutation. INTERVENTION(S): Sera were longitudinally obtained before and 12-24 months after chemotherapy treatment, assayed for antimüllerian hormone (AMH), and adjusted for age at sample collection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Ovarian recovery, defined as the geometric mean of the after chemotherapy age-adjusted AMH levels compared with baseline levels. RESULT(S): Compared with the controls, the before chemotherapy treatment AMH levels were 24% and 34% lower in those negative or positive for BRCA mutations, consistent with accelerated ovarian aging in WBM. The WBM had a threefold difference in AMH recovery after chemotherapy treatment (1.6%), when compared with BRCA negative (3.7%) and untested/low risk controls (5.2%). Limiting the analysis to the most common regimen, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel, showed similar results. These findings were mechanistically confirmed in an in vitro mouse oocyte BRCA knockdown bioassay, which showed that BRCA deficiency results in increased oocyte susceptibility to doxorubicin. CONCLUSION(S): Women who have pathogenic BRCA mutations are more likely to lose ovarian reserve after chemotherapy treatment, suggesting an emphasis on fertility preservation. Furthermore, our findings generate the hypothesis that DNA repair deficiency is a shared mechanism between aging, infertility, and cancer. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00823654.

19.
Public Health Genomics ; 23(1-2): 6-19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191943

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic risk modifier testing (GRMT), an emerging form of genetic testing based on common single nucleotide polymorphisms and polygenic risk scores, has the potential to refine estimates of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' breast cancer risks. However, for women to benefit from GRMT, effective approaches for communicating this novel risk information are needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient preferences regarding risk communication materials for GRMT. METHODS: We developed four separate presentations (panel of genes, icon array, verbal risk estimate, graphical risk estimate) of hypothetical GRMT results, each using varying risk communication strategies to convey different information elements including number of risk modifier variants present, variant prevalence among BRCA1/2 carriers, and implications and uncertainties of test results for cancer risk. Thirty BRCA1/2 carriers evaluated these materials (randomized to low, moderate, or high breast cancer risk versions). Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained through in-person interviews. RESULTS: Across risk versions, participants preferred the presentation of the graphical risk estimate, often in combination with the verbal risk estimate. Interest in GRMT was high; 76.7% of participants wanted their own GRMT. Participants valued the potential for GRMT to clarify their cancer susceptibility and provide actionable information. Many (65.5%) anticipated that GRMT would make risk management decisions easier. CONCLUSIONS: Women with BRCA1/2 mutations could be highly receptive to GRMT, and the minimal amount of necessary information to be included in result risk communication materials includes graphical and verbal estimates of future cancer risk. Findings will inform clinical translation of GRMT in a manner consistent with patients' preferences.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119081

RESUMO

Whether radiation therapy (RT) affects contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in women with pathogenic germline variants in moderate- to high-penetrance breast cancer-associated genes is unknown. In a population-based case-control study, we examined the association between RT, variants in ATM, BRCA1/2, or CHEK2*1100delC, and CBC risk. We analyzed 708 cases of women with CBC, and 1,399 controls with unilateral breast cancer, all diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer between 1985-2000, <55 years of age at diagnosis, and screened for variants in breast cancer-associated genes. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RT did not modify the association between known pathogenic variants and CBC risk (e.g., BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers without RT, RR: 3.52, 95% CI: 1.76-7.01; BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers with RT, RR: 4.46, 95% CI: 2.96-6.71), suggesting that modifying RT plans for young women with breast cancer is unwarranted. Rare ATM missense variants, not currently identified as pathogenic, were associated with increased risk of RT-associated CBC (carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance without RT, RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.09-1.55; carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance with RT, RR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.31-6.80). Further mechanistic studies will aid clinical decision-making related to RT.

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