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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130571, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284185

RESUMO

Plant cell cultures from cloudberry (CL), lingonberry (LI), stone berry (ST), arctic bramble (AB), and strawberry (SB) were studied in terms of their polyphenol and carotenoid composition, antioxidant activity, antihemolytic activity and cytotoxicity effects on cancerous cells. High-resolution mass spectrometry data showed that LI, presented the highest antioxidant activity, contained the highest contents of flavones, phenolic acids, lignans, and total carotenoids, while CL, ST and SB presented the opposite behavior. AB and SB presented the lowest FRAP and CUPRAC values, while AB and CL presented the lowest reducing power. SB presented the lowest antioxidant activity measured by single electron transfer assays and the lowest content of lignans, phenolic acids, and flavones. CL and LI decreased the viability of in vitro mammary gland adenocarcinoma while only LI decreased the viability of in vitro lung carcinoma and showed protective effects of human erythrocytes against mechanical hemolysis.


Assuntos
Frutas , Fenóis , Antioxidantes , Carotenoides , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Frutas/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais
2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130782, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392121

RESUMO

In this study, the aerial parts and bulbs of nine Allium species were investigated for their functional phytochemical profile, in vitro antioxidant activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Phenolics, alkaloids, glucosinolates and other sulfur-containing compounds were distinctively profiled in the different species. Maceration in methanol allowed recovering the highest cumulative phenolic content in A. scabrifolium (42.31 mg/g), followed by A. goekyigiti (33.15 mg/g) and A. atroviolaceum (28.35 mg/g). The aerial parts of all Allium species showed high in vitro antioxidant activity whereas methanolic extract of A. cappadocicum bulb showed the highest inhibition against AChE (2.44 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and the water extracts of A. isauricum aerial part were the best BChE inhibitors (4.31 mg galantamine equivalent/g). Bulbs were the richer source of oligosaccharides, and in vitro digestion determined an increase of oligosaccharides bioaccessibility. A promising nutraceutical potential could be highlighted in our understudied Allium species.


Assuntos
Allium , Antioxidantes , Acetilcolinesterase , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829003

RESUMO

This work investigated the microbiological quality and chemical profiles of two different dairy creams obtained by centrifugation vs. natural creaming separation systems. To this aim, an untargeted metabolomics approach based on UHPLC-QTOF mass spectrometry was used in combination with multivariate statistical tools to find potential marker compounds of the two different types of two dairy creams. Thereafter, we evaluated the chemical, microbiological and sensorial changes of a ricotta cheese made with a 30% milk cream (i.e., made by combining dairy creams from centrifugation and natural creaming separation) during its shelf-life period (12 days). Overall, microbiological analysis revealed no significant differences between the two types of dairy creams. On the contrary, the trend observed in the growth of degradative bacteria in ricotta during shelf-life was significant. Metabolomics revealed that triacylglycerols and phospholipids showed significant strong down-accumulation trends when comparing samples from the centrifugation and natural creaming separation methods. Additionally, 2,3-Pentanedione was among the best discriminant compounds characterising the shelf-life period of ricotta cheese (VIP score = 1.02), mainly related to sensorial descriptors, such as buttery and cheesy. Multivariate statistics showed a clear impact of the shelf-life period on the ricotta cheese, revealing 139 potential marker compounds (mainly included in amino acids and lipids). Therefore, the approach used showed the potential of a combined metabolomic, microbiological and sensory approach to discriminate ricotta cheese during the shelf-life period.

4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679715

RESUMO

Pumpkin is considered a healthy and functional food. The consumption of pumpkins and pumpkin-based foods has been shown to confer several beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant capacity and terpenoid content. Consequently, this study aimed to characterize the in vitro antioxidant capacity (using FRAP and ABTS assays), terpenoid profile (using an untargeted lipidomics approach via high-resolution UHPLC-Orbitrap mass spectrometry), and carotenoid content (by HPLC-DAD) in pumpkin fruit pulp from accessions differing for species (11 Cucurbita maxima and 9 Cucurbita moschata), cultivar, and origin, belonging to a Serbian breeding collection. These accessions are candidates for inclusion within programs intended to improve pumpkin fruit quality. The results obtained in this work allowed us to highlight the best marker compounds, discriminating both the region of accession collection or breeding ("origin") and the plant species. Furthermore, our findings have helped to identify the most suitable antioxidant-rich varieties to select for national breeding programs for improving human health. These findings provide valuable information to the overall current understanding of the potential health benefits of pumpkins and the discriminant triterpenoids underlying the C. maxima and C. moschata accessions investigated here, which include those of Serbian and non-Serbian origin.

5.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110654, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600656

RESUMO

Parmigiano Reggiano is a hard cheese with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) certification that also applies to the grated product. The percentage of rind in grated Parmigiano Reggiano is regulated by the PDO production Specification and must not exceed the limit of 18% (w/w). The present study evaluates the potential of an untargeted foodomics approach to detect anomalous inclusions of rind in grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. In particular, a combined metabolomics and peptidomics approach was used to detect potential markers of counterfeits (rind > 18%). In the framework of realistic food integrity purposes, non-Parmigiano Reggiano grated samples and different ripening times were also considered. Untargeted metabolomics allowed detecting 347 compounds, with a prevalence of amino acids and peptide derivatives, followed by fatty acyls and other compounds (such as lactones, ketones, and aldehydes) typically related to proteolysis and lipolysis events. Overall, the unsupervised multivariate statistics showed that the ripening time plays a hierarchically higher impact than rind inclusion in determining the main differences in the chemical profiles detected. Interestingly, supervised statistics highlighted distinctive markers for ripening time and rind inclusion, with only 16 common discriminant compounds being shared between the two conditions. The best markers of rind inclusion > 18% were 2-hydroxyadenine (VIP score = 1.937; AUC value = 0.83) and the amino acid derivatives argininic acid (VIP score = 1.462; AUC value = 0.75) and 5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde (VIP score = 1.710; AUC value = 0.86). Interestingly, the medium-chain aldehyde 4-hydroperoxy-2-nonenal was a common marker of both ripening time and anomalous rind inclusion (>18%), likely arising from the lipid oxidation processes. Finally, among potential marker peptides of rind inclusion, the alpha-S1 casein proteolytic product (F)FVAPFPEVFGK(E) could be identified.


Assuntos
Queijo , Aminoácidos , Metabolômica , Peptídeos
6.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110658, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600660

RESUMO

Microbiological safety in food industry are always a concern regarding sublethal tolerance in bacteria for common and natural sanitizers. Natural bacteriocins, such as nisin (NIS), may negatively interfere in the efficiency of major compounds of essential oils against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. However, nanoemulsioned forms increase the bactericidal potential of natural compounds acting synergistically. In this study, cinnamaldehyde (CIN), citral (CIT), and linalool (LIN) were evaluated independently, associated with NIS, and in nanoemulsions (NEs) against Bacillus cereus using untargeted-metabolomics. Results revealed morphological changes in the structure of B. cereus treated with NEs of CIN and CIT, both NIS-associated. In addition, sensibility tests and UHPLC-QTOF-MS analyses indicated that NIS might react together with CIT reducing the bactericidal efficiency, while the nanoemulsion of CIT effect was enhanced by NIS in nanoemulsioned forms. This study highlights the importance of prudent administration of natural compounds as antimicrobial agents to prevent sublethal tolerance in pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus , Metabolômica , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
7.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574135

RESUMO

In this work, a retrospective screening based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) based on Orbitrap-Q-Exactive Focus™ was used to check the occurrence of regulated and emerging mycotoxins in bulk milk samples. Milk samples were collected from dairy farms in which corn silage was the main ingredient of the feeding system. The 45 bulk milk samples were previously analyzed for a detailed untargeted metabolomic profiling and classified into five clusters according to the corn silage contamination profile, namely: (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) low levels of fumonisins and other Fusarium-mycotoxins; (3) high levels of Aspergillus-mycotoxins; (4) high levels of non-regulated Fusarium-mycotoxins; (5) high levels of fumonisins and their metabolites. Multivariate statistics based on both unsupervised and supervised analyses were used to evaluate the significant fold-change variations of the main groups of mycotoxins detected when comparing milk samples from clusters 3, 4, and 5 (high contamination levels of the corn silages) with cluster 1 and 2 (low contamination levels of the corn silages). Overall, 14 compounds showed a significant prediction ability, with antibiotic Y (VIP score = 2.579), bikaverin (VIP score = 1.975) and fumonisin B2 (VIP score = 1.846) being the best markers. The k-means clustering combined with supervised statistics showed two discriminant groups of milk samples, thus revealing a hierarchically higher impact of the whole feeding system (rather than the only corn silages) together with other factors of variability on the final mycotoxin contamination profile. Among the discriminant metabolites we found some Fusarium mycotoxins, together with the tetrapeptide tentoxin (an Alternaria toxin), the α-zearalenol (a catabolite of zearalenone), mycophenolic acid and apicidin. These preliminary findings provide new insights into the potential role of UHPLC-HRMS to evaluate the contamination profile and the safety of raw milk to produce hard cheese.

8.
Metabolites ; 11(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436416

RESUMO

In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) was used for investigating changes in chemical profiles of cow milk considering diets based on mycotoxins-contaminated corn silages. For this purpose, 45 milk samples were classified into five clusters according to the corn silage contamination profile, namely (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) low levels of fumonisins and other Fusarium-mycotoxins; (3) high levels of Aspergillus-mycotoxins; (4) high levels of non-regulated Fusarium-mycotoxins; (5) high levels of fumonisins and their metabolites, and subsequently analyzed by UHPLC-HRMS followed by a multivariate statistical analysis (both unsupervised and supervised statistical approaches). Overall, the milk metabolomic profile highlighted potential correlations between the quality of contaminated corn silages (as part of the total mixed ration) and milk composition. Metabolomics allowed to identify 628 significant milk metabolites as affected by the five levels of corn silage contamination considered, with amino acids and peptides showing the highest metabolite set enrichment (134 compounds). Additionally, 78 metabolites were selected as the best discriminant of the prediction model built, possessing a variable importance in projection score >1.2. The average Log Fold-Change variations of the discriminant metabolites provided evidence that sphingolipids, together with purine and pyrimidine-derived metabolites were the most affected chemical classes. Also, metabolomics revealed a significant accumulation of oxidized glutathione in milk samples belonging to the silage cluster contaminated by emerging Aspergillus toxins, likely involved in the oxidative imbalance. These preliminary findings provide new insights into the potential role of milk metabolomics to provide chemical indicators of mycotoxins-contaminated corn silage feeding systems.

9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200152

RESUMO

Lupin seeds can represent a valuable source of phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile was performed on seeds from three Lupinus species, including one cultivar (Lupinus albus) and two wild accessions (Lupinus cossentinii and Lupinus luteus), collected from the northern region of Tunisia. Untargeted metabolomic profiling allowed to identify 249 compounds, with a great abundance of phenolics and alkaloids. In this regard, the species L. cossentinii showed the highest phenolic content, being 6.54 mg/g DW, followed by L. luteus (1.60 mg/g DW) and L. albus (1.14 mg/g DW). The in vitro antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS assay on seed extracts ranged from 4.67 to 17.58 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g, recording the highest values for L. albus and the lowest for L. luteus. The DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 0.39 to 3.50 mg TE/g. FRAP values varied between 4.11 and 5.75 mg TE/g. CUPRAC values for lupin seeds ranged from 7.20 to 8.95 mg TE/g, recording the highest for L. cossentinii. The results of phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelation showed similarity between the three species of Lupinus. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was detected in each methanolic extract analyzed with similar results. Regarding the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme, it was weakly inhibited by the Lupinus extracts; in particular, the highest activity values were recorded for L. albus (1.74 mg GALAE/g). Overall, our results showed that L. cossentinii was the most abundant source of polyphenols, consisting mainly in tyrosol equivalents (5.82 mg/g DW). Finally, significant correlations were outlined between the phenolic compounds and the in vitro biological activity measured, particularly when considering flavones, phenolic acids and lower-molecular-weight phenolics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Lupinus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Tunísia
10.
Food Chem ; 362: 130194, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091169

RESUMO

In this work, the major changes in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) composition during cooking were assessed. A foodomics approach based on both metabolomics and lipidomics was used to evaluate the impact of six different cooking techniques, three traditional and three more innovative (Crock-pot®, Roner® and Gastrovac®), and the effect of temperature and cooking time. The lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions of EVOO that underwent different cooking processes were characterized by untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry approaches. Multivariate statistics were used to unravel the differences in chemical signatures. The different cooking methods resulted in broadly different phytochemical profiles, arising from thermally driven reactions accounting for hydrolysis, synthesis, and oxidation processes. The innovative cooking techniques marginally altered the phytochemical profile of EVOO, whereas sauteing was the cooking method determining the most distinctive profile. Conventional cooking methods (oven, pan-frying, and deep-frying) produced more oxidation products (epoxy- and hydroxy-derivatives of lipids) and markedly induced degradation processes.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Culinária/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Oxirredução , Oxilipinas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Vácuo
11.
Foods ; 10(6)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073686

RESUMO

Pseudomonas fluorescens is a psychrotrophic species associated with milk spoilage because of its lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Consequently, monitoring P. fluorescens or its antecedent activity in milk is critical to preventing quality defects of the product and minimizing food waste. Therefore, in this study, untargeted metabolomics and peptidomics were used to identify the changes in milk related to P. fluorescens activity by simulating the low-temperature conditions usually found in milk during the cold chain. Both unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistical approaches showed a clear effect caused by the P. fluorescens inoculation on milk samples. Our results showed that the levels of phosphatidylglycerophosphates and glycerophospholipids were directly related to the level of contamination. In addition, our metabolomic approach allowed us to detect lipid and protein degradation products that were directly correlated with the degradative metabolism of P. fluorescens. Peptidomics corroborated the proteolytic propensity of P. fluorescens-contaminated milk, but with lower sensitivity. The results obtained from this study provide insights into the alterations related to P. fluorescens 39 contamination, both pre and post heat treatment. This approach could represent a potential tool to retrospectively understand the actual quality of milk under cold chain storage conditions, either before or after heat treatments.

12.
Foods ; 10(6)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071443

RESUMO

Cydonia oblonga Mill., normally known as the quince fruit, has been widely used in agro-food industries mainly to produce jams and jellies. However, other parts of the plants are still underutilized and not completely assessed for their nutraceutical profile. Therefore, in this work, the polyphenolic profile of C. oblonga was investigated using an untargeted metabolomics approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry. Several compounds were identified in the different parts of the plants, including flavonoids (i.e., anthocyanins, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols), phenolic acids (both hydroxycinnamics and hydroxybenzoics), low-molecular-weight phenolics (tyrosol equivalents), lignans, and stilbenes. Overall, C. oblonga leaves showed the highest in vitro antioxidant potential, as revealed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays, being 189.5, 285.6, 158.9, and 348.8 mg Trolox Equivalent/g, respectively. The enzymes acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterases were both inhibited by the different plant parts of C. oblonga, with stems showing the higher inhibitory potential. Interestingly, the fruit extracts were the only parts inhibiting the α-glucosidase, with a value of 1.36 mmol acarbose equivalents (ACAE)/g. On the other hand, strong tyrosinase inhibition was found for stems and leaves, being 72.11 and 68.32 mg Kojic acid Equivalent/g, respectively. Finally, a high number of significant (0.05 < p < 0.01) correlations were outlined between phenolics (mainly anthocyanins, flava-3-ols, and tyrosol equivalents) and the different biological assays. Taken together, our findings suggest a potential exploitation of C. oblonga leaves and stems for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

13.
Meat Sci ; 180: 108584, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087663

RESUMO

In this work, Italian salami were produced using microbial starters (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus sakei, and Staphylococcus xylosus) and compared to a control sample (without starter). Metabolomics in combination with microbiological and sensory analyses were used to investigate the overall quality. Samples were analyzed immediately after stuffing, following 7, 30, and 45 days of ripening. Each microbial starter imposed distinctive metabolomic signatures at the end of ripening. The accumulated discriminant compounds were mainly related to lipid oxidation (including hydroxy- and epoxy derivatives of fatty acids) following the inoculation with L. sakei. However, the inoculation with P. pentosaceus resulted in the accumulation of γ-glutamyl peptides, compounds driving a kokumi-related taste. Noteworthy, our findings supported the involvement of the chemical compounds profiled in the definition of final taste and aroma. This information paves the way towards the definition of more objective and tailored starters-related flavours enhancement approaches in the sector of cured meat.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactobacillus sakei , Lipídeos/análise , Odorantes , Oxirredução , Pediococcus pentosaceus , Staphylococcus , Sus scrofa , Paladar
14.
Food Res Int ; 143: 110242, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992354

RESUMO

Eriobotrya japonica, commonly known as loquat, has been used traditionally for the treatment of different diseases. Herein, untargeted profiling based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to depict the phytochemical profile of loquat roots, leaves, stems, seeds, and fruits. This allowed the tentative annotation of 349 compounds, representing different phytochemical classes that included flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, stilbenes, and terpenoids. Among others, low molecular weight phenolics (tyrosol derivatives) and terpenoids were the most abundant phytochemicals. After that, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition assays were applied to investigate the biological activity of the different organs of Eriobotrya japonica. Roots of E. japonica exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, showing 181.88, 275.48, 325.18, 169.74 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g in DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays, respectively. Furthermore, the root extract of E. japonica strongly inhibited butyryl cholinesterase (3.64 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g), whereas leaves, stems, seeds, and fruits showed comparable inhibition of both acetyl and butyryl cholinesterases. All the investigated organs of E. japonica exhibited in vitro tyrosinase inhibition (57.27-71.61 mg Kojic Acid Equivalent (KAE)/g). Our findings suggest a potential food and pharmaceutical exploitation of different organs of E. japonica (mainly roots) in terms of enrichment with health-promoting phenolics and triterpenes.


Assuntos
Eriobotrya , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metabolômica , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais
15.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3443-3454, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900332

RESUMO

The genus Limonium includes important halophyte plants containing a variety of bioactive compounds of therapeutic interest. In the present work, the untargeted phytochemical profiles of both aerial part and root extracts from six Limonium species namely, L. bellidifolium, L. globuliferum, L. gmelinii, L. lilacinum, L. sinuatum and L. iconicum from Turkey were determined. Furthermore, several biological activities (in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects) were investigated. Overall, significant amounts of total phenolics (43.64-238.18 mg g-1) and flavonoids (1.61-129.69 mg g-1) were recorded. Particularly, the root extracts of L. gmelinii, L. iconicum and L. globuliferum showed the highest total phenolic content (204.13-238.18 mg g-1), whilst the highest total flavonoid content was recorded in the root extracts of L. gmelinii (129.69 mg g-1). Overall, the tested extracts demonstrated potent radical scavenging activities in both DPPH (2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (90.10-507.94 mg g-1 and 163.39-1175.34 mg g-1, respectively). However, the highest scavenging potential (p < 0.05) was displayed by the root extracts of L. iconicum. Conversely, the metal chelating ability assay revealed that L. lilacinum root extract showed the highest activity (21.03 mg g-1). Interestingly, all the extracts were found to be active inhibitors of cholinesterases (AChE (acetylcholinesterase): 4.20-5.11 mg GALAE (galantamine equivalent) per g; BChE (butyrylcholinesterase): 3.89-10.75 mg GALAE per g), amylase (0.52-1.09 mmol ACAE (acarbose equivalent) per g) and tyrosinase (119.41-155.67 mg KAE (kojic acid equivalent) per g), unlike for glucosidase (2.31-2.41 mmol ACAE per g). Taken together, these findings demonstrated a diverse chemical profiles and biological of the extracts, to be potentially considered as phytotherapeutic or functional ingredients due to their antioxidant properties and inhibition of key enzymes involved in several diseases.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metaboloma , Plumbaginaceae/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plumbaginaceae/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
16.
Heliyon ; 7(3): e06562, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842706

RESUMO

Gluten-free (GF) biscuits were prepared by replacing part of a GF flour mix (GFM) with 0, 15, 30 and 45 g/100 g (total flour) with a novel resistant starch-rich ingredient obtained from annealed white sorghum starch (RSWS). The chemical composition, physical characteristics, in vitro starch digestion and sensory evaluation of biscuits were considered. The chemical composition of samples was influenced by the addition of the RSWS. The highest total dietary fibre and RS contents (p < 0.05) were measured in 45-RSWS biscuits. The starch hydrolysis index values decreased when the level of RSWS increased in the composite. With regard to quality parameters, the use of RSWS influenced the hardness of the biscuits, and the highest value obtained for 45-RSWS. Some of the selected sensory attributes, along with the overall acceptability score, were negatively influenced by the RSWS addition, even if all remained above the limit of acceptability. The use of RSWS in GF biscuit formulation can contribute towards the creation of food products likely having slowly digestible starch properties, and this can be achieved without drastically compromising on the quality and sensory attributes.

17.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921724

RESUMO

To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections, such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review focuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioavailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these reasons, a continuous systematic exploration of plant foods and their phytochemicals is necessary for the development of new antiviral agents capable of saving lives and improving their well-being.

18.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110039, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648265

RESUMO

In this study, four Brassicaceae microgreens species, namely kale, red cabbage, kohlrabi, and radish, were evaluated for their phytochemical compositions using spectrophotometric assays and untargeted metabolomics before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. According to the in vitro spectrophotometric results, significant amounts of phenolics could be detected in each studied species, thus supporting the total antioxidant capacities recorded. Overall, metabolomics allowed annotating a total of 470 phytochemicals across the four Brassicaceae microgreens, either fresh or digested. Among polyphenols, flavonoids were the most represented class (180 compounds, including anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols, and other flavonoids), followed by phenolic acids (68 compounds, mainly hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids), non-flavonoid or phenolic acid-based structures (i.e., alkyl- and alkylmethoxy-phenols and tyrosol derivatives), and lignans. Also, 22 glucosinolates were annotated, including gluconapin glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Noteworthy, significant differences could be observed in terms of bioaccessibility as a function of the phenolic class and the species considered. Overall, lignans exhibited the highest bioaccessibility values (14%), followed by tyrosol derivatives and flavonoids (on average, 9% and 8%, respectively). However, differences could be evidenced as a function of the species, with red cabbage having comparatively lower bioaccessibility values irrespective of the chemical class of bioactive considered. Similarly, bioaccessibility of glucosinolates significantly differed across species, ranging from 2% in kale to 43% in kohlrabi microgreens.


Assuntos
Brassica , Glucosinolatos , Flavonoides , Metabolômica , Polifenóis
19.
Food Res Int ; 142: 110212, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773686

RESUMO

In this work, considering the rising interest towards the exploitation of hemp seed oil in human nutrition, 45 hemp seeds from mono-variety fields were analyzed for their yield, oil content, in vitro antioxidant activity, followed by a comprehensive assessment of phenolic and sterolic composition. The results demonstrated that seed dimension is inversely correlated to total oil content, thus being a potential reference for quality assessment of seeds and for further improvement of hemp varieties. The UHPLC-QTOF metabolomic analysis revealed a large abundance of phytosterols, lower-molecular-weight phenolic acids, and lignanamides. Differences across varieties could be described, with Diana hemp seed oil having the highest cumulative abundance of phytochemicals, recording 6.04 mg/g. Overall, the in vitro antioxidant activity results indicated that hemp seed oil antioxidants have a low potential for preventing oil rancidity, with phenolic acids being the most active radical scavengers. Besides, in the group of Futura 75 samples cultivated across Italy, the type of harvesting affected the acidity value significantly as a consequence of mechanical harvest and post-harvest handling. Finally, multivariate statistics following untargeted metabolomic analysis showed that variety, geographical origin, and harvest-type were able to affect the phytochemical profiles with different incidences, with some phytochemicals proposed for the first time as potential discriminant markers.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Humanos , Itália , Fenóis/análise , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes/química
20.
Food Res Int ; 142: 110216, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773694

RESUMO

Oat (Avena sativa L.) is widely appreciated for its beneficial properties for human health, which have led to the introduction of more food products on the market, including oat beverages. The fibre components found in the oat are recognized for their beneficial effects, despite other bioactive compounds with healthy properties being present. This work aimed to evaluate the metabolites profile of a commercial oat beverage, either fermented with lactic bacteria or not, following in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion. UHPLC-QTOF untargeted metabolomics allowed investigation of the bioaccessibility of health-related metabolites from the oat beverage at the intestinal level. The results identified flavonoids, phenolic acids (avenanthramides), amino acids and steroids as the major classes of compounds. In particular, after in vitro digestion, amino acids, peptides, and phenolic acids showed the highest increases. The co-fermentation of oat milk by Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. strains decreased the levels of both lignans and phytic acid, while increased the levels of some polyphenols like avenanthramides. Furthermore, fermentation by microorganisms increased the bioaccessibility of specific amino acids, vitamins, and polyphenols (flavonoids and phenolic acids). Interestingly, despite lacking a significant part of beta-glucans, the HPAEC-PAD profiling of our oat beverage evidenced that the fermentation process did not alter the oligosaccharides profile, thus preserving its prebiotic potential. The phytochemical profile of oat milk was shown to have a functional potential. Nonetheless, the fermentation by bacterial strains changed the profile of metabolites during in vitro digestion, thus offering an interesting option in the future development of cereal-based beverages.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Animais , Avena , Bebidas , Digestão , Fermentação , Humanos , Metabolômica , Oligossacarídeos
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