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1.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 22(2): 183-189, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemo-immunotherapy combinations have revolutionized our treatment algorithm with respect to naïve advanced NSCLC; however, given the great number of developed and approved combinations, the question arises as to which combinations provide the best efficacy and safety. AREAS COVERED: This review assesses and discusses the available data concerning chemo-immunotherapy combinations in the treatment of naïve advanced NSCLC, as well as presenting the most promising data involving combinations currently under investigation. EXPERT OPINION: Pembrolizumab-containing chemo-immunotherapy combinations are associated with the most mature data available and presently represent the standard treatment in clinical practice in naïve advanced NSCLC-affected patients. The nivolumab plus ipilimumab plus short-course chemotherapy combination, more recently approved by regulatory agencies, is an appealing alternative, thanks to the reduced rate of grade 3-5 TRAEs and the limited chemotherapy administration. The new chemo-immunotherapy combinations currently under investigation will help us to better identify both the best immune checkpoints to target and the most effective combinations to administer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia
2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103536, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801697

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertions occur rarely among different cancer types, with the highest frequency reported among non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, particularly adenocarcinomas (ADCs). Exon 20 insertions fall back in the tyrosine kinase domain, and can be clustered into two principal groups represented by in frame insertions and three to 21 bp (corresponding to 1-7 amino acids) duplications within amino acids 762 and 774. The identification of these alterations is key for an adequate management of NSCLC patients due to the possibility to treat these patients with specific targeted therapies. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, able to detect several hotspot gene mutations for different patients simultaneously, is the best detection approach due to its higher sensitivity and specificity compared to other techniques. Here we reviewed the principal biological characteristics, the main detection technologies and treatment options for NSCLC patients harbouring EGFR exon 20 insertions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases
3.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(11): 1415-1425, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374626

RESUMO

Introduction: Landscape of Extensive Stage (ES)-SCLC treatment has been unchanged over the years. Chemotherapy, mostly based on cisplatin and etoposide, remained the standard-of-care for patients with ES-SCLC for almost 40 years. Recently, immune check points inhibitors have emerged marking a turning point for ES-SCLC treatmentAreas covered: Aim of the paper is to discuss ICIs impact on ES-SCLC treatment algorithms, review current clinical trials, and explore future perspectives.Expert opinion: A growing body of evidence supports ICI-containing regimens as a new mainstay of ES-SCLC treatment. Whether subgroups of SCLC patients may have greater survival benefits from ICIs treatment needs to be better defined. Understanding the impact of tumor microenvironment and identifying reliable predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers will be fundamental to move toward a personalized treatment approach leading to improved survival.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(18): 2475-2482, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinomas account for approximately 40-50% of all NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer) cases. In addition, lung adenocarcinomas can harbor several different genetic mutations, EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) being the most frequent one, accounting for approximately 5-15% of all the mutations in western patients and for approximately 40-55% in Asian patients; on the other hand, EGFR mutations are uncommon in squamous histology. Approximately 90% of EGFR mutations are represented by exon 19 in-frame deletion and by the L858R exon 21-point mutation, that confer sensitivity to EGFR TKI (Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors) treatment. AREAS COVERED: The authors comprehensively review the current state of the art with reference to EGFR+ NSCLC treatment and to discuss the possible future developments. EXPERT OPINION: Osimertinib must be considered the preferred first-line agent in EGFR+ advanced NSCLC patients thanks to its superior performances. With respect to acquired resistance mechanisms to osimertinib, the currently ongoing clinical trials will surely help us to better understand and tackle them. Globally, we strongly believe that a biomarker-driven sequential treatment algorithm is key in order to provide personalized, effective and durable therapies in the increasingly complex landscape of EGFR+ advanced NSCLC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 224-231, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the cumulative poor prognostic role of concomitant medications on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, creating and validating a drug-based prognostic score to be calculated before immunotherapy initiation in patients with advanced solid tumours. This 'drug score' was calculated assigning score 1 for each between proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotic administration until a month before cancer therapy initiation and score 2 in case of corticosteroid intake. The good risk group included patients with score 0, intermediate risk with score 1-2 and poor risk with score 3-4. METHODS: Aiming at validating the prognostic and putative predictive ability depending on the anticancer therapy, we performed the present comparative analysis in two cohorts of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively, receiving first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy through a random case-control matching and through a pooled multivariable analysis including the interaction between the computed score and the therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy). RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. After the case-control random matching, 589 patients from the pembrolizumab cohort and 589 from the chemotherapy cohort were paired, with no statistically significant differences between the characteristics of the matched subjects. Among the pembrolizumab-treated group, good, intermediate and poor risk evaluable patients achieved an objective response rate (ORR) of 50.0%, 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated group, patients achieved an ORR of 37.0%, 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.4346). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of good, intermediate and poor risk groups was 13.9 months, 6.3 months and 2.8 months, respectively, within the pembrolizumab cohort (p < 0.0001), and 6.2 months, 6.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively, within the chemotherapy cohort (p = 0.0280). Among the pembrolizumab-treated patients, the median overall survival (OS) for good, intermediate and poor risk patients was 31.4 months, 14.5 months and 5.8 months, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated patients, it was 18.3 months, 16.8 months and 10.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0003). A similar trend was reported considering the two entire populations. At the pooled analysis, the interaction term between the score and the therapeutic modality was statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0052), PFS (p = 0.0003) and OS (p < 0.0001), confirming the significantly different effect of the score within the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our 'drug score' showed a predictive ability with respect to ORR in the immunotherapy cohort only, suggesting it might be a useful tool for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from first-line single-agent pembrolizumab. In addition, the prognostic stratification in terms of PFS and OS was significantly more pronounced among the pembrolizumab-treated patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some concomitant medications including antibiotics (ATB) have been reproducibly associated with worse survival following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (according to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and treatment line). Whether such relationship is causative or associative is matter of debate. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to concomitant baseline medications (prior to ICI initiation) with putative immune-modulatory effects in a large cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. We also evaluated a control cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line chemotherapy. The interaction between key medications and therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) was validated in pooled multivariable analyses. RESULTS: 950 and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Corticosteroid and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy but not ATB therapy was associated with poorer performance status at baseline in both the cohorts. No association with clinical outcomes was found according to baseline statin, aspirin, ß-blocker and metformin within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the multivariable analysis, ATB emerged as a strong predictor of worse overall survival (OS) (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.79); p=0.0024), and progression free survival (PFS) (HR=1.29 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.59); p=0.0192) in the pembrolizumab but not in the chemotherapy cohort. Corticosteroids were associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.69 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.03); p<0.0001), and OS (HR=1.93 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.35); p<0.0001) following pembrolizumab, and shorter PFS (HR=1.30 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.56), p=0.0046) and OS (HR=1.58 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.94), p<0.0001), following chemotherapy. PPIs were associated with worse OS (HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.77); p<0.0001) with pembrolizumab and shorter OS (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.24), p=0.0139), with chemotherapy. At the pooled analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction with treatment (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) for corticosteroids (p=0.0020) and PPIs (p=0.0460) with respect to OS, for corticosteroids (p<0.0001), ATB (p=0.0290), and PPIs (p=0.0487) with respect to PFS, and only corticosteroids (p=0.0033) with respect to objective response rate. CONCLUSION: In this study, we validate the significant negative impact of ATB on pembrolizumab monotherapy but not chemotherapy outcomes in NSCLC, producing further evidence about their underlying immune-modulatory effect. Even though the magnitude of the impact of corticosteroids and PPIs is significantly different across the cohorts, their effects might be driven by adverse disease features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 24-35, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment sequencing with first-line immunotherapy, followed by second-line chemotherapy, is still a viable option for NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. METHODS: We evaluated post-progression treatment pathways in a large real-world cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50% treated with first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. RESULTS: Overall, 974 patients were included. With a median follow-up of 22.7 months (95%CI: 21.6-38.2), the median overall survival (OS) of the entire population was 15.8 months (95%CI: 13.5-17.5; 548 events). At the data cutoff, among the 678 patients who experienced disease progression, 379 (55.9%) had not received any further treatment, and 359 patients (52.9%) had died. Patients who did not receive post-progression therapies were older (p = 0.0011), with a worse ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and were on corticosteroids prior to pembrolizumab (p = 0.0024). At disease progression, 198 patients (29.2%) received a switched approach and 101 (14.9%) received pembrolizumab ByPD either alone (64 [9.4%]) or in combination with local ablative treatments (37 [5.5%]) (LATs). After a random-case control matching according to ECOG-PS, CNS metastases, bone metastases, and (previous) best response to pembrolizumab, patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD plus LATs were confirmed to have a significantly longer post-progression OS compared to patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD alone 13.9 months versus 7.8 months (p = 0.0179) 241 patients (35.5%) among the 678 who had experienced PD, received a second-line systemic treatment (regardless of previous treatment beyond PD). As compared to first-line treatment commencement, patients' features at the moment of second-line initiation showed a significantly higher proportion of patients aged under 70 years (p = 0.0244), with a poorer ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and having CNS (p = 0.0001), bone (p = 0.0266) and liver metastases (p = 0.0148). CONCLUSIONS: In the real-world scenario NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% treated with first-line single-agent pembrolizumab achieve worse outcomes as compared to the Keynote-024 trial. Poor post-progression outcomes are major determinants of the global results that should be considered when counselling patients for first-line treatment choices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 21(3): 303-309, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355496

RESUMO

Introduction: One of the latest breakthroughs in the treatment of advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is represented by PD-1/PD-L1-targeting Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs). However, only a limited subset of advanced NSCLC patients can receive first-line ICI monotherapy (advanced NSCLC patients without driver mutations and with a PD-L1 expression ≥50% or ≥1%) and naïve ICI-respondent patients represent an even more limited subgroup of patients, which eventually experience progression of disease after approximately 7-11 months. Therefore, different strategies are being evaluated to obtain a higher response rate and a more durable clinical response in this setting. A very encouraging one is represented by ICI-combination therapies, i.e. the use of an ICI combined to cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or another immunotherapeutic agent.Areas covered: This paper aims to assess currently available data from trials evaluating nivolumab-based first-line combination therapies.Expert opinion: Nivolumab-based combinations regimens will represent one of the standard treatments for naïve advanced NSCLC patients in a near future. However, in order to fully exploit these combination therapies, additional studies assessing potential predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers are required to better clarify which patients are more likely to benefit from these regimens, alongside with studies investigating safer and more durable second-line treatments.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
9.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 129(6): 460-467, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent an important treatment option for patients who have advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, evaluation of the expression level of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has proven highly successful as a positive predictive biomarker for ICIs. In addition to PD-L1, other promising predictive biomarkers are emerging, including high tumor mutational burden (TMB-H). However, measuring TMB-H remains challenging for several reasons, among which is the difficulty in obtaining adequate tissue material from NSCLC patients. There are no data in the current literature regarding the possibility of adopting cell blocks (CBs) for TMB evaluation; therefore, our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of analyzing TMB on CBs. METHODS: For evaluation of differences in run metric parameters, 8 pairs of histological and CB samples from patients with NSCLC were analyzed using the Oncomine Tumor Mutational Load Assay on Ion Torrent S5 GS next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. RESULTS: Most CBs (6/8, 75.0%) were successfully analyzed by adopting the broad NGS panel approach. CBs provided results similar to those obtained on histological matched specimens in terms of median total reads (7207048.80 vs 7558817.80), median mapped reads (7075753.83 vs 7513822.00), median read lengths (115.50 vs. 113.00), median percentage of reads on-target (97.49% vs. 98.45%), median average reads per amplicon (454.67 vs 476.14), and median uniformity of amplicon coverage (83.52% vs 84.13%). CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, we demonstrated the technical feasibility of assessing TMB on CBs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and outcomes in patients receiving programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has already been confirmed in pre-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI variation in a large cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab. We also evaluated a control cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients treated with first line platinum-based chemotherapy. Normal weight was set as control group. RESULTS: 962 patients and 426 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Obese patients had a significantly higher objective response rate (ORR) (OR=1.61 (95% CI: 1.04-2.50)) in the pembrolizumab cohort, while overweight patients had a significantly lower ORR (OR=0.59 (95% CI: 0.37-0.92)) within the chemotherapy cohort. Obese patients had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=0.61 (95% CI: 0.45-0.82)) in the pembrolizumab cohort. Conversely, they had a significantly shorter PFS in the chemotherapy cohort (HR=1.27 (95% CI: 1.01-1.60)). Obese patients had a significantly longer overall survival (OS) within the pembrolizumab cohort (HR=0.70 (95% CI: 0.49-0.99)), while no significant differences according to baseline BMI were found in the chemotherapy cohort. BMI variation significantly affected ORR, PFS and OS in both the pembrolizumab and the chemotherapy cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline obesity is associated to significantly improved ORR, PFS and OS in metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression of ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab, but not among patients treated with chemotherapy. BMI variation is also significantly related to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920915983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although immunotherapy with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has profoundly changed the therapeutic scenario in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), trials of ICIs only enrolled NSCLC patients with common histology. Atezolizumab was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) in October 2016 and by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in September 2017 for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose disease progressed during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, regardless of PD-L1 expression. METHODS: We designed a single-arm, multicenter, two-stage phase II study and plan to enroll 43 patients. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the antitumor activity of atezolizumab in advanced NSCLC patients with rare histology subtypes. Patients with prior atezolizumab or ICI treatment and with untreated, symptomatic, or progressing brain metastases will be excluded. The primary endpoint is disease control rate. Secondary objectives are toxicity and safety, overall response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and time to progression. Diagnosis of NSCLC with rare histology will be confirmed by central pathology revision, and will include: colloid carcinoma, fetal adenocarcinoma, non-endocrine large cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, salivary gland-type tumor, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, and NUT-nuclear protein in testis carcinoma. Archival tumor tissue is required for correlative studies of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic options in NSCLC with rare histology subtypes, to be assessed in specifically designed trials, are an unmet need. This trial will help elucidate the role of atezolizumab as a viable option in this setting.

13.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 29(9): 1005-1023, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has represented a revolution in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and has established a new standard of care for different settings. However, through adaptive changes, cancer cells can develop resistance mechanisms to these drugs, hence the necessity for novel immunotherapeutic agents. AREAS COVERED: This paper explores the immunotherapeutics currently under investigation in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of NSCLC as monotherapies and combination therapies. It provides two comprehensive tables of phase I agents which are listed according to target, drug, drug class, mechanism of action, setting, trial identifier, and trial status. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from MEDLINE/PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov. EXPERT OPINION: A key hurdle to success in this field is our limited understanding of the synergic interactions of the immune targets in the context of the TME. While we can recognize the links between inhibitors and some particularly promising new targets such as TIM-3 and LAG3, we continue to develop approaches to exploit their interactions to enhance the immune response of the patient to tumor cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
14.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(6): 498-508.e2, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), as a surrogate predictor of the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, has not yet been described in the setting of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung-cancer (NSCLC) with a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of ≥ 50%. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We previously conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis in patients with treatment-naive metastatic NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab. Here, we report the results of the irAE analysis and the potential correlation between irAEs and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1010 patients were included in this analysis; after a 6-week landmark selection, 877 (86.8%) patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), grade 3/4 irAEs (P = .0025), leading to discontinuation irAEs (P = .0144), multiple-site and single-site irAEs (P < .0001), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0001), endocrine irAEs (P = .0227), pulmonary irAEs (P = .0479), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0018) were significantly related to a higher objective response rate. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0005), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0042), endocrine irAEs (P < .0001), gastrointestinal irAEs (P = .0391), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0086) were significantly related to progression-free survival. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0003), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0002), endocrine irAEs (P = .0001), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0214) were significantly related to overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the feasibility and the safety of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab, in a large, real-world cohort of patients with NSCLC with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%. The occurrence of irAEs may be a surrogate of clinical activity and improved outcomes in this setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664698

RESUMO

Background: The Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) gene is known to be affected by several genetic alterations, such as rearrangement, amplification and point mutation. The main goal of this study was to comprehensively analyze ALK amplification (ALK-A) and ALK gene copy number gain (ALK-CNG) in a large cohort of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in order to evaluate the effects on mRNA and protein expression. Methods: ALK locus number status was evaluated in 578 NSCLC cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, ALK immunohistochemistry and ALK mRNA in situ hybridization were performed. Results: Out of 578 cases, 17 cases showed ALK-A. In addition, 14 cases presented ALK-CNG and 72 cases presented chromosome 2 polyploidy. None of those carrying ALK-A and -CNG showed either ALK immunohistochemical expression or ALK mRNA expression through in situ hybridization. We observed a high frequency of extra copies of the ALK gene. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that ALK-A is not involved in mRNA production and consequently is not involved in protein production; these findings support the hypothesis that ALK-A might not play a role in the pathogenesis of NSCLC, underlining the absence of a specific clinical application.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poliploidia , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/genética
16.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2209-2221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-agent pembrolizumab represents the standard first-line option for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) expression of ≥ 50%. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic correlates of pembrolizumab effectiveness in patients with treatment-naïve NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50%. RESULTS: One thousand and twenty-six consecutive patients were included. The objective response rate (ORR) was 44.5% (95% CI 40.2-49.1), while the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 7.9 months (95% CI 6.9-9.5; 599 events) and 17.2 months (95% CI 15.3-22.3; 598 censored patients), respectively. ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (p < 0.0001) and bone metastases (p = 0.0003) were confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse ORR. Former smokers (p = 0.0002), but not current smokers (p = 0.0532) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged PFS compared to never smokers at multivariate analysis. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse PFS. Previous palliative RT was significantly related to a shortened OS (p = 0.0104), while previous non-palliative RT was significantly related to a prolonged OS (p = 0.0033). Former smokers (p = 0.0131), but not current smokers (p = 0.3433) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged OS compared to never smokers. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a shortened OS. A PD-L1 expression of ≥ 90%, as assessed by recursive partitioning, was associated with significantly higher ORR (p = 0.0204), and longer and OS (p = 0.0346) at multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab was effective in a large cohort of NSCLC patients treated outside of clinical trials. Questions regarding the effectiveness in clinical subgroups, such as patients with poorer PS and with liver/bone metastases, still remain to be addressed. We confirmed that the absence of tobacco exposure, and the presence of bone and liver metastasis are associated with worse clinical outcomes to pembrolizumab. Increasing levels of PD-L1 expression may help identifying a subset of patients who derive a greater benefit from pembrolizumab monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 16(2): 87-96, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978315

RESUMO

Introduction: As of today, one of the cornerstones of NSCLC treatment is represented by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI) treatment in the form of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies. However, apart from currently approved, recommended and employed agents (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab), several new agents are currently under development and investigation both in monotherapy and in combinational settings.Areas covered: This paper aims to discuss both the current state of the art and the most interesting emerging PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors and their present and future role in metastatic NSCLC treatment.Expert opinion: Great scientific interest lies in combinational settings, involving both already developed FDA and EMA approved and not approved agents and anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, that will certainly provide data about pharmacodynamic and clinical properties of these associations, enhancing our understanding of ICIs and cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, new potential predictive biomarkers are much needed, especially considering the less decisive role of PD-L1 in treatment algorithms involving chemo-immune combinations and the current lack of other validated predictive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Curr Clin Pharmacol ; 15(1): 11-19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the recent years, immunotherapeutics and specifically immunecheckpoints inhibitors have marked a significant shift in the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), allowing us to use immunotherapeutics alone or combined with chemotherapy for a great subset of patients. However, new interesting approaches are being presently investigated, markedly immunotherapy combinations, that is, the use of two or more immunotherapeutics combined. METHODS: In particular, the combination of anti-PD-1 nivolumab and anti-CTLA-4 ipilimumab has already provided groundbreaking positive results in the advanced NSCLC and other combinations are currently under investigation. RESULTS: Therefore, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review about immunotherapy combination, along with suggestions about future directions. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from MEDLINE/PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab represent the most promising immunotherapy combination for the treatment of advanced NSCLC patients; safety, tolerability and efficacy of new immunotherapeutics (in monotherapy and in immunotherapy combinations) must be further assessed in future studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos
20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(3): 378-386, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688140

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors against programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have proven to be remarkably effective in non-small cell lung cancer. PD-L1 represents a predictive biomarker in lung cancer, although its heterogenous expression represents an emerging challenge for accurate biomarker-based patient selection. Lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) show a high rate of intratumor morphologic heterogeneity that may reflect a heterogenous molecular and immunophenotypic profile. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of PD-L1 in different intratumor subtypes and/or growth patterns in a series of mixed adenocarcinomas (mADCs) and adenosquamous lung carcinomas (AdSqLCs). As many as 73 mADCs and 6 AdSqLCs were selected. Comprehensive histologic subtyping was performed, and PD-L1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry assay using different primary antibodies and automated immunostainers. Overall, PD-L1 expression was observed in 37 of 79 cases (39.2%) (31 mADCs and all AdSqLCs). PD-L1 expression was heterogenous in 22 of 37 PD-L1-positive cases (23.2% mADC and 83% AdSqLC). PD-L1 expression was observed more frequently in ADC with solid pattern. Heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression was significantly related to the presence of micropapillary (P=0.028) and solid (P=0.017) patterns. All PD-L1-positive cases were epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type, 2 cases harbored concomitantly PD-L1 expression and ALK rearrangement. Our data suggest that PD-L1 expression is quite heterogenous in mADCs and AdSqLCs, partly contributing to explaining the discrepant results between biopsy and surgical resections and discordant clinical effectiveness in regard to PD-L1-positive or negative ADC diagnosed on cytology/small biopsy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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