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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2339-2347, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142298

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar as características estruturais e a produção de forragem do capim-piatã submetido à combinação de duas frequências de corte (95% e máxima interceptação de luz pelo dossel forrageiro, ILmax) e duas alturas pós-corte (15 e 20cm), no período de janeiro de 2012 a março de 2013. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2x2, totalizando 12 unidades experimentais de 14m2 cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis-respostas: altura do dossel no pré-corte, intervalo de corte, índice de área foliar pré e pós-corte, taxa de produção de forragem e as percentagens de colmo, folha e forragem morta na forragem produzida. A altura pré-corte decresceu durante o experimento (de 65,81 para 34,03cm), sendo a menor altura observada no dossel sob alta frequência de desfolhação (95% de IL). A taxa de produção de forragem foi maior nas épocas favoráveis ao crescimento da gramínea forrageira. As percentagens de folha, colmo e forragem morta foram semelhantes entre as frequências de corte. Assim, o capim-piatã sob manejo de desfolhação intermitente pode ser colhido com qualquer combinação de frequências de corte de 95% e ou máxima interceptação de luz, e alturas pós-corte de 15 ou 20cm.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural characteristics and forage production of the piatã grass submitted to the combination of two cutting frequencies (95% and maximum interception of light by the forage canopy, ILmax) and two post cutting heights (15 and 20cm) in the period from January 2012 to March 2013. The design was a randomized complete block with three replications, in a 2x2 factorial scheme, totaling 12 experimental units of 14m2 each. The following variables were evaluated: pre-cut canopy height, cut interval, pre and post-cut leaf area index, forage yield rate, and percentage of stem, leaf and dead forage in the forage produced. The pre-cut height decreased during the experiment (from 65.81 to 34.03cm), with the lowest height observed in the canopy under high frequency of defoliation (95% IL). The rate of forage production was higher in the seasons favorable to forage grass growth. The percentages of leaf, stem and dead fodder were similar between cut-off frequencies. Thus, piatã grass under intermittent defoliation management can be harvested with any combination of 95% and maximum light interception cut frequencies, and post cutting heights of 15 or 20cm.

2.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 95(12): 586-590, dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194908

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Reportar una experiencia piloto de atención por telemedicina en la especialidad de oftalmología, en el periodo de confinamiento por la pandemia por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo. Se describen características demográficas y clínicas de pacientes atendidos en periodo de confinamiento de 10 semanas. Se evalúa la satisfacción de los pacientes y médicos participantes mediante una encuesta en línea. RESULTADOS: En las primeras 10 semanas, se realizaron 291 atenciones de telemedicina oftalmológica. Los principales motivos de consulta fueron afecciones inflamatorias de la superficie ocular y párpados (79,4%), seguido de requerimientos administrativos (6,5%), afecciones no inflamatorias de la superficie ocular (5,2%), sospecha de estrabismo (3,4%) y síntomas vitreorretinales (3,1%); 22 pacientes (7,5%) fueron derivados a atención presencial inmediata. El nivel de satisfacción con la prestación fue alto, tanto en médicos (100%), como en pacientes (93,4%). CONCLUSIONES: La atención oftalmológica por telemedicina en periodo de pandemia es un instrumento de utilidad para realizar un filtro de potenciales consultas presenciales, ya sea electivas o de urgencia, y para reducir potencialmente el riesgo de contagio por COVID-1


BACKGROUND: To report a pilot experience of telemedicine in ophthalmology in open-care modality (i.e. direct video call), in a confinement period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Descriptive study of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients attended in a 10-week confinement period. Reported satisfaction of the participating patients and doctors was evaluated through an online survey. RESULTS: In the 10-week period, 291 ophthalmologic telemedicine consultations were performed. The main reasons for consultation were inflammatory conditions of the ocular surface and eyelids (79.4%), followed by administrative requirements (6.5%), non-inflammatory conditions of the ocular surface (5.2%), strabismus suspicion (3.4%) and vitreo-retinal symptoms (3.1%). According to previously defined criteria, 22 patients (7.5%) were referred to immediate face-to-face consultation. The level of satisfaction was high, both in doctors (100%) and in patients (93.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Open-care modality of telemedicine in ophthalmology during the pandemic period is a useful instrument to filter potential face-to-face consultations, either elective or emergency, and potentially reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Projetos Piloto , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Teleoftalmologia , Betacoronavirus , Satisfação do Paciente , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358810

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens causing intramammary infections in dairy herds. Consequently, virulence factors, pathobiology, and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains have been widely assessed through the years. Nevertheless, not much has been described about the epidemiology of Staph. aureus strains from bulk tank milk (BTM) and adherences on milking equipment (AMES), even when these strains may play a role in the quality of milk that is intended for human consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the strain diversity of 166 Staph. aureus isolates collected from 3 consecutive BTM samples, and from AMES in contact with milk from 23 Chilean dairy farms. Isolates were analyzed and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Diversity of strains, both within and among farms, was assessed using Simpson's index of diversity (SID). On farms where Staph. aureus was isolated from both AMES and BTM (n = 8), pulsotypes were further analyzed to evaluate the role of AMES as a potential source of Staph. aureus strains in BTM. Among all Staph. aureus analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, a total of 42 pulsotypes (19 main pulsotypes and 23 subtypes) were identified. Among dairy farms, strain diversity was highly heterogeneous (SID = 0.99). Within dairy farms, Staph. aureus strain diversity was variable (SID = 0 to 1), and 18 dairy operations (81.8%) had one pulsotype that was shared between at least 2 successive BTM samples. In those farms where Staph. aureus was isolated in both AMES and BTM (n = 8), 7 (87.5%) showed a clonal distribution of Staph. aureus strains between these 2 types of samples. The overlapping of certain Staph. aureus strains among dairy farms may point out common sources of Staph. aureus among otherwise epidemiologically unrelated farms. Indistinguishable Staph. aureus strains between AMES and BTM across dairy farms suggest that Staph. aureus-containing AMES may represent a source for BTM contamination, thus affecting milk quality. Our study highlights the role of viable Staph. aureus in AMES as a source for BTM contamination on dairy farms, and also describes the overlapping and presence of specific BTM and AMES pulsotypes among farms.

4.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol ; 95(12): 586-590, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report a pilot experience of telemedicine in ophthalmology in open-care modality (i.e. direct video call), in a confinement period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Descriptive study of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients attended in a 10-week confinement period. Reported satisfaction of the participating patients and doctors was evaluated through an online survey. RESULTS: In the 10-week period, 291 ophthalmologic telemedicine consultations were performed. The main reasons for consultation were inflammatory conditions of the ocular surface and eyelids (79.4%), followed by administrative requirements (6.5%), non-inflammatory conditions of the ocular surface (5.2%), strabismus suspicion (3.4%) and vitreo-retinal symptoms (3.1%). According to previously defined criteria, 22 patients (7.5%) were referred to immediate face-to-face consultation. The level of satisfaction was high, both in doctors (100%) and in patients (93.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Open-care modality of telemedicine in ophthalmology during the pandemic period is a useful instrument to filter potential face-to-face consultations, either elective or emergency, and potentially reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection.

6.
Animal ; 14(10): 2023-2031, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345382

RESUMO

The use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal feeding is declining, so Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil (LGSEO) could be used as a potential substitute for the conventionally used growth promoters. The LGSEO contains components such as carvacrol and thymol, which kill and/or control pathogenic bacteria, increase population of beneficial organisms, act against oxidative processes and onto nutrient digestibility and absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and the effects of LGSEO as a growth promoter in the diet of Japanese quail by examining their productive performance, intestinal microbiology, blood biochemical parameters, hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and intestinal gene expression. A total of 252 two-day-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 3 treatments in 7 replicates, using 12 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, basal diet + LGSEO at 400 mg/kg of diet and basal diet + chemical antimicrobial (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) at 500 mg/kg of diet. The experimental period was 34 days. The highest feed intake (P < 0.01) was found in the group receiving the conventional antimicrobial, whereas the best feed conversion (P < 0.01) was shown by the animals receiving LGSEO. Escherichia coli growth was restricted in the quail receiving the growth promoters. Salmonella spp. growth was controlled by the treatment containing the conventional antimicrobial. There was no difference between the treatments (P > 0.05) for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes in the blood or hepatic TBARS content. Birds receiving negative-control treatment exhibited a higher expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), while those receiving the treatment with essential oil showed lower catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX7) expressions compared to the conventional antimicrobial and control groups, respectively. Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil is a powerful performance enhancer for Japanese quail by virtue of its abilities to improve their intestinal environment, balance the microbial population and reduce energy expenditure for oxidative processes.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
7.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 13(1): 97-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796686

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extremely preterm infants are a population of high risk for morbidity and mortality. NICU's staffing is often lower during nights, weekends and holidays than weekdays, and this fact may contribute to higher morbidities and mortality. Our aim was to analyze the neonatal morbidity and mortality of very preterm infants delivered at our center and admitted to the NICU during the night period, weekends and holidays compared to that registered on weekday admissions. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at our level III NICU, including data on mother, pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of preterm infants with a gestational age below 30 weeks, admitted between January 1st 2005 and December 31st 2017. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS® Statistics 23. RESULTS: 220 infants were included in the study; median gestational age 27 weeks (min = 23; max = 29); median birth weight of 922 g (min = 360; max1555); 95 (43.2%) infants were delivered during weekdays and 125 (56.8%) were delivered during weeknights, weekends and holidays. There were no differences on mother's age, pregnancy complications, Apgar scores, birth weights, gestational ages and gender between the two groups. C-sections (p = 0.006), and small for gestational age infants (p = 0.010) were more prevalent in week day births. Chorioamnionitis with chorionic vasculitis (p = 0.028) and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (p = 0.032) were more prevalent in those delivered during the night period, weekends and holidays. In the multivariate analysis, cystic periventricular leukomalacia was not associated to a deliver during weeknights, weekends and holidays (OR = 0.580; 95% CI: 0.19-1.71, p = 0.324). CONCLUSION: We did not find any increased morbidity and mortality associated with a birth during nights, weekends and holidays compared to that registered on weekday admissions.

8.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 13(2): 197-206, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasal trauma due to nasal CPAP (nCPAP) use is a commonly reported complication in infants under 1500 g of birth weight and 32 weeks of gestation. With the rise of nCPAP as the gold standard for non-invasive respiratory support, preventive measures should be considered. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of nasal injury in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with nCPAP. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed neonates hospitalized between 2012 and 2017, with less than 1500 g and 32 weeks of gestational age who received more than 12 hours of nCPAP. Demographic, antenatal and clinical data, along with information regarding respiratory support and nCPAP complications, were collected. We used Fischer's classification to grade nasal trauma. RESULTS: A total of 135 infants were evaluated. Mean gestational age was 28 weeks (SD 2) and mean birth weight 1072 g (SD 239). Nasal trauma was reported in 65% of patients and it was of stage I, II and III in 49%, 16% and 1% of patients, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of trauma was greater in neonates with a longer duration of nCPAP ventilation (OR = 1.098, 95% CI: 1.055-1.142; p < 0.001) and in patients submitted to oxygen therapy (OR = 3.174, 95% CI: 1.014-9.929, p = 0.004). The median of days after nCPAP administration until the onset of an identifiable lesion was 4. CONCLUSION: Nasal trauma is a frequent complication in VLBW preterm infants using nCPAP for long periods. Preventive measures in patients who are at greater risk of skin breakdown are of major clinical importance for a better outcome.

9.
Animal ; : 100021, 2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573936

RESUMO

Nucleotides are important to cell growth and division and are crucial to the rapid proliferation of such cells as the intestinal mucosa and immune cells. Accordingly, the nucleotide requirements of animals are high during periods of rapid growth and periods of stress like post-weaning period. Thus, nucleotide supplementation may be a possible alternative to in-feed antibiotics as growth promoter in this phase. The study aimed to evaluate dietary nucleotide supplementation as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics on performance and gut health of weaned piglets. Ninety-six 21-day-old piglets, weighing 7.44 ±â€¯0.65 kg, were allocated into 1 of 3 treatments (8 pens per treatment; 4 pigs per pen) in a 14-day trial. Dietary treatments consisted of control: corn-soybean meal-based diet; nucleotides: control +2 g/kg of a nutritional additive with purified nucleotides; and antibiotic: control +0.8 g/kg of antibiotic growth promoter based on colistin and tylosin. Performance variables and fecal score were not affected (P > 0.05) by supplementing nucleotide or antibiotic. Nucleotides treatment had similar effect to antibiotic and superior to control (P < 0.05) on enhancing duodenum villus height, jejunum crypt depth, and reduction of Paneth cellular area. Duodenum and ileum of animals supplemented with nucleotides or antibiotics had higher (P < 0.05) number of proliferating cells than did those of control animals, whereas the jejunum of animals that received antibiotic diets presented more (P < 0.05) proliferating cells than either the nucleotides or control animals. Jejunum of nucleotide-treated piglets showed a greater number of apoptotic cells than those fed antibiotic or control diets (P < 0.05). Nucleotides and antibiotic treatments decreased the B lymphocyte counts in duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) but increased in the jejunum (P < 0.05), when compared to the control treatment. Relative abundance of mitogen-activated protein kinases-6, haptoglobin, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA was not influenced (P > 0.05) by treatments. In the ileal, antibiotic supplementation reduced total bacteria quantification compared to nucleotide supplementation or the control (P < 0.05), whereas nucleotides supplementation increased enterobacteria proliferation compared to the antibiotic or control diets (P < 0.05). However, nucleotides and antibiotic reduced (P < 0.05) colon total bacteria quantification when compared to control. These results suggest that the nucleotides source used to weaned piglets improved gut health by modulating the local immune response and modulating intestinal mucosa development, and, therefore, nucleotides may be an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters.

10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2057-2064, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055114

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar o perfilhamento da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatã, como base para identificação das frequências e alturas pós-corte mais adequadas para essa gramínea forrageira. Em um esquema fatorial 2 x 2, foram estudadas combinações entre duas frequências de corte (95% e máxima interceptação de luz, ILmax) e duas alturas pós-corte (15 e 20cm). O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, totalizando 12 unidades experimentais de 14m2 cada. Foram avaliadas as taxas de aparecimento (TApP) e de mortalidade (TMoP) de perfilhos, o índice de estabilidade (IE) e a densidade populacional de perfilhos. A maior TApP no dossel sob IL de 95% ocorreu no Verão 1, em comparação às demais épocas. Nos dosséis manejados com ILmax, a TApP foi superior no Verão 1 e no Outono, quando comparados às outras épocas. No Verão 1 e no Final da Primavera e Verão 2, houve as maiores TMoP para as duas frequências de corte avaliadas. No Outono, a TMoP também foi alta no dossel cortado com ILmáx. O IE foi menor durante o Verão 1 no dossel sob ILmax e com 15cm de resíduo (0,995). Porém, nas demais épocas, os valores de índice de estabilidade foram maiores que uma unidade e não foram influenciados pela frequência e altura pós-corte. A densidade populacional de perfilhos foi menor no Verão 1, em comparação às demais épocas. O capim-piatã pode ser desfolhado com qualquer combinação entre as interceptações de luz, 95% e ILmax, e alturas pós-corte, 15 ou 20cm, sem prejudicar a persistência do pasto.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the tillering of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatã, as a basis for identifying the frequencies and post-cutting heights most suitable for this grass. In a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, combinations between two cut frequencies (95% and maximum light interception, IL max ) and two post-cut heights (15 and 20cm) were studied. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 3 replicates, totaling 12 experimental units of 14m 2 each. Rates of appearance (TAR) and mortality (TMR) of tillers, the stability index and the population density of tillers were evaluated. The highest TAR in the canopy under 95% IL occurred in Summer 1, in comparison to the other seasons. In the canopies managed with IL max , TAR was higher in summer 1 and in autumn, when compared to other seasons. In summer 1 and at the end of spring and summer 2, there were the highest TMR for the two cutoff frequencies evaluated. In autumn, TMR was also high in the canopy cut with IL max . IE was lower during summer 1 in the canopy under IL max and 15cm of residue (0.995). However, at other times, stability index values were greater than one unit and were not influenced by post-cut frequency and height. The population density of tillers was lower in Summer 1, when compared to the other seasons. The piata grass may be defoliated with any combination of light intercepts, 95% and ILmax, and post-cut heights, 15 or 20cm, without impairing the persistence of pasture.(AU)


Assuntos
Luz Solar , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Brachiaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(6): 1706-1715, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461202

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this work was to characterize and apply a polygalacturonase of Penicillium janthinellum new strain VI2R3M. METHODS AND RESULTS: The polygalacturonase obtained from P. janthinellum VI2R3M was incubated in cultures of passion fruit peel and was partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The enzyme showed a relative molecular mass of 102·0 kDa, maximum activity at pH 5·0, temperature of 50°C, 100% stablity at 50°C and 80% stablity at pH 3·0-5·0. The apparent Km , Vmax and Kcat values for hydrolyzing polygalacturonic acid were 2·56 mg ml-1 , 163·1 U mg-1 and 277 s-1 respectively. The polygalacturonase presented exo activity and was activated by Mg2+ . The juices treated with polygalacturonase presented increases in transmittance with reduction in colour. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the new lineage P. janthinellum VI2R3M presents a high yield of an exo-polygalacturonase induced by agro-industrial residues, with excellent activity and stability in acidic pH and at 50°C. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The use of agro-industrial residue to obtain the polygalacturonase can contribute to a decrease enzyme production cost. The results of the activity, stability to acidic pH and excellent performance in the clarification of juices show that the enzyme is promising for industrial application.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Penicillium/enzimologia , Poligalacturonase/química , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/metabolismo , Penicillium/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
12.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2019: 4518742, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467527

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) has been increasing in the last five decades, but there is no large-scale data regarding these tumours in Portugal. We conducted a cross-sectional, multicentric study in main Portuguese centers to evaluate the clinical, pathological, and therapeutic profile of GEP-NENs. Methods: From November, 2012, to July, 2014, data from 293 patients diagnosed with GEP-NENs from 15 centers in Portugal was collected and registered in an online electronic platform. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 56.5 (range: 15-87) years with a preponderance of females (54.6%). The most frequent primary sites were the pancreas (31.1%), jejunum-ileum (24.2%), stomach (13.7%), and rectum (8.5%). Data regarding hormonal status was not available in most patients (82.3%). Stratified by the tumour grade (WHO 2010 classification), we observed 64.0% of NET G1, 24.7% of NET G2, and 11.3% of NEC. Poorly differentiated tumours occurred mainly in older patients (p = 0.017), were larger (p < 0.001), and presented more vascular (p = 0.004) and lymphatic (p = 0.001) invasion. At the time of diagnosis, 44.4% of GEP-NENs presented metastatic disease. Surgery (79.6%) and somatostatin analogues (30.7%) were the most frequently used therapies of GEP-NENs with reported grading. Conclusion: In general, Portuguese patients with GEP-NENs presented similar characteristics to other populations described in the literature. This cross-sectional study represents the first step to establish a national database of GEP-NENs that may aid in understanding the clinical and epidemiological features of these tumours in Portugal.

13.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 12(4): 419-427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies assessed the influence of a low birth weight on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but not all could find a significant association. Our aim was to assess the association between low birth weight and BPD in preterm infants, prospectively recruited at 11 level III Portuguese neonatal centers. METHODS: Obstetrical and neonatal data on mothers and preterm infants with gestational ages between 24 and 30 weeks, born during 2015 and 2016 after a surveilled pregnancy, were analyzed. Neonates were considered small for gestational age (SGA) when their birthweight was below the 10th centile of Fenton's growth chats and BPD was defined as the dependency for oxygen therapy until 36 weeks of corrected age. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS® statistics 23 and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 614, a total of 494 preterm infants delivered from 410 women were enrolled in the study; 40 (8.0%) infants with SGA criteria. SGA were more often associated with a single pregnancy, had greater use of antenatal corticosteroids, increased prevalence of gestational hypertensive disorders, C-section, rupture of membranes below 18 hours, rate of intubation in the delivery room, use of surfactant treatment, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation need, BPD, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, nosocomial sepsis and pneumonia; had lower prevalence of chorioamnionitis, and lower Apgar scores. The multivariate analysis by logistic regression, adjusted for BPD risk factors revealed a significant association between SGA and BPD: OR = 5.2 [CI: 1.46-18.58]; p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: The results of this study increase the scientific evidence that SGA is an independent risk factor for BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 363: 447-456, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342348

RESUMO

The potential presence of introduced antibiotics in the aquatic environment is a hot topic of concern, particularly in the Antarctic, a highly vulnerable area protected under the Madrid protocol. The increasing presence of human population, especially during summer, might led to the appearance of pharmaceuticals in wastewater. The previous discovery of Escherichia coli strains resistant to antibiotics in sea water and wastewater collected in King George Island motivated our investigation on antibiotics occurrence in these samples. The application of a multi-residue LCMS/MS method for 20 antibiotics, revealed the presence of 8 compounds in treated wastewater, mainly the quinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin (92% and 54% of the samples analyzed, average concentrations 0.89 µg/L and 0.75 µg/L, respectively) and the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin (15% positive samples, and average concentrations near 0.4 µg/L), and erythromycin (38% positive samples, average concentration 0.003 µg/L). Metronidazole and clindamycin were found in one sample, at 0.17 and 0.1 µg/L, respectively; and trimethoprim in two samples, at 0.001 µg/L. Analysis of sea water collected near the outfall of the wastewater discharges also showed the sporadic presence of 3 antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, trimethoprim) at low ng/L level, illustrating the impact of pharmaceuticals consumption and the poor removal of these compounds in conventional WWTPs. The most widespread antibiotic in sea water was ciprofloxacin, which was found in 15 out of 34 sea water samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 218 ng/L. Bacteria resistance was observed for some antibiotics identified in the samples (e.g. trimetropim and nalidixic acid -a first generation quinolone). However, resistance to some groups of antibiotics could not be correlated to their presence in the water samples due to analytical limitations (penicillins, tetraciclines). On the contrary, for some groups of antibiotics detected in samples (macrolides), the antibacterial activity against E. Coli was not investigated because these antibiotics do not include this bacterial species in their spectrum of activity. Our preliminary data demonstrate that antibiotics occurrence in the Antarctic aquatic environment is an issue that needs to be properly addressed. Periodical monitoring of water samples and the implementation of additional treatments in the WWTPs are recommended as a first step to prevent potential problems related to the presence of antibiotics and other emerging contaminants in the near future in Antarctica.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Água do Mar/microbiologia
17.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 65(2): 121-129, mayo-ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-978668

RESUMO

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de establecer los límites de referencia de analitos hematológicos de cabras adultas de razas productoras de leche clínicamente sanas, sujetas al manejo y a las características de los sistemas de producción intensiva del Altiplano Mexicano, se recolectaron y analizaron muestras de sangre de cabras de 2 o más años de edad en diferentes etapas de producción. Con los resultados se obtuvieron los límites de referencia para hematocrito, cuenta de eritrocitos, volumen globular medio (VGM), plaquetas, sólidos totales, fibrinógeno, cuenta de leucocitos, neutrófilos segmentados, neutrófilos en banda, linfocitos, monocitos, eosinófilos y basófilos. Las medias obtenidas para cada analito fueron: hematocrito (0,22-0,36 L/L), cuenta de eritrocitos (9,07-18,47 x1012/L), volumen globular medio (VGM) (14,44-27,91), plaquetas (229-3 1 63 x109/L), solidos totales (65,64-84,64 g/L), fibrinógeno (0-6 g/L), cuenta de leucocitos (3,75-11,47 x109/L), neutrófilos segmentados (0,95-4,98 x109/L), neutrófilos en banda (0-0,16 x109/L), linfocitos (1,76-6,44 x109/L), monocitos (0-0,65 x109/L), eosinófilos (0-1,36 x109/L) y basófilos (0 - 0,37 x109/L). Estos valores se compararon con los obtenidos en otros estudios similares, y se encontraron algunas diferencias mayoritariamente en los valores obtenidos para hematocrito, eritrocitos, VGM, plaquetas, leucocitos y linfocitos, lo cual se debe a las diferencias en condiciones medioambientales y de alimientación entre los estudios.


ABSTRACT With the aim to establish the hematological analyte reference limits of clinically healthy adult goats of dairy producing breeds, subjected to the handling and characteristics of intensive production systems in the Mexican Plateau, the blood samples of 2-year old and older goats at different production stages were collected and analyzed. Reference limits (interval in brackets) for hematocrit (0.22-0.36 L/L), erythrocyte count (9.07-18.47 x1012/L), mean cell volume (MCV) (14.44-27.91 fL), platelets (229-3163 x109/L), total solids (65.64-84.64 g/L), fibrinogen (0-6 g/L), leukocyte count (3.75-11.47 x109/L), segmented neutrophils (0.95-4.98 x109/L), band neutrophils (0-0.16 x109/L), lymphocytes (1.76-6.44 x109/L), monocytes (0-0.65 x109/L), eosinophils (0-1.36 x109/L) and basophils (0-0.37 x109/L) were obtained. These values were compared with similar study results. Differences were found mainly in the values for hematocrit, erythrocytes, MCV, platelets, total leukocytes, and lymphocytes; this is due to environmental and feeding differences between the studies.

18.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 67(2): 168-174, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740840

RESUMO

Plant proteases play a fundamental role in several processes like growth, development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. In particular, aspartic proteases (AP) are expressed in different plant organs and have antimicrobial activity. Previously, we purified an AP from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits called salpichroin. The aim of this work was to determine the cytotoxic activity of this enzyme on selected plant and human pathogens. For this purpose, the growth of the selected pathogens was analysed after exposure to different concentrations of salpichroin. The results showed that the enzyme was capable of inhibiting Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner. It was determined that 1·2 µmol l-1 of salpichroin was necessary to inhibit 50% of conidial germination, and the minimal bactericidal concentration was between 1·9 and 2·5 µmol l-1 . Using SYTOX Green dye we were able to demonstrate that salpichroin cause membrane permeabilization. Moreover, the enzyme treated with its specific inhibitor pepstatin A did not lose its antibacterial activity. This finding demonstrates that the cytotoxic activity of salpichroin is due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of the AP could represent a potential alternative for the control of pathogens that affect humans or crops of economic interest. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study provides insights into the antimicrobial activity of an aspartic protease isolated from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits on plant and human pathogens. The proteinase inhibited Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of salpichroin suggests its potential applications as an important tool for the control of pathogenic micro-organisms affecting humans and crops of economic interest. Therefore, it would represent a new alternative to avoid the problems of environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/farmacologia , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanaceae/química , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Frutas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int Endod J ; 51(12): 1336-1348, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786880

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the bacterial microbiota in root canals associated with persistent apical periodontitis and their relationship with the clinical characteristics of patients using next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODOLOGY: Bacterial samples from root canals associated with teeth having persistent apical periodontitis were taken from 24 patients undergoing root canal retreatment. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and V3-V4 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. The amplification was deep sequenced by Illumina technology to establish the metagenetic relationships among the bacterial species identified. The composition and diversity of microbial communities in the root canal and their relationships with clinical features were analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to analyse differences between patient characteristics and microbial data. RESULTS: A total of 86 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and Good's nonparametric coverage estimator method indicated that 99.9 ± 0.00001% diversity was recovered per sample. The largest number of bacteria belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria. According to the medical history from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification System, ASA II-III had higher richness estimates and distinct phylogenetic relationships compared to ASA I individuals (P < 0.05). Periapical index (PAI) score 5 was associated with increased microbiota diversity in comparison to PAI score 4, and this index was reduced in symptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of this study, it is possible to suggest a close relationship between several clinical features and greater microbiota diversity with persistent endodontic infections. This work provides a better understanding on how microbial communities interact with their host and vice versa.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Chile , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
20.
Pulmonology ; 24(6): 337-344, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although non-invasive forms of ventilation have recently spread in neonatology, invasive ventilation still plays a key role in the support of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in neonatal ventilation practices for ELBW infants and compare outcomes between two epochs (2005-2009 vs. 2010-2015) to analyze progression stemming from the implementation of newer clinical guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with data collection from all ELBW infants born between 2005 and 2015 in our center through their individual clinical records. The main outcome was the prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in both periods. Assessment of other morbidities and survival were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: A hundred and thirty-one infants were included; median gestational age of 27 weeks (23-33) and mean birth weight of 794.58g (±149.37). Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was performed on 103 (78.6%) infants. Non-significant increases in the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) were observed between epochs both exclusively and following IMV. In conventional ventilation there were significant variations between epochs, namely a decrease in synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and a major growth in the addition of volume guarantee (VG). Significant decreases in BPD (from 50.9% to 32.0%) and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) (from 27.5% to 10.7%) were observed between epochs, with no major changes in other morbidities and survival. CONCLUSION: Changes in our neonatal intensive care unit's ventilatory practices according to the most up-to-date guidelines, have led to a decrease in BPD and cPVL, over an 11-year period.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/classificação , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
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