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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association among characteristics of primary health care center (PHCC) with hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions (PCSC) in Brazil. METHOD: In this study, a cross-sectional ecological study was performed. This study analyzed the 27 capitals of Brazil's federative units. Data were aggregated from the following open access databases: National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, the Hospital Information System of Brazilian Unified Health System and Annual Population Census conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Associations were estimated among characteristics of primary care with the number of three PCSC as the leading causes of hospitalization in children under-5 population in Brazil: asthma, diarrhea, and pneumonia. RESULTS: In general, PHCC showed limited structural adequacy (37.3%) for pediatric care in Brazil. The capitals in South and Southeast regions had the best structure whereas the North and Northeast had the worst. Fewer PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC which presented appropriate equipment (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), structural conditions (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), and signage/identification of professionals and facilities (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99). Higher PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC with more physicians (RR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.02-1.48), it forms (RR: 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02), and more medications (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.03). CONCLUSION: Infrastructural adequacy of PHCC was associated with less PCSC hospitalizations, while availability medical professional and medications were associated with higher PCSC hospitalizations.

2.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51944

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. O presente artigo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) nas taxas de internação por condições sensíveis à atenção primária (ICSAP) por faixa etária no Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo longitudinal com abordagem em painel dinâmico. A unidade de análise foi o município, considerando os 5 570 municípios brasileiros no período de 2008 a 2016. Para avaliar o efeito do PMM, considerou-se a exposição do município ao programa. Identificaram-se os municípios em que pelo menos 50% dos médicos da atenção primária eram do PMM. Testes de robustez com exposições alternativas ao programa (30%, 40%, 60% e 70%) foram realizados. Um conjunto de variáveis de vulnerabilidade foi incluído como controle: número de médicos da APS e de enfermeiros/técnicos de enfermagem/auxiliares de enfermagem da Estratégia Saúde da Família por 10 000 habitantes; número de leitos hospitalares por 10 000 habitantes; índice de desenvolvimento municipal de educação e de renda e emprego; percentual da população com plano de saúde; e percentual de domicílios com rede de esgoto. Detectou-se um efeito consistente do PMM na redução das ICSAP. Esse resultado foi encontrado para todas as faixas etárias, apresentando maior efeito entre crianças (0 a 4 anos), com redução correspondente a 3,7% nas taxas de ICSAP. Em adultos (20 a 64 anos), a redução foi de 3,1%. Além disso, verificou-se que quanto maior a exposição do município ao PMM, maior o efeito na redução das ICSAP. Os municípios mais expostos ao PMM foram os municípios em maior condição de vulnerabilidade. Em conclusão, o PMM contribuiu para a melhoria da saúde da população, principalmente em áreas de alta vulnerabilidade.


[ABSTRACT]. The present article aimed at evaluating the effect of the More Doctors Program (PMM) on primary care sensitive conditions (PCSC) by age group in Brazil. A longitudinal study was performed using a dynamic panel data approach. Municipalities were considered as the unit of analysis; the 5 570 Brazilian municipalities existing in Brazil from 2008 to 2016 were analyzed. The effect of the PMM was evaluated according to the exposure of municipalities to the program. For that, the municipalities in which at least 50% of primary care physicians were linked to the PMM were identified. Robustness tests with alternative exposures to the program (30%, 40%, 60% and 70%) were performed. A set of vulnerability variables was included for control: number or primary care physicians, number of Family Health Strategy nurses/nursing technicians or assistants per 10 000 population; number of hospital beds per 10 000 population; municipal education development and income/employment indices; percentage of population with health insurance plans; and percentage of households with sewer lines. A consistent effect of the PMM on PCSC reduction was detected. This result was observed for all age groups, with greater impact on the 0 to 4 year-old group, in which a 3.7% reduction in PCSC rates was recorded. In adults (20 to 64 years), a 3.1% reduction was recorded. The results show that the higher the exposure to the PMM, the stronger the effect on PCSC reduction. Also, the municipalities with higher exposure to the PMM were the most vulnerable. In conclusion, the PMM contributed to improve the health of the population, especially in high vulnerability areas.


[RESUMEN]. El objetivo de este artículo fue evaluar el efecto del Programa Más Médicos (PMM) en las tasas de hospitalización por enfermedades que podrían tratarse en la atención primaria por grupo etario en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio longitudinal con un método basado en una cohorte dinámica. Con el municipio como unidad de análisis, el estudio se extendió a los 5 570 municipios brasileños en el período 2008-2016. Para evaluar el efecto del PMM, se consideró la exposición de cada municipio al programa. Se identificaron los municipios donde al menos 50% de los médicos de atención primaria pertenecían al PMM. Se realizaron pruebas de robustez con diferentes grados de exposición al programa (30%, 40%, 60% y 70%). Se empleó como testigo un conjunto de variables de vulnerabilidad, a saber, el número de médicos de atención primaria de salud y de miembros del personal profesional, técnico y auxiliar de enfermería de la estrategia de salud de la familia por 10 000 habitantes; el número de camas hospitalarias por 10 000 habitantes; el índice de desarrollo municipal en materia de educación, ingresos y empleo; el porcentaje de la población con planes de atención de salud y el porcentaje de domicilios con red de alcantarillado. Se observó un marcado efecto del PMM en la reducción de la tasa de hospitalización por enfermedades que podrían tratarse en la atención primaria. Ese resultado se obtuvo en todos los grupos etarios, con un mayor efecto en los niños (de 0 a 4 años) cuyas tasas de hospitalización disminuyeron 3,7%. En adultos (de 20 a 64 años), la reducción fue de 3,1%. Además, se verificó que cuanto mayor era la exposición del municipio al PMM, más intenso era el efecto del programa en la reducción de dichas tasas. Los municipios más expuestos al PMM fueron los más vulnerables. En conclusión, el PMM contribuyó a mejorar la salud de la población, principalmente en las zonas con un alto índice de vulnerabilidad.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização , Brasil , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização , Brasil , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034253, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The optimal size of the health workforce for children's surgical care around the world remains poorly defined. The goal of this study was to characterise the surgical workforce for children across Brazil, and to identify associations between the surgical workforce and measures of childhood health. DESIGN: This study is an ecological, cross-sectional analysis using data from the Brazil public health system (Sistema Único de Saúde). SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: We collected data on the surgical workforce (paediatric surgeons, general surgeons, anaesthesiologists and nursing staff), perioperative mortality rate (POMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) across Brazil for 2015. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We performed descriptive analyses, and identified associations between the workforce and U5MR using geospatial analysis (Getis-Ord-Gi analysis, spatial cluster analysis and linear regression models). FINDINGS: There were 39 926 general surgeons, 856 paediatric surgeons, 13 243 anaesthesiologists and 103 793 nurses across Brazil in 2015. The U5MR ranged from 11 to 26 deaths/1000 live births and the POMR ranged from 0.11-0.17 deaths/100 000 children across the country. The surgical workforce is inequitably distributed across the country, with the wealthier South and Southeast regions having a higher workforce density as well as lower U5MR than the poorer North and Northeast regions. Using linear regression, we found an inverse relationship between the surgical workforce density and U5MR. An U5MR of 15 deaths/1000 births across Brazil is associated with a workforce level of 5 paediatric surgeons, 200 surgeons, 100 anaesthesiologists or 700 nurses/100 000 children. CONCLUSIONS: We found wide disparities in the surgical workforce and childhood mortality across Brazil, with both directly related to socioeconomic status. Areas of increased surgical workforce are associated with lower U5MR. Strategic investment in the surgical workforce may be required to attain optimal health outcomes for children in Brazil, particularly in rural regions.

4.
Neurosurg Focus ; 47(5): E6, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low- and middle-income countries who receive surgery have better outcomes than patients with TBI who do not receive surgery, and whether this differs with severity of injury. METHODS: The authors generated a series of Kaplan-Meier plots and performed multiple Cox proportional hazard models to assess the relationship between TBI surgery and TBI severity. The TBI severity was categorized using admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores: mild (14, 15), moderate (9-13), or severe (3-8). The authors investigated outcomes from admission to hospital day 14. The outcome considered was the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, categorized as poor outcome (1-4) and good outcome (5-8). The authors used TBI registry data collected from 2013 to 2017 at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania. RESULTS: Of the final 2502 patients, 609 (24%) received surgery and 1893 (76%) did not receive surgery. There were significantly fewer road traffic injuries and more violent causes of injury in those receiving surgery. Those receiving surgery were also more likely to receive care in the ICU, to have a poor outcome, to have a moderate or severe TBI, and to stay in the hospital longer. The hazard ratio for patients with TBI who underwent operation versus those who did not was 0.17 (95% CI 0.06-0.49; p < 0.001) in patients with moderate TBI; 0.2 (95% CI 0.06-0.64; p = 0.01) for those with mild TBI, and 0.47 (95% CI 0.24-0.89; p = 0.02) for those with severe TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Those who received surgery for their TBI had a lower hazard for poor outcome than those who did not. Surgical intervention was associated with the greatest improvement in outcomes for moderate head injuries, followed by mild and severe injuries. The findings suggest a reprioritization of patients with moderate TBI-a drastic change to the traditional practice within low- and middle-income countries in which the most severely injured patients are prioritized for care.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health systems for surgical care for children in low- and middle-income countries remain poorly understood. Our goal was to characterize the delivery of surgical care for children across Brazil and to identify associations between surgical resources and childhood mortality. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, ecological study to analyze surgical care for children in the public health system (Sistema Único de Saúde) across Brazil from 2010 to 2015. We collected data from several national databases, and used geospatial analysis (two-step floating catchment, Getis-Ord-Gi analysis, and geographically weighted regression) to explore relationships between infrastructure, workforce, access, procedure rate, under-5 mortality rate (U5MR), and perioperative mortality rate (POMR). RESULTS: A total of 246,769 surgical procedures were performed in 6,007 first level/ district hospitals and 491 referral hospitals across Brazil over the study period. The surgical workforce is distributed unevenly across the country, with 0.13-0.26 pediatric surgeons per 100,000 children in the poorer North, Northeast and Midwest regions, and 0.6-0.68 pediatric surgeons per 100,000 children in the wealthier South and Southeast regions. Hospital infrastructure, procedure rate, and access to care is also unequally distributed across the country, with increased resources in the South and Southeast compared to the Northeast, North, and Midwest. The U5MR varies widely across the country, although procedure-specific POMR is consistent across regions. Increased access to care is associated with lower U5MR across Brazil, and access to surgical care differs by geographic region independent of socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide disparities in surgical care for children across Brazil, with infrastructure, manpower, and resources distributed unevenly across the country. Access to surgical care is associated with improved U5MR independent of socioeconomic status. To address these disparities, policy should direct the allocation of surgical resources commensurate with local population needs.

6.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e47, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139211

RESUMO

Objective: To present a methodology for the empirical evaluation of primary health care (PHC) through the construction of digital representations of potential PHC coverage areas. Methods: In this methodological study, potential areas were constructed by combinatorial analysis between census tracts and the location of basic health units with working PHC teams in Brazil. Six rules were used to parameterize the algorithm for the construction of potential areas. Thus, six restrictions were applied to enable the model: the selection of census tracts near the basic health unit; contiguous sectors; mutually exclusive sectors; sectors located in the same municipality of basic health units; sum of 4 500 users per health team in each unit; and volume of population ascribed proportional to the number of PHC teams allocated to the unit. Based on 316 594 census tracts and 39 758 basic health units, a neighborhood matrix was developed. To that matrix, a graph algorithm was applied to test combinations of sectors that simultaneously met the stipulated rules. Results: A total of 1 901 114 arcs were defined, connecting 30 351 census tracts, allowing the construction of 26 907 potential areas. Based on these results, intra-municipal analyses can be performed to monitor PHC indicators. Customizable algorithm parameters can be adjusted to accommodate different sets of rules which may be adapted to different countries. Conclusions: The use of geoprocessing approaches creates conditions for the assessment of PHC impact, based on secondary databases at various levels, such as intra-municipal, basic health unit, and even at the team level.

7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180230, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB emerged in the 21st century as an unsolved public health problem. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of basic health units (BHUs) and the number of TB cases detected in Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: An ecological, analytical study was conducted using the municipalities in the state of Maranhão as the unit of analysis. Data regarding the number of detected TB cases was obtained from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação database, and the characteristics of the BHUs were obtained from the first cycle of data collection for the Program to Improve Access and Quality of Basic Care. The BHU structure was classified as adequate (80%-100%), partially adequate (60%-79%), poorly adequate (40%-59%), or inadequate (<40%) according to the presence of specified items. The number of BHUs per municipality in each adequacy category was estimated. Inflated Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate the incidence density ratios (IDRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: Municipalities with a higher level of BHU adequacy had a higher number of detected TB cases (IDR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.60). CONCLUSIONS: Better structured health services in primary care may be associated with better detection and/or notification of TB cases.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Brasil , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210502, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the utilization of cardiac diagnostic testing in Brazil and how such testing is related with local rates of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-related mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from DATASUS, the public national healthcare database, absolute counts of diagnostic tests performed were calculated for each of the 5570 municipalities and mapped. Spatial error regression and geographic weighted regression models were used to describe the geographic variation in the association between ACS mortality, income, and access to diagnostic testing. From 2008 to 2014, a total of 4,653,884 cardiac diagnostic procedures were performed in Brazil, at a total cost of $271 million USD. The overall ACS mortality rate during this time period was 133.8 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants aged 20 to 79. The most commonly utilized test was the stress ECG (3,015,993), followed by catheterization (862,627), scintigraphy (669,969) and stress echocardiography (105,295). The majority of these procedures were conducted in large urban centers in more economically developed regions of the country. Increased access to testing and increased income were not uniformly associated with decreased ACS mortality, and tremendous geographic heterogeneity was observed in the relationship between these variables. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of testing for ACS in Brazil is conducted at referral centers in developed urban settings. Stress ECG is the dominant testing modality in use. Increased access to diagnostic testing was not consistently associated with decreased ACS mortality across the country.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia/economia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 5, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazilian Primary Care Facilities (PCF) provide primary care and must offer dental services for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases. According to a logic of promoting equity, PCF should be better structured in less developed places and with higher need for oral health services. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the structure of dental caries services in the capitals of the Brazilian Federative Units and identify whether socioeconomic factors and caries (need) are predictors of the oral health services structure. METHODS: This is an ecological study with variables retrieved from different secondary databases, clustered for the level of the federative capitals. Descriptive thematic maps were prepared, and structural equations were analyzed to identify oral health service structure's predictors (Alpha = 5%). Four models with different outcomes related to dental caries treatment were tested: 1) % of PCF with a fully equipped office; 2) % of PCF with sufficient instruments, and 3) % of PCF with sufficient supplies; 4) % of PCF with total structure. RESULTS: 21.6% of the PCF of the Brazilian capitals had a fully equipped office; 46.9% had sufficient instruments, and 30.0% had sufficient supplies for caries prevention and treatment. The four models evidenced proper fit indexes. A correlation between socioeconomic factors and the structure of oral health services was only noted in model 3. The worse the socioeconomic conditions, the lower the availability of dental supplies (standard factor loading: 0.92, P = 0.012). Estimates of total, direct and indirect effects showed that dental caries experience observed in the Brazilian population by SB-Brasil in 2010 did not affect the outcomes investigated. CONCLUSION: Material resources are not equitably distributed according to the socioeconomic conditions and oral health needs of the population of the Brazilian capitals, thus contributing to persistent oral health inequities in the country.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/organização & administração , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977119

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB emerged in the 21st century as an unsolved public health problem. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of basic health units (BHUs) and the number of TB cases detected in Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS An ecological, analytical study was conducted using the municipalities in the state of Maranhão as the unit of analysis. Data regarding the number of detected TB cases was obtained from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação database, and the characteristics of the BHUs were obtained from the first cycle of data collection for the Program to Improve Access and Quality of Basic Care. The BHU structure was classified as adequate (80%-100%), partially adequate (60%-79%), poorly adequate (40%-59%), or inadequate (<40%) according to the presence of specified items. The number of BHUs per municipality in each adequacy category was estimated. Inflated Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate the incidence density ratios (IDRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS Municipalities with a higher level of BHU adequacy had a higher number of detected TB cases (IDR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.60). CONCLUSIONS Better structured health services in primary care may be associated with better detection and/or notification of TB cases.

11.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 27(4): e2017444, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe a solution enabling geolocation of hospital admissions (AIH), processed on the Brazilian National Health System's Hospital Information System. METHODS: in order to spatialize AIHs an R language script was written, based on the microdatasus and CepR packages; the script was applied to identify all AIHs in Goiás state in the year 2015; after downloading and pre-processing the data, the procedure for AIH spatialization was detailed. RESULTS: of the 361,213 AIHs processed, we were able to retrieve 24,220 different ZIP codes (CEPs); from this set of ZIP codes, 23,910 (98.7%) were geolocated; these geolocated ZIP codes enabled spatialization of 97.7% of AIHs processed for the state of Goiás. CONCLUSION: it is possible to spatialize AIHs with a high success rate; the method detailed in this paper opens a new range of possibilities for the design of evaluation studies, formulation of policies and planning of health care actions.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Brasil , Humanos , Software
12.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49564

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Apesar de decorridos 40 anos da divulgação dos princípios de Alma-Ata, ainda persistem desafios para a consolidação da atenção primária à saúde (APS) como eixo norteador dos sistemas de saúde ao redor do globo. Dentre os desafios ainda presentes, merecem destaque as questões associadas à iniquidade na distribuição de recursos humanos em saúde. A experiência do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) no Brasil é um exemplo de proposta voltada para a abordagem dessa agenda inconclusa de Alma-Ata. Ao modificar aspectos centrais da formação, provimento e alocação de profissionais médicos, o PMM mostrou-se uma saída viável para minimizar os desafios de escassez de profissionais. As avaliações do PMM, embora incipientes, produziram evidências positivas quanto a ampliação do acesso e melhoria da qualidade da APS no Brasil, um país de médio desenvolvimento econômico. Apesar disso, é premente a geração de evidências mais sólidas a respeito do impacto do PMM sobre indicadores de desempenho da APS. O debate apresentado ao longo deste trabalho discute a necessidade de se viabilizar estudos quase-experimentais capazes de mensurar o impacto do PMM junto à saúde da população. O artigo propõe, então, um conjunto de diretrizes que pode se configurar como um modelo aplicável para abordar desafios associados à escassez de profissionais em países de médio e baixo desenvolvimento econômico.


[ABSTRACT]. Despite the 40 years elapsed since the Alma-Ata principles were first launched, a series of challenges still persists for the consolidation of primary health care (PHC) as the backbone of health care systems around the world. Among these challenges, especially noteworthy are the issues associated with the inequality in the allocation of human resources. The experience of the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM) in Brazil is an example of initiatives that tackle this inconclusive Alma-Ata agenda. By changing key aspects of physician training, provision, and allocation, PMM was shown to be a feasible alternative to minimize the challenge of physician shortage. Assessments of PMM, even though preliminary, have produced positive evidence showing increase in access and improvement of PHC quality in Brazil, a middle income country. Nevertheless, the generation of more robust evidence regarding the impact of PMM on PHC performance indicators is urgent. The discussion proposed in the present article emphasizes the need to prioritize quasi-experimental studies to measure the impact of PMM on population health. The article thus introduces a set of guidelines that may become a useful model to approach challenges associated with the shortage of health care professionals in low and middle income countries.


[RESUMEN]. A pesar de que han transcurrido 40 años desde la proclamación de los principios de Alma-Ata, aún persisten desafíos para la consolidación de la atención primaria de salud (APS) como columna vertebral de los sistemas de atención de salud en todo el mundo. Entre estos desafíos, se destacan los problemas asociados con la desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos. La experiencia del Programa Más Médicos (PMM) en Brasil es un ejemplo de las iniciativas que abordan esta agenda inconclusa de Alma-Ata. Al cambiar aspectos clave de la capacitación, la provisión y la asignación de médicos, el PMM demostró ser una alternativa viable para minimizar el desafío de la escasez de profesionales. Las evaluaciones del PMM, aunque preliminares, han producido evidencias positivas que muestran un aumento en el acceso y mejora de la calidad de la APS en Brasil, un país de ingresos medios. Sin embargo, urge generar evidencia más sólida sobre el impacto del PMM en los indicadores de desempeño de la APS. La discusión propuesta en este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de priorizar estudios cuasiexperimentales para medir el impacto del PMM en la salud de la población. El artículo propone un conjunto de directrices que pueden convertirse en un modelo útil para abordar los desafíos asociados con la escasez de profesionales de la salud en países de ingresos bajos y medios.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos , Recursos Humanos , Assistência à Saúde , Distribuição de Médicos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Distribuição de Médicos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Distribuição de Médicos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(9): e00049817, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208170

RESUMO

The study aimed to: (1) describe the work process in Brazil's oral health teams, based on the essential attributes of primary health care, according to geographic region, type of team, and the municipality's socioeconomic characteristics and (2) verify whether the data in the work process of the oral health teams in the Brazilian National Program to Improve Access and Quality in primary health (PMAQ-AB) were capable of measuring such attributes. This was a nationwide ecological study with data from cycle I of PMAQ-AB. The study included descriptive, exploratory factor, and confirmatory factor analyses (α = 5%). Constructs were analyzed in light of the essential attributes of primary health care (first contact, coordination of care, comprehensiveness, and continuity). The first three constructs and a fourth factor were formed, called dental prosthesis actions. However, the continuity attribute was not formed. The models' goodness-of-fit measures were satisfactory. Factor loads were greater than 0.5, except for the two variables in factor 3. The actions most frequently performed by the oral health teams (> 60%) were in first contact, and the least frequent were those in comprehensiveness, highlighting referrals to specialties (7.6%). There were differences in the work process in oral health teams between regions of the country, type of team, and certification strata (p < 0.05). In conclusion, data on the work process in oral health teams from cycle primary health care in the services' work routine. Further research is recommended on continuity of care. In addition, the oral health teams participating in cycle I of PMAQ-AB should make further progress in actions related to comprehensiveness and coordination of care.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Saúde da Família , Mão de Obra em Saúde/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(4): e0006392, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic ceased to be a public health emergency by the end of 2016, studies to improve knowledge about this emerging disease are still needed, especially those investigating a causal relationship between ZIKV in pregnant women and microcephaly in neonates. However, there are still many challenges in describing the relationship between ZIKV and microcephaly. The few studies focusing on the epidemiological profile of ZIKV and its changes over time are largely limited to systematic reviews of case reports and dispersal mapping of ZIKV spread over time without quantitative methods to analyze patterns and their covariates. Since Brazil has been at the epicenter of the ZIKV epidemic, this study examines the geospatial association between ZIKV and microcephaly in Brazil. METHODS: Our study is categorized as a retrospective, ecological study based on secondary databases. Data were obtained from January to December 2016, from the following data sources: Brazilian System for Epidemiological Surveillance, Disease Notification System, System for Specialized Management Support, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Data were aggregated by municipality. Incidence rates were estimated per 100,000 inhabitants. Analyses consisted of mapping the aggregated incidence rates of ZIKV and microcephaly, followed by a Getis-Ord-Gi spatial cluster analysis and a Bivariate Local Moran's I analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of ZIKV cases is changing the virus's spatial pattern, shifting from Brazil's Northeast region to the Midwest and North regions. The number of municipalities in clusters of microcephaly incidence is also shifting from the Northeast region to the Midwest and North, after a time lag is considered. Our findings suggest an increase in microcephaly incidence in the Midwest and North regions, associated with high levels of ZIKV infection months before. CONCLUSION: The greatest burden of microcephaly shifted from the Northeast to other Brazilian regions at the beginning of 2016. Brazil's Midwest region experienced an increase in microcephaly incidence associated with ZIKV incidence. This finding highlights an association between an increase in ZIKV infection with a rise in microcephaly cases after approximately three months.


Assuntos
Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(1): 229-240, Jan. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890482

RESUMO

Resumo O presente trabalho comparou a confiabilidade de um grupo de dados registrados junto às bases secundárias do Cadastro Nacional dos Estabelecimentos de Saúde. Para cumprir este objetivo, o trabalho foi realizado em 'survey' com 2.777 hospitais. Os hospitais visitados forneceram dados sobre equipamentos, localização geográfica, status de funcionamento e número de leitos. Quanto à concordância entre os hospitais visitados e o cadastro nacional, pode-se destacar que o status de funcionamento estava atualizado em 89% dos casos, o número de leitos em 44%, 82% mantinham o quantitativo de equipamentos correto e 63% apresentaram coordenadas geográficas precisas. Esses achados apontam para uma boa confiabilidade dos dados do Cadastro Nacional dos Estabelecimentos de Saúde, quanto às categorias comparadas, excetuando-se os dados referentes ao número de leitos cadastrados e quanto a existência de alguns equipamentos. Como desdobramento deste trabalho pesa a necessidade de discutir estratégias e incentivos para melhorar a confiabilidade dos dados que ainda apresentam inconsistências, de forma a ampliar a qualidade dos instrumentos utilizados para a formulação de políticas públicas.


Abstract This study compared the reliability of a data group registered in the secondary databases of the National Registry of Health Facilities. A survey was conducted in 2,777 with hospitals to achieve this objective. Visited hospitals provided information on equipment, geographic location, operating status and number of beds. Regarding matching data between visited hospitals and the National Registry, it can be noted that the operating status was updated in 89% of cases, the number of beds in 44%, 82% had the correct amount of equipment and 63% had accurate geographic coordinates. These findings point to a good reliability of information from the National Registry of Health Facilities, regarding the compared categories, excepting for data on the number of registered beds and for some equipment. As a further development of this work, we stress the need to discuss strategies and incentives to improve the reliability of data that still have inconsistencies, in order to improve the instruments used to formulate public policies.

16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42: e185, 2018.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093213

RESUMO

Despite the 40 years elapsed since the Alma-Ata principles were first launched, a series of challenges still persists for the consolidation of primary health care (PHC) as the backbone of health care systems around the world. Among these challenges, especially noteworthy are the issues associated with the inequality in the allocation of human resources. The experience of the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM) in Brazil is an example of initiatives that tackle this inconclusive Alma-Ata agenda. By changing key aspects of physician training, provision, and allocation, PMM was shown to be a feasible alternative to minimize the challenge of physician shortage. Assessments of PMM, even though preliminary, have produced positive evidence showing increase in access and improvement of PHC quality in Brazil, a middle income country. Nevertheless, the generation of more robust evidence regarding the impact of PMM on PHC performance indicators is urgent. The discussion proposed in the present article emphasizes the need to prioritize quasi-experimental studies to measure the impact of PMM on population health. The article thus introduces a set of guidelines that may become a useful model to approach challenges associated with the shortage of health care professionals in low and middle income countries.

17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(1): 229-240, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267826

RESUMO

This study compared the reliability of a data group registered in the secondary databases of the National Registry of Health Facilities. A survey was conducted in 2,777 with hospitals to achieve this objective. Visited hospitals provided information on equipment, geographic location, operating status and number of beds. Regarding matching data between visited hospitals and the National Registry, it can be noted that the operating status was updated in 89% of cases, the number of beds in 44%, 82% had the correct amount of equipment and 63% had accurate geographic coordinates. These findings point to a good reliability of information from the National Registry of Health Facilities, regarding the compared categories, excepting for data on the number of registered beds and for some equipment. As a further development of this work, we stress the need to discuss strategies and incentives to improve the reliability of data that still have inconsistencies, in order to improve the instruments used to formulate public policies.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Sistema de Registros/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e185, 2018. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-978853

RESUMO

RESUMO Apesar de decorridos 40 anos da divulgação dos princípios de Alma-Ata, ainda persistem desafios para a consolidação da atenção primária à saúde (APS) como eixo norteador dos sistemas de saúde ao redor do globo. Dentre os desafios ainda presentes, merecem destaque as questões associadas à iniquidade na distribuição de recursos humanos em saúde. A experiência do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) no Brasil é um exemplo de proposta voltada para a abordagem dessa agenda inconclusa de Alma-Ata. Ao modificar aspectos centrais da formação, provimento e alocação de profissionais médicos, o PMM mostrou-se uma saída viável para minimizar os desafios de escassez de profissionais. As avaliações do PMM, embora incipientes, produziram evidências positivas quanto a ampliação do acesso e melhoria da qualidade da APS no Brasil, um país de médio desenvolvimento econômico. Apesar disso, é premente a geração de evidências mais sólidas a respeito do impacto do PMM sobre indicadores de desempenho da APS. O debate apresentado ao longo deste trabalho discute a necessidade de se viabilizar estudos quase-experimentais capazes de mensurar o impacto do PMM junto à saúde da população. O artigo propõe, então, um conjunto de diretrizes que pode se configurar como um modelo aplicável para abordar desafios associados à escassez de profissionais em países de médio e baixo desenvolvimento econômico.


ABSTRACT Despite the 40 years elapsed since the Alma-Ata principles were first launched, a series of challenges still persists for the consolidation of primary health care (PHC) as the backbone of health care systems around the world. Among these challenges, especially noteworthy are the issues associated with the inequality in the allocation of human resources. The experience of the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM) in Brazil is an example of initiatives that tackle this inconclusive Alma-Ata agenda. By changing key aspects of physician training, provision, and allocation, PMM was shown to be a feasible alternative to minimize the challenge of physician shortage. Assessments of PMM, even though preliminary, have produced positive evidence showing increase in access and improvement of PHC quality in Brazil, a middle income country. Nevertheless, the generation of more robust evidence regarding the impact of PMM on PHC performance indicators is urgent. The discussion proposed in the present article emphasizes the need to prioritize quasi-experimental studies to measure the impact of PMM on population health. The article thus introduces a set of guidelines that may become a useful model to approach challenges associated with the shortage of health care professionals in low and middle income countries.


RESUMEN A pesar de que han transcurrido 40 años desde la proclamación de los principios de Alma-Ata, aún persisten desafíos para la consolidación de la atención primaria de salud (APS) como columna vertebral de los sistemas de atención de salud en todo el mundo. Entre estos desafíos, se destacan los problemas asociados con la desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos. La experiencia del Programa Más Médicos (PMM) en Brasil es un ejemplo de las iniciativas que abordan esta agenda inconclusa de Alma-Ata. Al cambiar aspectos clave de la capacitación, la provisión y la asignación de médicos, el PMM demostró ser una alternativa viable para minimizar el desafío de la escasez de profesionales. Las evaluaciones del PMM, aunque preliminares, han producido evidencias positivas que muestran un aumento en el acceso y mejora de la calidad de la APS en Brasil, un país de ingresos medios. Sin embargo, urge generar evidencia más sólida sobre el impacto del PMM en los indicadores de desempeño de la APS. La discusión propuesta en este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de priorizar estudios cuasiexperimentales para medir el impacto del PMM en la salud de la población. El artículo propone un conjunto de directrices que pueden convertirse en un modelo útil para abordar los desafíos asociados con la escasez de profesionales de la salud en países de ingresos bajos y medios.


Assuntos
Distribuição de Médicos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Recursos Humanos
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(9): e00049817, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952464

RESUMO

Resumo: Os objetivos do estudo foram: (1) descrever o processo de trabalho das equipes de saúde bucal (ESB) do Brasil, com base nos atributos essenciais da atenção primária à saúde, segundo regiões, tipo de equipe e características socioeconômicas dos municípios; e (2) verificar se os dados do processo de trabalho das ESB do Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica (PMAQ-AB) foram capazes de aferir tais atributos. Estudo ecológico, de abrangência nacional, com dados do ciclo I do PMAQ-AB. Foram feitas análises descritivas, fatoriais exploratória e confirmatória (α = 5%). Os construtos formados foram analisados à luz dos atributos essenciais da atenção primária à saúde (primeiro contato, coordenação do cuidado, integralidade e longitudinalidade). Formaram-se os três primeiros construtos e um quarto fator, denominado ações em prótese dentária. Porém, o atributo longitudinalidade não foi conformado. As medidas de ajuste dos modelos foram satisfatórias. As cargas fatoriais foram maiores que 0,5, exceto para duas variáveis do fator 3. As ações mais realizadas pelas ESB (> 60%) foram as do primeiro contato e as menos comuns foram as da integralidade, destacando-se ter referência para especialidades (7,6%). Houve diferenças no processo de trabalho das ESB entre as regiões, tipo de equipe e estrato de certificação (p < 0,05). Conclui-se que os dados de processo de trabalho das ESB do ciclo I do PMAQ-AB foram capazes de discriminar três dos quatro atributos essenciais da atenção primária à saúde na rotina dos serviços. Sugere-se aprofundar a avaliação da longitudinalidade. Ademais, as ESB participantes do ciclo I do PMAQ-AB precisam avançar nas ações relacionadas à integralidade e coordenação do cuidado.


Abstract: The study aimed to: (1) describe the work process in Brazil's oral health teams, based on the essential attributes of primary health care, according to geographic region, type of team, and the municipality's socioeconomic characteristics and (2) verify whether the data in the work process of the oral health teams in the Brazilian National Program to Improve Access and Quality in primary health (PMAQ-AB) were capable of measuring such attributes. This was a nationwide ecological study with data from cycle I of PMAQ-AB. The study included descriptive, exploratory factor, and confirmatory factor analyses (α = 5%). Constructs were analyzed in light of the essential attributes of primary health care (first contact, coordination of care, comprehensiveness, and continuity). The first three constructs and a fourth factor were formed, called dental prosthesis actions. However, the continuity attribute was not formed. The models' goodness-of-fit measures were satisfactory. Factor loads were greater than 0.5, except for the two variables in factor 3. The actions most frequently performed by the oral health teams (> 60%) were in first contact, and the least frequent were those in comprehensiveness, highlighting referrals to specialties (7.6%). There were differences in the work process in oral health teams between regions of the country, type of team, and certification strata (p < 0.05). In conclusion, data on the work process in oral health teams from cycle primary health care in the services' work routine. Further research is recommended on continuity of care. In addition, the oral health teams participating in cycle I of PMAQ-AB should make further progress in actions related to comprehensiveness and coordination of care.


Resumen: Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: (1) describir el proceso de trabajo de los equipos de salud bucal (ESB) en Brasil, conforme los atributos esenciales de la atención primaria a la salud, según regiones, tipo de equipo y características socioeconómicas de los municipios; además de (2) verificar si los datos del proceso de trabajo de las ESB en el Programa Nacional de Mejora del Acceso y Calidad de la Atención Básica (PMAQ-AB) fueron capaces de evaluar tales atributos. Es un estudio ecológico, de cobertura nacional, con datos del ciclo I del PMAQ-AB. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios (α = 5%). Los constructos creados se analizaron a la luz de los atributos esenciales de la atención primaria a la salud (primer contacto, coordinación del cuidado, integralidad y longitudinalidad). Se generaron los tres primeros constructos, y un cuarto factor, denominado acciones en prótesis dental. No obstante, el atributo longitudinalidad no se configuró. Las medidas de ajuste de los modelos fueron satisfactorias. Las cargas factoriales fueron mayores que 0,5, excepto en dos variables del factor 3. Las acciones más realizadas por las ESB (> 60%) fueron las de primer contacto, y las menos comunes fueron las de integralidad, destacándose contar con referencias para especialidades (7,6%). Hubo diferencias en el proceso de trabajo de las ESB entre las regiones, tipo de equipo y extracto de certificación (p < 0,05). Se concluye que los datos del proceso de trabajo de las ESB del ciclo I del PMAQ-AB fueron capaces de discriminar tres de los cuatro atributos esenciales de la atención primaria a la salud en la rutina de los servicios. Se sugiere profundizar en la evaluación de la longitudinalidad. Además, las ESB participantes del ciclo I del PMAQ-AB necesitan avanzar en acciones relacionadas con la integralidad y coordinación del cuidado.

20.
Int J Equity Health ; 16(1): 209, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to health services is in part defined by the spatial distribution of healthcare equipment. To ensure equity in the provision of health services, it is important to examine availability across different health care providers taking into account population demand. Given the importance of the equitable provision of health equipment, we evaluate its spatial distribution in Brazil. METHODS: This study is classified as cross-sectional with an ecological design. We evaluate Brazilian data on distance to available health equipment considering: dialysis machines (385), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (257), hospital beds (3675) and bone densitometers (429). We define two distance thresholds (50 km and 200 km) from a municipality to the center of services provision. The balance between infrastructure capacity and potential demand was evaluated to identify a lack or surplus of health services. RESULTS: The distribution of dialysis equipment and bone densitometers is not balanced across Brazilian states, and unmet demand is high. With respect to MRIs, the large capacity of this equipment results in a large excess of supply. However, this characteristic alone cannot account for excesses of supply of over 700%, as is the case of the Federal District when the range is limited to 50 km. At the same time, four states in the Northeastern region of Brazil show a net excess of demand. Some regions do not meet the standard amount of supply defined by Brazilian Ministry of Health. The quantity and distribution of hospital beds are not sufficient to provide full coverage to the population. CONCLUSION: Our main focus was to evaluate the network of the provision of health equipment in Brazil, considering both private and public sectors conjointly. We take into account two main aspects of a spatially balanced health system: the regional availability of health equipment and the geographic distance between its demand and supply at the municipality level. Some regions do not meet the minimum requirement defined by the Brazilian Ministry of Health regarding the supply of health services.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/provisão & distribução , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Análise Espacial
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