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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e30582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvements in the delivery of intensive care have increased survival among even the most critically ill children, thereby leading to a growing number of children with chronic complex medical conditions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Some of these children are at a significant risk of recurrent and prolonged critical illness, with higher morbidity and mortality, making them a unique population described as having chronic critical illness (CCI). To date, pediatric CCI has been understudied and lacks an accepted consensus case definition. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the protocol and methodology used to perform a scoping review that will describe how pediatric CCI has been defined in the literature, including the concept of prolonged PICU admission and the methodologies used to develop any existing definitions. It also aims to describe patient characteristics and outcomes evaluated in the included studies. METHODS: We will search four electronic databases for studies that evaluated children admitted to any PICU identified with CCI. We will also search for studies describing prolonged PICU admission, as this concept is related to pediatric CCI. Furthermore, we will develop a hybrid crowdsourcing and machine learning (ML) methodology to complete citation screening. Screening and data abstraction will be performed by 2 reviewers independently and in duplicate. Data abstraction will include the details of population definitions, demographic and clinical characteristics of children with CCI, and evaluated outcomes. RESULTS: The database search, crowd reviewer recruitment, and ML algorithm development began in March 2021. Citation screening and data abstraction were completed in April 2021. Final data verification is ongoing, with analysis and results anticipated to be completed by fall 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review will describe the existing or suggested definitions of pediatric CCI and important demographic and clinical characteristics of patients to whom these definitions have been applied. This review's results will help inform the development of a consensus case definition for pediatric CCI and set a priority agenda for future research. We will use and demonstrate the validity of crowdsourcing and ML methodologies for improving the efficiency of large scoping reviews. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/30582.

2.
CMAJ ; 193(39): E1525-E1533, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607846
4.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors for the development of venous thromboembolism in the ICU. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to March 1, 2021. STUDY SELECTION: We included English-language studies describing prognostic factors associated with the development of venous thromboembolism among critically ill patients. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors performed data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment. We pooled adjusted odds ratios and adjusted hazard ratios for prognostic factors using random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool and certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach. DATA SYNTHESIS: We included 39 observational cohort studies involving 729,477 patients. Patient factors with high or moderate certainty of association with increased odds of venous thromboembolism include older age (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29 per 10 yr), obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.32), active malignancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.18-2.44), history of venous thromboembolism (adjusted odds ratio, 4.77; 95% CI, 3.42-6.65), and history of recent surgery (adjusted odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.26-2.47). ICU-specific factors with high or moderate certainty of association with increased risk of venous thromboembolism include sepsis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.12-1.78), lack of pharmacologic venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.14-2.84), central venous catheter (adjusted odds ratio, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.98-4.34), invasive mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.36-2.24), and use of vasoactive medication (adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.23-2.81). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides quantitative summaries of the association between patient-specific and ICU-related prognostic factors and the risk of venous thromboembolism in the ICU. These findings provide the foundation for the development of a venous thromboembolism risk stratification tool for critically ill patients.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625477

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To summarise the prognostic associations between various clinical risk factors and the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following traumatic injury. METHODS: We conducted this review in accordance with the PRISMA and CHARMS guidelines. We searched six databases from inception through December 2020. We included English language studies describing the clinical risk factors associated with the development of post-traumatic ARDS, as defined by either the American-European Consensus Conference or the Berlin definition. We pooled adjusted odds ratios for prognostic factors using the random effects method. We assessed risk of bias using the QUIPS tool and certainty of findings using GRADE methodology. RESULTS: We included 39 studies involving 5 350 927 patients. We identified the amount of crystalloid resuscitation as a potentially modifiable prognostic factor associated with the development of post-traumatic ARDS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.19 for each additional liter of crystalloid administered within first 6 h after injury, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.24, high certainty). Non-modifiable prognostic factors with a moderate or high certainty of association with post-traumatic ARDS included increasing age, non-Hispanic white race, blunt mechanism of injury, presence of head injury, pulmonary contusion, or rib fracture; and increasing chest injury severity. CONCLUSION: We identified one important modifiable factor, the amount of crystalloid resuscitation within the first 24 h of injury, and several non-modifiable factors associated with development of post-traumatic ARDS. This information should support the judicious use of crystalloid resuscitation in trauma patients and may inform the development of a risk-stratification tools.

6.
BMJ ; 374: n2231, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiviral antibody therapies and blood products for the treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis, with pairwise meta-analysis for outcomes with insufficient data. DATA SOURCES: WHO covid-19 database, a comprehensive multilingual source of global covid-19 literature, and six Chinese databases (up to 21 July 2021). STUDY SELECTION: Trials randomising people with suspected, probable, or confirmed covid-19 to antiviral antibody therapies, blood products, or standard care or placebo. Paired reviewers determined eligibility of trials independently and in duplicate. METHODS: After duplicate data abstraction, we performed random effects bayesian meta-analysis, including network meta-analysis for outcomes with sufficient data. We assessed risk of bias using a modification of the Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) approach. We meta-analysed interventions with ≥100 patients randomised or ≥20 events per treatment arm. RESULTS: As of 21 July 2021, we identified 47 trials evaluating convalescent plasma (21 trials), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (5 trials), umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (5 trials), bamlanivimab (4 trials), casirivimab-imdevimab (4 trials), bamlanivimab-etesevimab (2 trials), control plasma (2 trials), peripheral blood non-haematopoietic enriched stem cells (2 trials), sotrovimab (1 trial), anti-SARS-CoV-2 IVIg (1 trial), therapeutic plasma exchange (1 trial), XAV-19 polyclonal antibody (1 trial), CT-P59 monoclonal antibody (1 trial) and INM005 polyclonal antibody (1 trial) for the treatment of covid-19. Patients with non-severe disease randomised to antiviral monoclonal antibodies had lower risk of hospitalisation than those who received placebo: casirivimab-imdevimab (odds ratio (OR) 0.29 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.47); risk difference (RD) -4.2%; moderate certainty), bamlanivimab (OR 0.24 (0.06 to 0.86); RD -4.1%; low certainty), bamlanivimab-etesevimab (OR 0.31 (0.11 to 0.81); RD -3.8%; low certainty), and sotrovimab (OR 0.17 (0.04 to 0.57); RD -4.8%; low certainty). They did not have an important impact on any other outcome. There was no notable difference between monoclonal antibodies. No other intervention had any meaningful effect on any outcome in patients with non-severe covid-19. No intervention, including antiviral antibodies, had an important impact on any outcome in patients with severe or critical covid-19, except casirivimab-imdevimab, which may reduce mortality in patients who are seronegative. CONCLUSION: In patients with non-severe covid-19, casirivimab-imdevimab probably reduces hospitalisation; bamlanivimab-etesevimab, bamlanivimab, and sotrovimab may reduce hospitalisation. Convalescent plasma, IVIg, and other antibody and cellular interventions may not confer any meaningful benefit. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This review was not registered. The protocol established a priori is included as a data supplement. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant CIHR- IRSC:0579001321). READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Interim updates and additional study data will be posted on our website (www.covid19lnma.com).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Metanálise em Rede , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048227, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flexible visitation policies in hospitals are an important component of care that contributes to reduced stress and increased satisfaction among patients and their family members. Early evidence suggests restricted visitation policies enacted in hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic are having unintended consequences on patients, family members and healthcare providers. There is a need for a comprehensive summary of the impacts of restricted visitation policies on key stakeholders and approaches to mitigate that impact. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review as per the Arksey-O'Malley 5-stage scoping review method and the Scoping Review Methods Manual by the Joanna Briggs Institute. We will search relevant electronic databases (eg, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO), grey literature and preprint repositories. We will include all study designs including qualitative and quantitative methodologies (excluding protocols) as well as reports, opinions and editorials, to identify the broad impact of restricted hospital visitation policies due to the COVID-19 pandemic on patients, family members or healthcare providers of hospitalised patients, and approaches taken or proposed to mitigate this impact. Two reviewers will calibrate the screening criteria and data abstraction form and will independently screen studies and abstract the data. Narrative synthesis with thematic analysis will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not applicable as this review will be conducted on published literature only. This scoping review will identify, describe and categorise impacts of restricted hospital visitation policies due to the COVID-19 pandemic on patients, family members and healthcare providers of hospitalised patients, and approaches that have been taken to mitigate impact. We will provide a comprehensive synthesis by developing a framework of restricted visitation policies and associated impacts. Our results will inform the development of consensus statements on restricted visitation policies to be implemented in future pandemics. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020221662.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Família , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Políticas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521104

RESUMO

Trustworthy health guidelines should provide recommendations, document the development process, and highlight implementation information. Our objective was to develop a guideline manuscript template to help authors write a complete and useful report. The McMaster Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) centre collaborated with the American Society of Hematology (ASH) to develop guidelines for the management of venous thromboembolism. A template for reporting the guidelines was developed based on prior approaches and refined using input from other key stakeholders. The proposed guideline manuscript template includes: 1) title for guideline identification; 2) abstract, including a summary of key recommendations; 3) overview of all recommendations [executive summary]; 4) the main text, providing sufficient detail on the entire process including objectives, background, and methodological decisions from panel selection and conflict of interest management to criteria for updating, as well as supporting information such as links to online (interactive) tables. The template further allows for tailoring to the specific topic, using examples. Initial experience with the ASH guideline manuscript template was positive, and challenges included drafting descriptions of recommendations involving multiple management pathways, tailoring the template for a specific guideline, and choosing key recommendations to highlight. Feedback from a larger group of guideline authors and users will be needed to evaluate its usefulness and refine. The proposed guideline manuscript template is the first detailed template for transparent and complete reporting of guidelines. Consistent application of the template may simplify preparing an evidence-based guideline manuscript and facilitate its use.

9.
JAMA ; 326(11): 1024-1033, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546300

RESUMO

Importance: Growing interest in microbial dysbiosis during critical illness has raised questions about the therapeutic potential of microbiome modification with probiotics. Prior randomized trials in this population suggest that probiotics reduce infection, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), although probiotic-associated infections have also been reported. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on preventing VAP, additional infections, and other clinically important outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized placebo-controlled trial in 44 ICUs in Canada, the United States, and Saudi Arabia enrolling adults predicted to require mechanical ventilation for at least 72 hours. A total of 2653 patients were enrolled from October 2013 to March 2019 (final follow-up, October 2020). Interventions: Enteral L rhamnosus GG (1 × 1010 colony-forming units) (n = 1321) or placebo (n = 1332) twice daily in the ICU. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was VAP determined by duplicate blinded central adjudication. Secondary outcomes were other ICU-acquired infections including Clostridioides difficile infection, diarrhea, antimicrobial use, ICU and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Results: Among 2653 randomized patients (mean age, 59.8 years [SD], 16.5 years), 2650 (99.9%) completed the trial (mean age, 59.8 years [SD], 16.5 years; 1063 women [40.1%.] with a mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 22.0 (SD, 7.8) and received the study product for a median of 9 days (IQR, 5-15 days). VAP developed among 289 of 1318 patients (21.9%) receiving probiotics vs 284 of 1332 controls (21.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.03 (95% CI, 0.87-1.22; P = .73, absolute difference, 0.6%, 95% CI, -2.5% to 3.7%). None of the 20 prespecified secondary outcomes, including other ICU-acquired infections, diarrhea, antimicrobial use, mortality, or length of stay showed a significant difference. Fifteen patients (1.1%) receiving probiotics vs 1 (0.1%) in the control group experienced the adverse event of L rhamnosus in a sterile site or the sole or predominant organism in a nonsterile site (odds ratio, 14.02; 95% CI, 1.79-109.58; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation, administration of the probiotic L rhamnosus GG compared with placebo, resulted in no significant difference in the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. These findings do not support the use of L rhamnosus GG in critically ill patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02462590.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento
11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings because of the COVID-19 pandemic have negative consequences. The objective of this scoping review is to identify impacts of restricted visitation policies in acute care settings, and describe perspectives and mitigation approaches among patients, families, and healthcare professionals. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Healthstar, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on January 01/2021, unrestricted, for published primary research records reporting any study design. We included secondary (e.g., reviews) and non-research records (e.g., commentaries), and performed manual searches in web-based resources. We excluded records that did not report primary data. Two reviewers independently abstracted data in duplicate. RESULTS: Of 7810 citations, we included 155 records. Sixty-six records (43%) were primary research; 29 (44%) case reports or case series, and 26 (39%) cohort studies; 21 (14%) were literature reviews and 8 (5%) were expert recommendations; 54 (35%) were commentary, editorial, or opinion pieces. Restricted visitation policies impacted coping and daily function (n = 31, 20%) and mental health outcomes (n = 29, 19%) of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Participants described a need for coping and support (n = 107, 69%), connection and communication (n = 107, 69%), and awareness of state of well-being (n = 101, 65%). Eighty-seven approaches to mitigate impact of restricted visitation were identified, targeting families (n = 61, 70%), patients (n = 51, 59%), and healthcare professionals (n = 40, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients, families, and healthcare professionals were impacted by restricted visitation polices in acute care settings during COVID-19. The consequences of this approach on patients and families are understudied and warrant evaluation of approaches to mitigate their impact. Future pandemic policy development should include the perspectives of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221662) and a protocol peer-reviewed prior to data extraction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos , Família , Política de Saúde , Pacientes Internados , Distanciamento Físico , Visitas a Pacientes , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Comunicação , Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Telefone , Visitas a Pacientes/psicologia
12.
Chest ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill adults are at increased risk of VTE, including DVT, and pulmonary embolism. Various agents exist for venous thromboprophylaxis in this population. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the comparative efficacy and safety of prophylaxis agents for prevention of VTE in critically ill adults? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating efficacy of thromboprophylaxis agents among critically ill patients. We searched six databases (including PubMed, EMBASE, and Medline) from inception through January 2021 for RCTs of patients in the ICU receiving pharmacologic, mechanical, or combination therapy (pharmacologic agents and mechanical devices) for thromboprophylaxis. Two reviewers performed screening, full-text review, and extraction. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to rate certainty of effect estimates. RESULTS: We included 13 RCTs (9,619 patients). Compared with control treatment (a composite of no prophylaxis, placebo, or compression stockings only), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) reduced the incidence of DVT (OR, 0.59 [95% credible interval [CrI], 0.33-0.90]; high certainty) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) may reduce the incidence of DVT (OR, 0.82 [95% CrI, 0.47-1.37]; low certainty). LMWH probably reduces DVT compared with UFH (OR, 0.72 [95% CrI, 0.46-0.98]; moderate certainty). Compressive devices may reduce risk of DVT compared with control treatments; however, this is based on low-certainty evidence (OR, 0.85 [95% CrI, 0.50-1.50]). Combination therapy showed unclear effect on DVT compared with either therapy alone (very low certainty). INTERPRETATION: Among critically ill adults, compared with control treatment, LMWH reduces incidence of DVT, whereas UFH and mechanical compressive devices may reduce the risk of DVT. LMWH is probably more effective than UFH in reducing incidence of DVT and should be considered the primary pharmacologic agent for thromboprophylaxis. The efficacy and safety of combination pharmacologic therapy and mechanical compressive devices were unclear. TRIAL REGISTRY: Open Science Framework; URL: https://osf.io/694aj.

14.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387202

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Trauma patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We summarize the efficacy and safety of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) for the prevention of VTE in trauma patients. METHODS: We searched six databases from inception through March 12th, 2021. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies comparing LMWH vs UFH for thromboprophylaxis in adult trauma patients. We pooled effect estimates across RCTs and observational studies separately, using random-effects model and inverse variance weighting. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane tool for RCTs and the ROBINS-I tool for observational studies and assessed certainty of findings using GRADE methodology. RESULTS: We included 4 RCTs (879 patients) and 8 observational studies (306,747 patients). Based on pooled RCT data, compared to UFH, LMWH reduces deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (relative risk [RR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50 to 0.88, moderate certainty) and VTE (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, moderate certainty). As compared to UFH, LMWH may reduce pulmonary embolism (adjusted odds ratio from pooled observational studies (aOR) 0.56 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.62) and mortality (aOR from pooled observational studies 0.54, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.65), though based on low certainty evidence. There was an uncertain effect on adverse events (RR from pooled RCTs 0.80, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.33, very low certainty) and heparin induced thrombocytopenia (RR from pooled RCTs 0.26 (95% CI 0.03 to 2.38, very low certainty). CONCLUSION: Among adult trauma patients, LMWH is superior to UFH for DVT and VTE prevention and may additionally reduce pulmonary embolism and mortality. The impact on adverse events and heparin induced thrombocytopenia is uncertain.

15.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(10): 1078-1088, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389870

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Targeted temperature management (TTM) may improve survival and functional outcome in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), though the optimal target temperature remains unknown. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of deep hypothermia (31-32 °C), moderate hypothermia (33-34 °C), mild hypothermia (35-36 °C), and normothermia (37-37.8 °C) during TTM. METHODS: We searched six databases from inception to June 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating TTM in comatose OHCA survivors. Two reviewers performed screening, full text review, and extraction independently. The primary outcome of interest was survival with good functional outcome. We used GRADE to rate our certainty in estimates. RESULTS: We included 10 RCTs (4218 patients). Compared with normothermia, deep hypothermia (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-2.30), moderate hypothermia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.92-1.94) and mild hypothermia (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.74-2.80) may have no effect on survival with good functional outcome (all low certainty). Deep hypothermia may not improve survival with good functional outcome, as compared to moderate hypothermia (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.61-1.54, low certainty). Moderate hypothermia (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.86-1.77) and deep hypothermia (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.70-2.32) may have no effect on survival, as compared to normothermia. Finally, incidence of arrhythmia was higher with moderate hypothermia (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08-1.94) and deep hypothermia (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.77-7.26), compared to normothermia (both high certainty). CONCLUSIONS: Mild, moderate, or deep hypothermia may not improve survival or functional outcome after OHCA, as compared to normothermia. Moderate and deep hypothermia were associated with higher incidence of arrhythmia. Routine use of moderate or deep hypothermia in comatose survivors of OHCA may potentially be associated with more harm than benefit.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Coma/etiologia , Coma/terapia , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Temperatura , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although small randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies have examined helmet non-invasive ventilation (NIV), uncertainty remains regarding its role. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of helmet NIV compared to facemask NIV or high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We searched multiple databases to identify RCTs and observational studies reporting on at least one of mortality, intubation, ICU length of stay, NIV duration, complications, or comfort with NIV therapy. We assessed study risk of bias (ROB) using the Cochrane ROB tool for RCTs and the Ottawa-Newcastle scale for observational studies and rated certainty of pooled evidence using GRADE. RESULTS: We separately pooled data from 16 RCTs (n=949) and 8 observational studies (n=396). Compared to facemask NIV, based on low certainty evidence, helmet NIV may reduce mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.33 to 0.95)), and intubation (RR 0.35, 95% CI (0.22 to 0.56)) in both hypoxic and hypercapnic respiratory failure but may have no effect on duration of NIV. There was an uncertain effect of helmet on ICU length of stay and development of pressure sores. Data from observational studies was consistent with the foregoing findings but of lower certainty. Based on low and very low certainty data, helmet NIV may reduce intubation compared to HFNC, but its effect on mortality is uncertain. CONCLUSION: Compared to facemask NIV, helmet NIV may reduce mortality and intubation; however, the effect of helmet compared to HFNC remains uncertain.

17.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(5): 544-550, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232147

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: If developed using rigorous methods and produced in a timely manner, clinical practice guidelines have the potential to improve patient outcomes. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the challenges involved in generating reliable clinical guidance, it has also provided an opportunity to address these challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: New research addressing drugs for COVID-19 is being produced at unprecedented rates. Incorporating this new knowledge into patient care can be daunting for the average clinician. In collaboration with the BMJ and MAGIC, the WHO has developed a living guideline initiative with the goal of providing rapid and trustworthy clinical guidance in response to practice-changing evidence. As new evidence becomes available, it is incorporated into a living network meta-analysis that informs these guidelines, which are iteratively updated. Until this point, the group has generated guidelines addressing the use of corticosteroids, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ivermectin for COVID-19. SUMMARY: We provide an example of how rapid and rigorous guidelines can be accomplished, even in the setting of a pandemic, capitalizing on expertise, large and dedicated teams, and focused scope. We highlight the benefits of multifaceted knowledge dissemination through multiple formats to ensure global dissemination and in order to maximize impact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina , Lopinavir , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Lancet ; 398(10295): 117-118, 2021 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246341
19.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 139: 68-79, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of Covid-19 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and examine the association between trial characteristics and the likelihood of finding a significant effect. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs (up to October 21, 2020) evaluating drugs or blood products to treat or prevent Covid-19. We extracted trial characteristics (number of centers, funding sources, and sample size) and assessed risk of bias (RoB) using the Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool. We performed logistic regressions to evaluate the association between RoB due to randomization, single vs. multicentre, funding source, and sample size, and finding a statistically significant effect. RESULTS: We included 91 RCTs (n = 46,802); 40 (44%) were single-center, 23 (25.3%) enrolled <50 patients, 28 (30.8%) received industry funding, and 75 (82.4%) had high or probably high RoB. Thirty-eight trials (41.8%) reported a statistically significant effect. RoB due to randomization and being a single-center trial were associated with increased odds of finding a statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: There is high variability in RoB among Covid-19 trials. Researchers, funders, and knowledge-users should be cognizant of the impact of RoB due to randomization and single-center trial status in designing, evaluating, and interpreting the results of RCTs. REGISTRATION: CRD42020192095.

20.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(10): 1474-1484, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In response to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, hospitals in Canada enacted temporary visitor restrictions to limit the spread of COVID-19 and preserve personal protective equipment supplies. This study describes the extent, variation, and fluctuation of Canadian adult intensive care unit (ICU) visitation policies before and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan of Canadian hospital visitation policies throughout the first wave of the pandemic. We conducted a two-phased study analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data. RESULTS: We collected 257 documents with reference to visitation policies (preCOVID, 101 [39%]; midCOVID, 71 [28%]; and lateCOVID, 85 [33%]). Of these 257 documents, 38 (15%) were ICU-specific and 70 (27%) referenced the ICU. Most policies during the midCOVID/lateCOVID pandemic period allowed no visitors with specific exceptions (e.g., end-of-life). Framework analysis revealed five overarching themes: 1) reasons for restricted visitation policies; 2) visitation policies and expectations; 3) exceptions to visitation policy; 4) patient and family-centred care; and 5) communication and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, most Canadian hospitals had public-facing visitor restriction policies with specific exception categories, most commonly for patients at end-of-life, patients requiring assistance, or COVID-19 positive patients (varying from not allowed to case-by-case). Further studies are needed to understand the consistency with which visitation policies were operationalized and how they may have impacted patient- and family-centred care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Canadá , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Política Organizacional , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Visitas a Pacientes
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