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1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612310

RESUMO

Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene are known to cause progressive neurodegenerative disorders with variable clinical and neuropathological phenotypes, including the intronic 10 + 14 (IVS10 + 14) splice site mutation. Three families have been reported with the IVS10 + 14 microtubule-associated protein tau mutation. Here, we describe the clinical and neuropathological data from an additional family. Neuropathological data were available for 2 of the 3 cases, III-4, and III-5. While III-5 had widespread tau deposition and atrophy, III-4 exhibited more mild neuropathological changes except for the substantia nigra. The previously reported families that express the IVS10 + 14 mutation exhibited significant interfamilial heterogeneity, with symptoms including amyotrophy, dementia, disinhibition, parkinsonism, and breathing problems. In addition to expressing many of these symptoms, members of this fourth family experienced profound sensory abnormalities and sleep disturbance. Although there were probable clinicopathological correlates for the symptoms expressed by the earlier families and III-5 from our cohort, pathology in III-4 did not appear sufficient to explain symptom severity. This indicates the need to explore alternate mechanisms of tau-induced brain dysfunction.

2.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) was originally developed to summarise a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and yield a care plan. Especially since COVID-19, the CFS is being used widely by health care professionals without training in frailty care as a resource allocation tool and for care rationing. CFS scoring by inexperienced raters might not always reflect expert judgement. For these raters, we developed a new classification tree to assist with routine CFS scoring. Here, we test that tree against clinical scoring. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: we examined agreement between the CFS classification tree and CFS scoring by novice raters (clerks/residents), and the CFS classification tree and CFS scoring by experienced raters (geriatricians) in 115 older adults (mean age 78.0 ± 7.3; 47% females) from a single centre. RESULTS: the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the CFS classification tree was 0.833 (95% CI: 0.768-0.882) when compared with the geriatricians' CFS scoring. In 93%, the classification tree rating was the same or differed by at most one level with the expert geriatrician ratings. The ICC was 0.805 (0.685-0.883) when CFS scores from the classification tree were compared with the clerk/resident scores; 88.5% of the ratings were the same or ±1 level. CONCLUSIONS: a classification tree for scoring the CFS can help with reliable scoring by relatively inexperienced raters. Though an incomplete remedy, a classification tree is a useful support to decision-making and could be used to aid routine scoring of the CFS.

3.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative contributions of frailty and neuropathology to dementia expression in a population-based cohort study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of observational data. SETTING: Population-representative clinicopathological cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 75+ recruited from general practice registries in Cambridge, UK, in 1985. MEASUREMENTS: A 39-item frailty index and 15-item neuropathological index were used to operationalize frailty and neuropathology, respectively. Dementia status was ascertained by clinical consensus at time of death. Relationships were evaluated using logistic regression models in participants with autopsy records (n = 183). Model fit was assessed using change in deviance. Population attributable fraction for frailty was evaluated in relation to dementia incidence in a representative sample of the survey participants (n = 542). RESULTS: Participants with autopsy were 92.3 ± 4.6 years at time of death, and mostly women (70%). Average frailty index value at last survey before death was 0.34 ± 0.16. People with dementia (63% of the sample) were frailer, had lower MMSE scores, and a higher burden of neuropathology. Frailty and neuropathological burden were significantly and independently associated with dementia status, without interaction; frailty explained an additional 3% of the variance in the model. Assuming a causal relationship and based on population-attributable fraction analyses, preventing severe frailty (Frailty Index ≥ 0.40) could have avoided 14.2% of dementia cases in this population-based cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In the very old, frailty contributes to the risk for dementia beyond its relationship with the burden of traditional dementia neuropathologies. Reducing frailty could have important implications for controlling the burden of dementia. Future research on frailty interventions should include dementia risk as a key outcome, public health interventions and policy decisions should consider frailty as a key risk factor for dementia, and biomedical research should focus on elucidating shared mechanisms of frailty and dementia development.

4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 94: 104356, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social isolation is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes, including functional decline, cognitive decline, and dementia. Intergenerational engagement, i.e. structured or semi structured interactions between non-familial older adults and younger generations is emerging as a tool to reduce social isolation in older adults and to benefit children and adults alike. This has great potential for our communities, however, the strength and breadth of the evidence for this is unclear. We undertook a systematic review to summarise the existing evidence for intergenerational interventions with community dwelling non-familial older adults and children, to identify the gaps and to make recommendations for the next steps. METHODS: Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched from inception to the 28th Sept 2020. Articles were included if they reported research studies evaluating the use of non-familial intergenerational interaction in community dwelling older adults. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020175927 RESULTS: Twenty articles reporting on 16 studies were included. Although all studies reported positive effects in general, numerical outcomes were not recorded in some cases, and outcomes and assessment tools varied and were administered un-blinded. Caution is needed when making interpretations about the efficacy of intergenerational programmes for improving social, health and cognitive outcomes. DISCUSSION: Overall, there is neither strong evidence for nor against community based intergenerational interventions. The increase in popularity of intergenerational programmes alongside the strong perception of potential benefit underscores the urgent need for evidence-based research.

5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 4, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of ambulance services is shifting, due in part to more intermediate, non-urgent patients who do not require direct emergency department conveyance, yet who cannot be safely left at home alone. Evidence surrounding the safety, effectiveness and efficiency of alternate care routes is not well known. METHODS: This scoping review sought to identify all studies that examined alternate routes of care for the non-urgent "intermediate" patient, as triaged on scene. Search terms for the sample (ambulances, paramedics, etc.) and intervention (e.g. referrals, alternate care route, non-conveyance) were combined. Articles were systematically searched using four databases and grey literature sources (February 2020). Independent researchers screened title-abstract and full text stages. RESULTS: Of 16,037 records, 41 examined alternate routes of care after triage by the on-scene paramedic. Eighteen articles considered quantitative patient data, 12 studies provided qualitative perspectives while 11 were consensus or opinion-based articles. The benefits of alternative schemes are well-recognised by patients, paramedics and stakeholders and there is supporting evidence for a positive impact on patient-centered care and operational efficiency. Challenges to successful use of schemes included: patient safety resulting from incorrect triage decisions, inadequate training, lack of formal partnerships between ambulance and supporting services, and insufficient evidence to support safe implementation or continued use. Studies often inaccurately defined success using proxies for patient safety (e.g. decision comparisons, rates of secondary contact). Finally, patients expressed willingness for such schemes but their preference must be better understood. CONCLUSIONS: This broad summary offers initial support for alternate routes of care for intermediate, non-urgent patients. Even so, most studies lacked methodologically rigorous evidence and failed to evaluate safe patient outcomes. Some remedies appear to be available such as formal triage pathways, targeted training and organisational support, however there is an urgent need for more research and dissemination in this area.

6.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 5(1): 5, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As life expectancy of people with Down syndrome (DS) increases, so does the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identifying symptoms and tracking disease progression is especially challenging whenever levels of function vary before the onset of dementia. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), an individualized patient-reported outcome, can aid in monitoring disease progression and treatment effectiveness in adults with DS. Here, with clinical input, a validated dementia symptom menu was revised to facilitate GAS in adults living with Down Syndrome-associated Alzheimer's disease (DS-AD). METHODS: Four clinicians with expertise in DS-AD and ten caregivers of adults living with DS-AD participated in semi-structured interviews to review the menu. Each participant reviewed 9-15 goal areas to assess their clarity and comprehensiveness. Responses were systematically and independently coded by two researchers as 'clear', 'modify', 'remove' or 'new'. Caregivers were encouraged to suggest additional items and recommend changes to clarify items. RESULTS: Median caregiver age was 65 years (range 54-77). Most were female (9/10) with ≥15 years of education (10/10). Adults with DS-AD had a median age of 58 years (range 52-61) and either a formal diagnosis (6/10) or clinical suspicion (4/10) of dementia. The initial symptom menu consisted of 67 symptoms each with 2-12 descriptors (589 total). The clinicians' adaptation yielded 58 symptoms each with 4-17 descriptors (580 total). Of these 580 descriptors, caregivers identified 37 (6%) as unclear; these were reworded, and one goal area (4 descriptors) was removed. A further 47 descriptors and one goal area were added to include caregiver-identified concepts. The final menu contained 58 goal areas, each with 7-17 descriptors (623 total). CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive symptom menu for adults living with DS-AD was developed to facilitate GAS. Incorporating expert clinician opinion and input from caregivers of adults with DS-AD identified meaningful items that incorporate patient/caregiver perspectives.

7.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 401, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in older people with frailty and is associated with an increased risk of stroke and systemic embolism. Whilst oral anticoagulation is associated with a reduction in this risk, there is a lack of data on the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in people with frailty. This study aims to report clinical outcomes of patients with AF in the Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48 (ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48) trial by frailty status. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of 20,867 participants in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, representing 98.8% of those randomised. This double-blinded double-dummy trial compared two once-daily regimens of edoxaban (a DOAC) with warfarin. Participants were categorised as fit, living with pre-frailty, mild-moderate, or severe frailty according to a standardised index, based upon the cumulative deficit model. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke or systemic embolism and the safety endpoint was major bleeding. RESULTS: A fifth (19.6%) of the study population had frailty (fit: n = 4459, pre-frailty: n = 12,326, mild-moderate frailty: n = 3722, severe frailty: n = 360). On average over the follow-up period, the risk of stroke or systemic embolism increased by 37% (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19-1.58) and major bleeding by 42% (adjusted HR 1.42, 1.27-1.59) for each 0.1 increase in the frailty index (four additional health deficits). Edoxaban was associated with similar efficacy to warfarin in every frailty category, and a lower risk of bleeding than warfarin in all but those living with severe frailty. CONCLUSIONS: Edoxaban was similarly efficacious to warfarin across the frailty spectrum and was associated with lower rates of bleeding except in those with severe frailty. Overall, with increasing frailty, there was an increase in stroke and bleeding risk. There is a need for high-quality, frailty-specific population randomised control trials to guide therapy in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00781391 . First registered on 28 October 2008.

8.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in older people and is associated with increased stroke risk that may be reduced by oral anticoagulation (OAC). Frailty also increases with increasing age, yet the extent of OAC prescription in older people according to extent of frailty in people with AF is insufficiently described. METHODS: An electronic health records study of 536,955 patients aged ≥65 years from ResearchOne in England (384 General Practices), over 15.4 months, last follow-up 11th April 2017. OAC prescription for AF with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≥2, adjusted (demographic and treatments) risk of all-cause mortality, and subsequent cerebrovascular disease, bleeding and falls were estimated by electronic frailty index (eFI) category of fit, mild, moderate and severe frailty. RESULTS: AF prevalence and mean CHA2DS2-Vasc for those with AF increased with increasing eFI category (fit 2.9%, 2.2; mild 11.2%, 3.2; moderate 22.2%, 4.0; and severe 31.5%, 5.0). For AF with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≥2, OAC prescription was higher for mild (53.2%), moderate (55.6%) and severe (53.4%) eFI categories than fit (41.7%). In those with AF and eligible for OAC, frailty was associated with increased risk of death (HR for severe frailty compared with fit 4.09, 95% confidence interval 3.43-4.89), gastrointestinal bleeding (2.17, 1.45-3.25), falls (8.03, 4.60-14.03) and, among women, stroke (3.63, 1.10-12.02). CONCLUSION: Among older people in England, AF and stroke risk increased with increasing degree of frailty; however, OAC prescription approximated 50%. Given competing demands of mortality, morbidity and stroke prevention, greater attention to stratified stroke prevention is needed for this group of the population.

9.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility and acceptability of NIDUS-Family, a 6-8 session manualised, individually tailored, modular intervention supporting independence at home for people with dementia; and explore participants' and facilitators' experiences of the intervention. METHOD: In this single group multi-site feasibility study, trained, supervised non-clinically qualified graduates (facilitators) delivered NIDUS-Family to family carer and people living with dementia dyads. We recruited participants from GP practices and memory services in London and Bradford. We completed quantitative outcomes pre- and post-intervention; and conducted qualitative interviews with participants and facilitators. Our pre-specified main outcomes were proportion of potential participants approached who agreed to participate, intervention adherence and acceptability to family carers, and facilitator fidelity to the manual. RESULTS: We recruited 16 dyads (57% of those approached); 12 (75%) completed the intervention. Of 12 participants rating intervention acceptability, 9 (75%) agreed or strongly agreed that it had helped; 2 (18%) neither agreed nor disagreed and 1 (8%) disagreed. Mean facilitator fidelity was high (81.5%). Dyads set on average 3.9 goals; these most commonly related to getting out and about and increasing activity/hobby participation (n = 10); carer wellbeing (n = 6), managing physical complaints (n = 6); meal preparation/cooking (n = 5); and reducing irritability, frustration or aggression (n = 5). Almost all secondary outcomes changed in a direction indicating improvement. In our qualitative analysis we identified three overarching themes; relationships facilitate change, goal-focused versus manualised approach and balancing the needs of carers and people with dementia. CONCLUSION: NIDUS-Family was feasible and acceptable to participants. Following refinements, testing in a pragmatic trial is underway.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether health-deficit accumulation is associated with the risks of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia independently of APOE genotype. METHODS: A frailty index was calculated using the deficit-accumulation approach in participants aged 50 years and older from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. Cognitive status was determined by clinical evaluation. Using multistate transition models, we assessed the extent to which an increasing degree of frailty affected the probabilities of transitioning between not cognitively impaired (NCI), MCI, and dementia. RESULTS: Participants (n=14 490) had a mean age of 72.2 years (SD=8.9 years; range=50-103 years). Among those NCI at baseline (n=9773), each 0.1 increment increase in the frailty index was associated with a higher risk of developing MCI and a higher risk of progressing to dementia. Among those with MCI at baseline (n=4717), higher frailty was associated with a higher risk of progressing to dementia, a lower probability of being reclassified as NCI, and a higher likelihood of returning to MCI in those that were reclassified as NCI. These risk effects were present and similar in both carriers and non-carriers of the APOE ε4 allele. CONCLUSION: Among older Americans, health-deficit accumulation affects the likelihood of progressive cognitive impairment and the likelihood of cognitive improvement independently of a strong genetic risk factor for dementia. Frailty represents an important risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and a marker of potential prognostic value.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19833, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199733

RESUMO

We develop a computational model of human aging that generates individual health trajectories with a set of observed health attributes. Our model consists of a network of interacting health attributes that stochastically damage with age to form health deficits, leading to eventual mortality. We train and test the model for two different cross-sectional observational aging studies that include simple binarized clinical indicators of health. In both studies, we find that cohorts of simulated individuals generated from the model resemble the observed cross-sectional data in both health characteristics and mortality. We can generate large numbers of synthetic individual aging trajectories with our weighted network model. Predicted average health trajectories and survival probabilities agree well with the observed data.

12.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 193: 111403, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220267

RESUMO

The gradual accumulation of damage and dysregulation during the aging of living organisms can be quantified. Even so, the aging process is complex and has multiple interacting physiological scales - from the molecular to cellular to whole tissues. In the face of this complexity, we can significantly advance our understanding of aging with the use of computational models that simulate realistic individual trajectories of health as well as mortality. To do so, they must be systems-level models that incorporate interactions between measurable aspects of age-associated changes. To incorporate individual variability in the aging process, models must be stochastic. To be useful they should also be predictive, and so must be fit or parameterized by data from large populations of aging individuals. In this perspective, we outline where we have been, where we are, and where we hope to go with such computational models of aging. Our focus is on data-driven systems-level models, and on their great potential in aging research.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) predicts mortality and damage accrual in SLE, but its association with hospitalizations has not been described. We estimated the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with future hospitalizations in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. The number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations during follow-up were recorded. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of hospitalizations per patient-year of follow-up. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of baseline SLICC-FI scores with the proportion of follow-up time spent in hospital. Multivariable models were adjusted for relevant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (IQR) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08). During mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 614 patients (39.6%) experienced 1570 hospitalizations. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with more frequent hospitalizations during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.21; 95%CI 1.13-1.30), adjusting for baseline age, sex, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive use, ethnicity/location, SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), and disease duration. Among patients with ≥1 hospitalization, higher baseline SLICC-FI values predicted a greater proportion of follow-up time spent hospitalized (Relative Rate 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts future hospitalizations among incident SLE patients, further supporting the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

14.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204818

RESUMO

The Fifth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD-5) was a year-long process to synthesize the best available evidence on several topics. Our group undertook evaluation of risk reduction, in eight domains: nutrition; physical activity; hearing; sleep; cognitive training and stimulation; social engagement and education; frailty; and medications. Here we describe the rationale for the undertaking and summarize the background evidence-this is also tabulated in the Appendix. We further comment specifically on the relationship between age and dementia, and offer some suggestions for how reducing the risk of dementia in the seventh decade and beyond might be considered if we are to improve prospects for prevention in the near term. We draw to attention that a well-specified model of success in dementia prevention need not equate to the elimination of cognitive impairment in late life.

15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e20840, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SymptomGuide Dementia (DGI Clinical Inc) is a publicly available online symptom tracking tool to support caregivers of persons living with dementia. The value of such data are enhanced when the specific dementia stage is identified. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a supervised machine learning algorithm to classify dementia stages based on tracked symptoms. METHODS: We employed clinical data from 717 people from 3 sources: (1) a memory clinic; (2) long-term care; and (3) an open-label trial of donepezil in vascular and mixed dementia (VASPECT). Symptoms were captured with SymptomGuide Dementia. A clinician classified participants into 4 groups using either the Functional Assessment Staging Test or the Global Deterioration Scale as mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia, moderate dementia, or severe dementia. Individualized symptom profiles from the pooled data were used to train machine learning models to predict dementia severity. Models trained with 6 different machine learning algorithms were compared using nested cross-validation to identify the best performing model. Model performance was assessed using measures of balanced accuracy, precision, recall, Cohen κ, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC). The best performing algorithm was used to train a model optimized for balanced accuracy. RESULTS: The study population was mostly female (424/717, 59.1%), older adults (mean 77.3 years, SD 10.6, range 40-100) with mild to moderate dementia (332/717, 46.3%). Age, duration of symptoms, 37 unique dementia symptoms, and 10 symptom-derived variables were used to distinguish dementia stages. A model trained with a support vector machine learning algorithm using a one-versus-rest approach showed the best performance. The correct dementia stage was identified with 83% balanced accuracy (Cohen κ=0.81, AUPRC 0.91, AUROC 0.96). The best performance was seen when classifying severe dementia (AUROC 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: A supervised machine learning algorithm exhibited excellent performance in identifying dementia stages based on dementia symptoms reported in an online environment. This novel dementia staging algorithm can be used to describe dementia stage based on user-reported symptoms. This type of symptom recording offers real-world data that reflect important symptoms in people with dementia.

17.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068107

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of frailty at population level is unclear. We examined this in population-based studies, investigating sources of heterogeneity. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched for observational population-level studies published between 1 January 1998 and 1 April 2020, including individuals aged ≥50 years, identified using any frailty measure. Prevalence estimates were extracted independently, assessed for bias and analysed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 240 studies reporting 265 prevalence proportions from 62 countries and territories, representing 1,755,497 participants, were included. Pooled prevalence in studies using physical frailty measures was 12% (95% CI = 11-13%; n = 178), compared with 24% (95% CI = 22-26%; n = 71) for the deficit accumulation model (those using a frailty index, FI). For pre-frailty, this was 46% (95% CI = 45-48%; n = 147) and 49% (95% CI = 46-52%; n = 29), respectively. For physical frailty, the prevalence was higher among females, 15% (95% CI = 14-17%; n = 142), than males, 11% (95% CI = 10-12%; n = 144). For studies using a FI, the prevalence was also higher in females, 29% (95% CI = 24-35%; n = 34) versus 20% (95% CI = 16-24%; n = 34), for males. These values were similar for pre-frailty. Prevalence increased according to the minimum age at study inclusion. Analysing only data from nationally representative studies gave a frailty prevalence of 7% (95% CI = 5-9%; n = 46) for physical frailty and 24% (95% CI = 22-26%; n = 44) for FIs. CONCLUSIONS: Population-level frailty prevalence varied by classification and sex. Data were heterogenous and limited, particularly from nationally representative studies making the interpretation of differences by geographic region challenging. Common methodological approaches to gathering data are required to improve the accuracy of population-level prevalence estimates. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO-CRD42018105431.

18.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 393, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is increasingly recognized as an important construct which has health implications for older adults. The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a judgement-based frailty tool that evaluates specific domains including comorbidity, function, and cognition to generate a frailty score ranging from 1 (very fit) to 9 (terminally ill). The aim of this scoping review is to identify and document the nature and extent of research evidence related to the CFS. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify original studies that used the Clinical Frailty Scale. Medline OVID, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and Embase were searched from January 2005 to March 2017. Articles were screened by two independent reviewers. Data extracted included publication date, setting, demographics, purpose of CFS assessment, and outcomes associated with CFS score. RESULTS: Our search yielded 1688 articles of which 183 studies were included. Overall, 62% of studies were conducted after 2015 and 63% of the studies measured the CFS in hospitalized patients. The association of the CFS with an outcome was examined 526 times; CFS was predictive in 74% of the cases. Mortality was the most common outcome examined with CFS being predictive 87% of the time. CFS was associated with comorbidity 73% of the time, complications 100%, length of stay 75%, falls 71%, cognition 94%, and function 91%. The CFS was associated with other frailty scores 94% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review revealed that the CFS has been widely used in multiple settings. The association of CFS score with clinical outcomes highlights its utility in the care of the aging population.

19.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 7: 2054358120957430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963793

RESUMO

Background: Understanding how frailty affects patients listed for transplantation has been identified as a priority research need. Frailty may be associated with a high risk of death or wait-list withdrawal, but this has not been evaluated in a large multicenter cohort of Canadian wait-listed patients. Objective: The primary objective is to evaluate whether frailty is associated with death or permanent withdrawal from the transplant wait list. Secondary objectives include assessing whether frailty is associated with hospitalization, quality of life, and the probability of being accepted to the wait list. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Seven sites with established renal transplant programs that evaluate patients for the kidney transplant wait list. Patients: Individuals who are being considered for the kidney transplant wait list. Measurements: We will assess frailty using the Fried Phenotype, a frailty index, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Clinical Frailty Scale at the time of listing for transplantation. We will also assess frailty at the time of referral to the wait list and annually after listing in a subgroup of patients. Methods: The primary outcome of the composite of time to death or permanent wait-list withdrawal will be compared between patients who are frail and those who are not frail and will account for the competing risks of deceased and live donor transplantation. Secondary outcomes will include number of hospitalizations and length of stay, and in a subset, changes in frailty severity over time, change in quality of life, and the probability of being listed. Recruitment of 1165 patients will provide >80% power to identify a relative hazard of ≥1.7 comparing patients who are frail to those who are not frail for the primary outcome (2-sided α = .05), whereas a more conservative recruitment target of 624 patients will provide >80% power to identify a relative hazard of ≥2.0. Results: Through December 2019, 665 assessments of frailty (inclusive of those for the primary outcome and all secondary outcomes including repeated measures) have been completed. Limitations: There may be variation across sites in the processes of referral and listing for transplantation that will require consideration in the analysis and results. Conclusions: This study will provide a detailed understanding of the association between frailty and outcomes for wait-listed patients. Understanding this association is necessary before routinely measuring frailty as part of the wait-list eligibility assessment and prior to ascertaining the need for interventions that may modify frailty. Trial Registration: Not applicable as this is a protocol for a prospective observational study.

20.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that degree of frailty and neuropathologic burden independently contribute to global cognition and odds of dementia. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of older adults living in Illinois, USA. Participants underwent an annual neuropsychological and clinical evaluation. We included 625 participants (mean age 89.7 ± 6.1 years; 67.5% female) who died and had autopsy. We quantified neuropathology using an index measure of 10 neuropathologic features: ß-amyloid deposition, hippocampal sclerosis, Lewy bodies, tangle density, TDP-43, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, arteriolosclerosis, atherosclerosis, gross and chronic cerebral infarcts. Clinical consensus determined dementia status, which we coded as no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia. A battery of 19 tests spanning multiple domains quantified global cognition. We operationalized frailty using a 41-item frailty index. We employed regression analyses to model relationships between neuropathology, frailty, and dementia. RESULTS: Both frailty and a neuropathology index were independently associated with global cognition and dementia status. These results held after controlling for traditional pathologic measures in a sample of participants with Alzheimer's clinical syndrome. Frailty improved the fit of the model for dementia status (χ2(2) = 72.64; p < 0.0001), and explained an additional 11%-12% of the variance in the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Dementia is a multiply determined condition, to which both general health, as captured by frailty, and neuropathology significantly contribute. This integrative view of dementia and health has implications for prevention and therapy; specifically, future research should evaluate frailty as a means of dementia risk reduction.

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