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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A genetic predisposition to lower thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels associates with increased atrial fibrillation (AF) risk through undefined mechanisms. Defining the genetic mediating mechanisms could lead to improved targeted therapies to mitigate AF risk. METHODS: We used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to test associations between TSH-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 16 candidate mediators. We then performed multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR) to test for a significant attenuation of the genetic association between TSH and AF, after adjusting for each mediator significantly associated with TSH. RESULTS: Four candidate mediators (free T4, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and height) were significantly inversely associated with genetically predicted TSH after adjusting for multiple testing. In MVMR analyses, adjusting for height significantly decreased the magnitude of the association between TSH and AF from -0.12 (s.e. 0.02) occurrences of AF per standard deviation change in height to -0.06 (0.02) (p=0.005). Adjusting for the other candidate mediators did not significantly attenuate the association. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic association between TSH and increased AF risk is mediated, in part, by taller stature. Thus, some genetic mechanisms underlying TSH variability may contribute to AF risk through mechanisms determining height occurring early in life that differ from those driven by thyroid hormone level elevations in later life.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(2): e003269, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) remains a significant risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. The ability to accurately identify patients at risk through clinical risk factors is limited. There is growing evidence that polygenic risk contributes significantly to PoAF and incorporating measures of genetic risk could enhance prediction. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1047 patients of White European ancestry who underwent either coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery at a tertiary academic center and were free from a history or persistent preoperative atrial fibrillation. The primary outcome was defined as PoAF based on postoperative ECG reports, medical record documentation, and changes in medication. The exposure was a polygenic risk score (PRS) comprising 2746 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with atrial fibrillation risk. The prediction of PoAF risk was assessed using measures of model discrimination, calibration, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: A total of 259 patients (24.7%) developed PoAF. The PRS was significantly associated with a higher risk for PoAF (odds ratio, 1.63 per SD increase in PRS [95% CI, 1.41-1.90]). Addition of PRS to patient- and procedure-related predictors of PoAF significantly increased the C statistic from 0.742 to 0.782 (change in C statistic, 0.040 [95% CI, 0.021-0.060]) while maintaining good calibration. The addition of the PRS to patient- and procedure-related predictors of PoAF improved model fit (likelihood ratio test, P=2.8×10-15) and significantly improved measures of reclassification (net reclassification improvement, 0.158 [95% CI, 0.066-0.274]). CONCLUSIONS: The PRS for PoAF was associated with improved discrimination, calibration, and risk reclassification compared with conventional clinical predictors suggesting that a PoAF PRS may enhance risk prediction of PoAF in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery.

3.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(3): 205-212, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between genetic variants reported to affect risperidone and adverse events (AEs) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Individuals aged 18 years or younger with ≥4 weeks of risperidone exposure in a deidentified DNA biobank were included. The primary outcome was AE frequency as a function of genotype. Individuals were classified according to metabolizer status for CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5; wild type, heterozygote, or homozygote for specific single nucleotide variants for DRD2, DRD3, HTR2A, and HTR2C; and wild type versus nonwild type for multiple uncommon variants in ABCG2, ABCB1, and HTR2C. Tests of association of each classification to AEs were performed using a Fisher exact test and logistic regression, and statistically significant classifications were included in a final logistic regression. RESULTS: The final cohort included 257 individuals. AEs were more common in CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizers (PMs/IMs) than normal/rapid/ultrarapid metabolizers (NMs/RMs/UMs) in univariate and multivariate analysis. HTR2A-rs6311 heterozygotes and homozygotes had fewer AEs than wild types in logistic regression but not in univariate analysis. In the final multivariable model adjusting for age, race, sex, and risperidone dose, AEs were associated with CYP2D6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-5.5, for PMs/IMs vs. NMs/RMs/UMs) and HTR2A-rs6311 (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, for each variant allele), both consistent with previous studies. CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents who are CYP2D6 PMs/IMs may have an increased risk for risperidone AEs. Of the genes and variants studied, only CYP2D6 has consistent association and sufficient data for clinical use, whereas HTR2A-rs6311 has limited data and requires further study.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We developed and evaluated Drug-Drug Interaction Wide Association Study (DDIWAS). This novel method detects potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by leveraging data from the electronic health record (EHR) allergy list. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify potential DDIs, DDIWAS scans for drug pairs that are frequently documented together on the allergy list. Using deidentified medical records, we tested 616 drugs for potential DDIs with simvastatin (a common lipid-lowering drug) and amlodipine (a common blood-pressure lowering drug). We evaluated the performance to rediscover known DDIs using existing knowledge bases and domain expert review. To validate potential novel DDIs, we manually reviewed patient charts and searched the literature. RESULTS: DDIWAS replicated 34 known DDIs. The positive predictive value to detect known DDIs was 0.85 and 0.86 for simvastatin and amlodipine, respectively. DDIWAS also discovered potential novel interactions between simvastatin-hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine-omeprazole, and amlodipine-valacyclovir. A software package to conduct DDIWAS is publicly available. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate the value of incorporating information mined from existing allergy lists to detect DDIs in a real-world clinical setting. Since allergy lists are routinely collected in EHRs, DDIWAS has the potential to detect and validate DDI signals across institutions.

5.
J Pharm Pract ; : 8971900211004832, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779357

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A case of loperamide-induced recurrent torsades de pointes is reported to raise awareness of an increasingly common phenomenon that could be encountered by medical providers during the current opioid epidemic. SUMMARY: A 40 year-old-man with a prior history of opioid abuse who presented to the emergency department after taking up to 100 tablets of loperamide 2 mg daily for 5 years to blunt opioid withdrawal symptoms and was subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit for altered mental status and hyperthermia. The patient had prolonged QTc and 2 episodes of torsades de pointes (TdP) that resulted in cardiac arrest with return of spontaneous circulation. He was managed with isoproterenol, overdrive pacing, and methylnatrexone with no other events of TdP or cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: A 40-year-old male who developed torsades de pointes from loperamide overdose effectively treated with overdrive pacing, isoproterenol, and methylnatrexone.

6.
Genetics ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in datasets comprised of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence datasets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently amongst the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

9.
J Biomed Inform ; 113: 103657, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health systems postponed non-essential medical procedures to accommodate surge of critically-ill patients. The long-term consequences of delaying procedures in response to COVID-19 remains unknown. We developed a high-throughput approach to understand the impact of delaying procedures on patient health outcomes using electronic health record (EHR) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used EHR data from Vanderbilt University Medical Center's (VUMC) Research and Synthetic Derivatives. Elective procedures and non-urgent visits were suspended at VUMC between March 18, 2020 and April 24, 2020. Surgical procedure data from this period were compared to a similar timeframe in 2019. Potential adverse impact of delay in cardiovascular and cancer-related procedures was evaluated using EHR data collected from January 1, 1993 to March 17, 2020. For surgical procedure delay, outcomes included length of hospitalization (days), mortality during hospitalization, and readmission within six months. For screening procedure delay, outcomes included 5-year survival and cancer stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: We identified 416 surgical procedures that were negatively impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same timeframe in 2019. Using retrospective data, we found 27 significant associations between procedure delay and adverse patient outcomes. Clinician review indicated that 88.9% of the significant associations were plausible and potentially clinically significant. Analytic pipelines for this study are available online. CONCLUSION: Our approach enables health systems to identify medical procedures affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate the effect of delay, enabling them to communicate effectively with patients and prioritize rescheduling to minimize adverse patient outcomes.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Pandemias , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , /isolamento & purificação
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(6)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) metabolizer status and risk for escitalopram and citalopram, collectively termed (es)citalopram, and sertraline adverse events (AEs) in children. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used deidentified electronic health records linked to DNA. The cohort included children ≤18 years with ≥2 days of (es)citalopram or ≥7 days of sertraline exposure. The primary outcome was AEs assessed by manual chart review. CYP2C19 was genotyped for functional variants (*2, *3, *4, *6, *8, and *17), and individuals were assigned metabolizer status. Association between AEs and metabolizer status was determined by using Cox regression adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, dose, and concomitant CYP2C19-inhibiting medications. RESULTS: The cohort included 249 sertraline-exposed and 458 (es)citalopram-exposed children, with a median age of 14.2 years (interquartile range 11.2-16.2) and 13.4 years (interquartile range 10.1-15.9), respectively. Sertraline AEs were more common in normal metabolizers (NMs) compared to poor metabolizers (PMs) or intermediate metabolizers (IMs) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.2; P = .047) in unadjusted analysis and after adjustment (HR 1.9; CI 1.04-3.4; P = .04). For (es)citalopram, more AEs were observed in NMs than PMs and IMs without statistically significant differences (unadjusted HR 1.6; CI 0.95-2.6; P = .08; adjusted HR 1.6; CI 0.95-2.6; P = .08). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to adults, in our pediatric cohort, CYP2C19 NMs experienced increased sertraline AEs than PMs and IMs. (Es)citalopram AEs were not associated with CYP2C19 status in the primary analysis. The mechanism underlying this pediatric-specific finding is unknown but may be related to physiologic differences of adolescence. Further research is required to inform genotype-guided prescribing for these drugs in children.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164571

RESUMO

Background - Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by the type 1 Brugada ECG pattern. Pathogenic rare variants in SCN5A (mutations) are identified in 20% of BrS families in whom incomplete penetrance and genotype-negative phenotype-positive individuals are observed. E1784K-SCN5A is the most common SCN5A mutation identified. We determined the association of a BrS genetic risk score (BrS-GRS) and SCN5A mutation type on BrS phenotype in BrS families with SCN5A mutations. Methods - Subjects with a spontaneous type 1 pattern or positive/negative drug challenge from cohorts harboring SCN5A mutations were recruited from 16 centers (n=312). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with BrS at genome-wide significance were studied in both cohorts: rs11708996, rs10428132 and rs9388451. An additive linear genetic model for the BrS-GRS was assumed (6 SNP risk alleles). Results - In the total population (n=312), BrS-GRS ≥4 risk alleles yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 4.15 for BrS phenotype (95%CI:1.45-11.85, p=0.0078). Amongst SCN5A-positive individuals (n=258), BrS-GRS ≥4 risk alleles yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 2.35 (95%CI:0.89-6.22, p=0.0846). In SCN5A-negative relatives (n=54), BrS-GRS ≥4 alleles yielded and OR of 22.29 (95%CI:1.84-269.30, p=0.0146). Among E1784K-SCN5A positive family members (n=79), hosting ≥4 risk alleles gave an OR=5.12 (95%CI:1.93-13.62, p=0.0011). Conclusions - Common genetic variation is associated with variable expressivity of BrS phenotype in SCN5A families, explaining in part incomplete penetrance and genotype-negative phenotype-positive individuals. SCN5A mutation genotype and a BrS-GRS associate with BrS phenotype but the strength of association varies according to presence of a SCN5A mutation and severity of loss of function.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141630

RESUMO

Background - In population-based research exome sequencing (ES), the path from variant discovery to return of results (rROR) is not well established. Variants discovered by research ES have the potential to improve population health. Methods - Population-based ES and agnostic ExWAS were performed 5,521 Amish individuals. Additional phenotyping and in vitro studies enabled reclassification of a KCNQ1 variant from VUS to pathogenic. Results were returned to participants in a community setting. Results - A missense variant was identified in KCNQ1 (c.671C>T, p.T224M), a gene associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1), which can cause syncope and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The p.T224M variant, present in 1/45 Amish individuals is rare in the general population (1/248,566 in gnomAD) and was highly associated with QTc on EKG (p = 5.53E-24, ß=20.2 ms/allele). Because of the potential importance of this variant to the health of the population, additional phenotyping was performed in 88 p.T224M carriers and 54 non-carriers. There was stronger clinical evidence of LQTS in carriers (38.6% vs 5.5%, p = 0.0006), greater history of syncope (32% vs 17%, p = 0.020), and higher rate of SCD in 1st degree relatives < age 30 (4.5% vs 0%, p = 0.026). Expression of p.T224M KCNQ1 in CHO cells showed near complete loss of protein function. Our clinical and functional data enabled reclassification of p.T224M from a variant of unknown significance (VUS) to pathogenic. Of the 88 carriers, 93% met criteria for beta-blocker treatment and 5/88 (5.7%) were on medications that may further prolong QTc. Carriers were provided a CLIA confirmed report, genetic counseling and treatment recommendations. Follow up care was coordinated with local physicians. Conclusions - This work provides a framework by which research ES can be rapidly translated in a culturally appropriate manner to directly benefit research participants and enable population precision health.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 612-621, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888428

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity reactions to drugs are often unpredictable and can be life threatening, underscoring a need for understanding their underlying mechanisms and risk factors. The extent to which germline genetic variation influences the risk of commonly reported drug allergies such as penicillin allergy remains largely unknown. We extracted data from the electronic health records of more than 600,000 participants from the UK, Estonian, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center's BioVU biobanks to study the role of genetic variation in the occurrence of self-reported penicillin hypersensitivity reactions. We used imputed SNP to HLA typing data from these cohorts to further fine map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association and replicated our results in 23andMe's research cohort involving a total of 1.12 million individuals. Genome-wide meta-analysis of penicillin allergy revealed two loci, including one located in the HLA region on chromosome 6. This signal was further fine-mapped to the HLA-B∗55:01 allele (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.33-1.49, p value 2.04 × 10-31) and confirmed by independent replication in 23andMe's research cohort (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.25-1.34, p value 1.00 × 10-47). The lead SNP was also associated with lower lymphocyte counts and in silico follow-up suggests a potential effect on T-lymphocytes at HLA-B∗55:01. We also observed a significant hit in PTPN22 and the GWAS results correlated with the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. We present robust evidence for the role of an allele of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I gene HLA-B in the occurrence of penicillin allergy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Psoríase/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/química , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/complicações , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/imunologia , Psoríase/complicações , Psoríase/imunologia , Autorrelato , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Estados Unidos
15.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1675-1687, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Developing algorithms to extract phenotypes from electronic health records (EHRs) can be challenging and time-consuming. We developed PheMap, a high-throughput phenotyping approach that leverages multiple independent, online resources to streamline the phenotyping process within EHRs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PheMap is a knowledge base of medical concepts with quantified relationships to phenotypes that have been extracted by natural language processing from publicly available resources. PheMap searches EHRs for each phenotype's quantified concepts and uses them to calculate an individual's probability of having this phenotype. We compared PheMap to clinician-validated phenotyping algorithms from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dementia, and hypothyroidism using 84 821 individuals from Vanderbilt Univeresity Medical Center's BioVU DNA Biobank. We implemented PheMap-based phenotypes for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for T2DM, dementia, and hypothyroidism, and phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) for variants in FTO, HLA-DRB1, and TCF7L2. RESULTS: In this initial iteration, the PheMap knowledge base contains quantified concepts for 841 disease phenotypes. For T2DM, dementia, and hypothyroidism, the accuracy of the PheMap phenotypes were >97% using a 50% threshold and eMERGE case-control status as a reference standard. In the GWAS analyses, PheMap-derived phenotype probabilities replicated 43 of 51 previously reported disease-associated variants for the 3 phenotypes. For 9 of the 11 top associations, PheMap provided an equivalent or more significant P value than eMERGE-based phenotypes. The PheMap-based PheWAS showed comparable or better performance to a traditional phecode-based PheWAS. PheMap is publicly available online. CONCLUSIONS: PheMap significantly streamlines the process of extracting research-quality phenotype information from EHRs, with comparable or better performance to current phenotyping approaches.

16.
Circ Res ; 127(1): 111-127, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716712

RESUMO

Susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) is determined by well-recognized risk factors such as diabetes mellitus or hypertension, emerging risk factors such as sleep apnea or inflammation, and increasingly well-defined genetic variants. As discussed in detail in a companion article in this series, studies in families and in large populations have identified multiple genetic loci, specific genes, and specific variants increasing susceptibility to AF. Since it is becoming increasingly inexpensive to obtain genotype data and indeed whole genome sequence data, the question then becomes to define whether using emerging new genetics knowledge can improve care for patients both before and after development of AF. Examples of improvements in care could include identifying patients at increased risk for AF (and thus deploying increased surveillance or even low-risk preventive therapies should these be available), identifying patient subsets in whom specific therapies are likely to be effective or ineffective or in whom the driving biology could motivate the development of new mechanism-based therapies or identifying an underlying susceptibility to comorbid cardiovascular disease. While current guidelines for the care of patients with AF do not recommend routine genetic testing, this rapidly increasing knowledge base suggests that testing may now or soon have a place in the management of select patients. The opportunity is to generate, validate, and deploy clinical predictors (including family history) of AF risk, to assess the utility of incorporating genomic variants into those predictors, and to identify and validate interventions such as wearable or implantable device-based monitoring ultimately to intervene in patients with AF before they present with catastrophic complications like heart failure or stroke.

17.
Circ Res ; 127(2): 244-246, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614720
18.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(12): 2180-2189, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: KCHN2 encodes the KV11.1 potassium channel responsible for IKr, a major repolarization current during the cardiomyocyte action potential. Variants in KCNH2 that lead to decreased IKr have been associated with long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2). The mechanism of LQT2 is most often induced loss of KV11.1 trafficking to the cell surface. Accurately discriminating between variants with normal and abnormal trafficking would aid in understanding the deleterious nature of these variants; however, the volume of reported nonsynonymous KCNH2 variants precludes the use of conventional methods for functional study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report a high-throughput, multiplexed screening method for KCNH2 genetic variants capable of measuring the cell surface abundance of hundreds of missense variants in the resulting KV11.1 channel. METHODS: We developed a method to quantitate KV11.1 variant trafficking on a pilot region of 11 residues in the S5 helix. RESULTS: We generated trafficking scores for 220 of 231 missense variants in the pilot region. For 5 of 5 variants, high-throughput trafficking scores validated when tested in single variant flow cytometry and confocal microscopy experiments. We further explored these results with planar patch electrophysiology and found that loss-of-trafficking variants do not produce IKr. Conversely, but expectedly, some variants that traffic normally were still functionally compromised. CONCLUSION: We describe a new method for detecting KV11.1 trafficking-deficient variants in a multiplexed assay. This new method accurately generated trafficking data for variants in KV11.1 and is extendable both to all residues in KV11.1 and to other cell surface proteins.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008862, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569262

RESUMO

A major challenge emerging in genomic medicine is how to assess best disease risk from rare or novel variants found in disease-related genes. The expanding volume of data generated by very large phenotyping efforts coupled to DNA sequence data presents an opportunity to reinterpret genetic liability of disease risk. Here we propose a framework to estimate the probability of disease given the presence of a genetic variant conditioned on features of that variant. We refer to this as the penetrance, the fraction of all variant heterozygotes that will present with disease. We demonstrate this methodology using a well-established disease-gene pair, the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A and the heart arrhythmia Brugada syndrome. From a review of 756 publications, we developed a pattern mixture algorithm, based on a Bayesian Beta-Binomial model, to generate SCN5A penetrance probabilities for the Brugada syndrome conditioned on variant-specific attributes. These probabilities are determined from variant-specific features (e.g. function, structural context, and sequence conservation) and from observations of affected and unaffected heterozygotes. Variant functional perturbation and structural context prove most predictive of Brugada syndrome penetrance.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Distribuição Binomial , Síndrome de Brugada/terapia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
20.
J Pediatr ; 222: 213-220.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether variants in ADRB1 and CYP2C9 genes identify subgroups of individuals with differential response to treatment for Marfan syndrome through analysis of data from a large, randomized trial. STUDY DESIGN: In a subset of 250 white, non-Hispanic participants with Marfan syndrome in a prior randomized trial of atenolol vs losartan, the common variants rs1801252 and rs1801253 in ADRB1 and rs1799853 and rs1057910 in CYP2C9 were analyzed. The primary outcome was baseline-adjusted annual rate of change in the maximum aortic root diameter z-score over 3 years, assessed using mixed effects models. RESULTS: Among 122 atenolol-assigned participants, the 70 with rs1801253 CC genotype had greater rate of improvement in aortic root z-score compared with 52 participants with CG or GG genotypes (Time × Genotype interaction P = .005, mean annual z-score change ± SE -0.20 ± 0.03 vs -0.09 ± 0.03). Among participants with the CC genotype in both treatment arms, those assigned to atenolol had greater rate of improvement compared with the 71 of the 121 assigned to losartan (interaction P = .002; -0.20 ± 0.02 vs -0.07 ± 0.02; P < .001). There were no differences in atenolol response by rs1801252 genotype or in losartan response by CYP2C9 metabolizer status. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, ADRB1-rs1801253 was associated with atenolol response in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome. If these findings are confirmed in future studies, ADRB1 genotyping has the potential to guide therapy by identifying those who are likely to have greater therapeutic response to atenolol than losartan.


Assuntos
Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Marfan/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/genética , Adolescente , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/biossíntese , DNA/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/biossíntese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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