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1.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705160

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Higher concentrations of the adipokine omentin are associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors in experimental and cross-sectional studies, but with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in population-based cohort studies. However, it is unknown whether high omentin concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in people with established diabetes. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between serum omentin concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: This prospective study was based on participants of the German ESTHER cohort with diabetes and without previous cardiovascular event. The ESTHER cohort consists of individuals aged 50-75 years at baseline who were recruited by their general practitioners. After exclusion of individuals with serum C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/l (≥95.24 nmol/l), the final analysis population consisted of 933 individuals. At baseline, serum omentin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate HRs and their corresponding 95% CIs for associations of omentin tertiles with a composite endpoint of cardiovascular events and separately with incident myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 228 individuals experienced a primary cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death). After comprehensive adjustment for age, sex, BMI, metabolic and lifestyle factors and medication use, HRs (95% CIs) for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of omentin compared with the 1st tertile were: 1.24 (95% CI 0.86, 1.79) and 1.63 (1.15, 2.32) (ptrend = 0.005) for the composite cardiovascular endpoint; 1.39 (0.78, 2.47) and 1.71 (0.98, 2.99) (ptrend = 0.065) for incident myocardial infarction; 1.40 (0.78, 2.53) and 2.05 (1.17, 3.58) (ptrend = 0.010) for incident stroke; and 1.43 (0.85, 2.40) and 1.72 (1.04, 2.83) (ptrend = 0.040) for cardiovascular death. Effect estimates and p values were almost unaltered after additional adjustment for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Higher omentin concentrations are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Given data from preclinical studies, it appears possible that this association reflects a compensatory, but insufficient upregulation of omentin concentrations as a response to stimuli that increase cardiovascular risk.

2.
JCI Insight ; 4(21)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672941

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDInsulin resistance results from impaired skeletal muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation, linked to augmented lipid availability. Despite greater intramuscular lipids, athletes are highly insulin sensitive, which could result from higher rates of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis or glucose transport/phosphorylation and oxidation. Thus, we examined the time course of muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations during low and high systemic lipid availability.METHODSEight endurance-trained and 9 sedentary humans (VO2 peak: 56 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.05) underwent 6-hour hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp tests with infusions of triglycerides or saline in a randomized crossover design. Glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were monitored in vastus lateralis muscles using 13C/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.RESULTSAthletes displayed a 25% greater (P < 0.05) insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (Rd) than sedentary participants. During Intralipid infusion, insulin sensitivity remained higher in the athletes (ΔRd: 25 ± 3 vs. 17 ± 3 µmol/kg/min, P < 0.05), supported by higher glucose transporter type 4 protein expression than in sedentary humans. Compared to saline infusion, AUC of glucose-6-phosphate remained unchanged during Intralipid infusion in athletes (1.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 [mmol/L] × h, P = n.s.) but tended to decrease by 36% in sedentary humans (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 [mmol/L] × h, P < 0.059). This drop was accompanied by a 72% higher rate of net glycogen synthesis in the athletes upon Intralipid infusion (47 ± 9 vs. 13 ± 3 µmol/kg/min, P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONAthletes feature higher skeletal muscle glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis during increased lipid availability, which primarily results from maintained insulin-stimulated glucose transport with increased myocellular glucose-6-phosphate levels for subsequent glycogen synthesis.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01229059.FUNDINGGerman Federal Ministry of Health (BMG).

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1098-1107, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that increased circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This may result from altered energy metabolism or dietary habits. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a lower intake of BCAAs improves tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover trial examined well-controlled T2D patients receiving isocaloric diets (protein: 1 g/kg body weight) for 4 wk. Protein requirements were covered by commercially available food supplemented ≤60% by an AA mixture either containing all AAs or lacking BCAAs. The dietary intervention ensured sufficient BCAA supply above the recommended minimum daily intake. The patients underwent the mixed meal tolerance test (MMT), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (HECs), and skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue biopsies to assess insulin signaling. RESULTS: After the BCAA- diet, BCAAs were reduced by 17% during fasting (P < 0.001), by 13% during HEC (P < 0.01), and by 62% during the MMT (P < 0.001). Under clamp conditions, whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity did not differ between diets. After the BCAA- diet, however, the oral glucose sensitivity index was 24% (P < 0.01) and circulating fibroblast-growth factor 21 was 21% higher (P < 0.05), whereas meal-derived insulin secretion was 28% lower (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue expression of the mechanistic target of rapamycin was 13% lower, whereas the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was 1.7-fold higher (both P < 0.05). The fecal microbiome was enriched in Bacteroidetes but depleted of Firmicutes. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term dietary reduction of BCAAs decreases postprandial insulin secretion and improves white adipose tissue metabolism and gut microbiome composition. Longer-term studies will be needed to evaluate the safety and metabolic efficacy in diabetes patients.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03261362.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin (EMPA) reduces liver fat content (LFC) in recent-onset and metabolically well-controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with T2D (n = 84) (HbA1c 6.6 ± 0.5% [49 ± 10 mmol/mol], known disease duration 39 ± 27 months) were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of treatment with 25 mg daily EMPA or placebo. The primary end point was the difference of the change in LFC as measured with magnetic resonance methods from 0 (baseline) to 24 weeks between groups. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity (secondary outcome) was assessed by two-step clamps using an isotope dilution technique. Exploratory analysis comprised circulating surrogate markers of insulin sensitivity and liver function. Statistical comparison was done by ANCOVA adjusted for respective baseline values, age, sex, and BMI. RESULTS: EMPA treatment resulted in a placebo-corrected absolute of -1.8% (95% CI -3.4, -0.2%; P = 0.02) and relative change in LFC of -22% (-36, -7%; P = 0.009) from baseline to end of treatment, corresponding to a 2.3-fold greater reduction. Weight loss occurred only with EMPA (placebo-corrected change -2.5 kg [-3.7, -1.4 kg]; P < 0.001), while no placebo-corrected change in tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was observed. EMPA treatment also led to placebo-corrected changes in uric acid (-74 mol/L [-108, -42 mol/L]; P < 0.001) and high-molecular-weight adiponectin (36% [16, 60%]; P < 0.001) levels from 0 to 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: EMPA effectively reduces hepatic fat in patients with T2D with excellent glycemic control and short known disease duration. Interestingly, EMPA also decreases circulating uric acid and raises adiponectin levels despite unchanged insulin sensitivity. EMPA could therefore contribute to the early treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in T2D.

6.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome and obesity are risk factors for chronic kidney disease. However, early kidney alterations may escape diagnosis in these conditions due to glomerular hyperfiltration. Uromodulin, a glycoprotein exclusively synthesized in tubular cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, is a novel tissue-specific biomarker for kidney function. In contrast to the commonly used markers creatinine and cystatin C, serum uromodulin does not primarily depend on glomerular filtration. We hypothesized that serum uromodulin is a marker for metabolic syndrome and related components. DESIGN: The analyses included 1088 participants of the population-based KORA F4 study aged 62-81 years. Metabolic syndrome was present in 554 participants. After a mean follow-up time of 6.5 years, 621 participants were reevaluated, of which 92 had developed incident metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The association of serum uromodulin with metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome after adjustment for sex, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.56-0.76 per standard deviation uromodulin; p<0.001). Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with all single components of metabolic syndrome. However, serum uromodulin was not associated with new-onset metabolic syndrome after the follow-up period of 6.5 ± 0.3 years (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.86-1.60). CONCLUSIONS: Serum uromodulin is independently associated with prevalent, but not with incident metabolic syndrome. Low serum uromodulin may indicate a decreased renal reserve in the metabolic syndrome.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 129(11): 4563-4566, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545302

RESUMO

Fasting requires complex endocrine and metabolic interorgan crosstalk, which involves shifting from glucose to fatty acid oxidation, derived from adipose tissue lipolysis, in order to preserve glucose for the brain. The glucose-alanine (Cahill) cycle is critical for regenerating glucose. In this issue of JCI, Petersen et al. report on their use of an innovative stable isotope tracer method to show that skeletal muscle-derived alanine becomes rate controlling for hepatic mitochondrial oxidation and, in turn, for glucose production during prolonged fasting. These results provide new insight into skeletal muscle-liver metabolic crosstalk during the fed-to-fasting transition in humans.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4179, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519890

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying improved insulin sensitivity after surgically-induced weight loss are still unclear. We monitored skeletal muscle metabolism in obese individuals before and over 52 weeks after metabolic surgery. Initial weight loss occurs in parallel with a decrease in muscle oxidative capacity and respiratory control ratio. Persistent elevation of intramyocellular lipid intermediates, likely resulting from unrestrained adipose tissue lipolysis, accompanies the lack of rapid changes in insulin sensitivity. Simultaneously, alterations in skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in calcium/lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function associate with subsequent distinct DNA methylation patterns at 52 weeks after surgery. Thus, initial unfavorable metabolic changes including insulin resistance of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle precede epigenetic modifications of genes involved in muscle energy metabolism and the long-term improvement of insulin sensitivity.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher circulating levels of C-reactive protein, but the relationship between inflammation and endocrine function in PCOS remains poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and sex hormones in women with PCOS. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A comprehensive panel of biomarkers of inflammation was measured in serum of 63 women with PCOS using proximity extension assay technology. Associations of 65 biomarkers with sex hormones were assessed without and with adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: In the unadjusted analysis, 20 biomarkers were positively correlated with 17-OH-progesterone (17-OH-P), 14 with prolactin and 6 with free testosterone, whereas inverse associations were found for 16 biomarkers with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), 6 with luteinizing hormone (LH) and 6 with estrogen (all p<0.05). Among the positive associations, correlations were mainly found for five chemokines (CXCL11, CCL4, MCP-4/CCL13, CXCL5, CXCL6) and for VEGF-A, LAP-TGFß1, TNFSF14 and MMP-1. Inverse associations with sex hormones were mainly present for two chemokines (CXCL1, MCP-2/CCL8), CDCP1, CST5 and CSF-1. Adjustment for age and BMI reduced the number of biomarker associations for SHBG and estrogen, but had hardly any impact on associations with 17-OH-P, prolactin, free testosterone and LH. CONCLUSION: Women with PCOS feature BMI-independent associations between biomarkers of inflammation and certain sex steroid and hypophyseal hormones. Most of these inflammation-related biomarkers were chemokines, which may be relevant as potential mediators of the increased cardiometabolic risk of women with PCOS.

10.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 30(10): 701-709, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422872

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common liver disorder worldwide. Specifically, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis pose an enormous burden for patients and health-care systems. In the absence of approved pharmacological therapies, effective lifestyle interventions for NAFLD, such as dietary strategies and exercise training, are currently the therapeutic strategies of choice. This review covers the influence of macronutrient quality and quantity (i.e., low-carbohydrate and high-protein diets), for successful reduction of intrahepatocellular lipids (IHL). Moreover, we discuss the effectiveness of different modalities of physical exercising with and without weight loss. These lifestyle modifications not only provide strategies to reduce IHL but may also hold a still underestimated potential to induce improvement and/or even remission of NAFLD.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6220-6228, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390004

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The factors that determine the development of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) as a painful or painless entity are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that corneal nerve pathology could be more pronounced in painful DSPN, indicating predominant small nerve fiber damage. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed 53 patients with painful DSPN, 63 with painless DSPN, and 46 glucose-tolerant volunteers by corneal confocal microscopy (CCM), nerve conduction (NC), and quantitative sensory testing. DSPN was diagnosed according to modified Toronto Consensus criteria. A cutoff at 4 points on the 11-point rating scale was used to differentiate between painful and painless DSPN. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking, corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve fiber length, and corneal nerve branch density (CNBD) were reduced in both DSPN types compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Only CNBD differed between the groups; it was greater in patients with painful DSPN compared with those with painless DSPN [55.8 (SD, 29.9) vs 43.8 (SD, 28.3) branches/mm2; P < 0.05]. Several CCM measures were associated with NC and cold perception threshold in patients with painless DSPN (P < 0.05) but not those with painful DSPN. CONCLUSION: Despite a similarly pronounced peripheral nerve dysfunction and corneal nerve fiber loss in patients with painful and painless DSPN, corneal nerve branching was enhanced in those with painful DSPN, pointing to some susceptibility of corneal nerve fibers toward regeneration in this entity, albeit possibly not to a sufficient degree.

12.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(9): 684-694, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cluster analyses have proposed different diabetes phenotypes using age, BMI, glycaemia, homoeostasis model estimates, and islet autoantibodies. We tested whether comprehensive phenotyping validates and further characterises these clusters at diagnosis and whether relevant diabetes-related complications differ among these clusters, during 5-years of follow-up. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the German Diabetes Study underwent comprehensive phenotyping and assessment of laboratory variables. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, hepatocellular lipid content using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, hepatic fibrosis using non-invasive scores, and peripheral and autonomic neuropathy using functional and clinical criteria. Patients were reassessed after 5 years. The German Diabetes Study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01055093, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: 1105 patients were classified at baseline into five clusters, with 386 (35%) assigned to mild age-related diabetes (MARD), 323 (29%) to mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD), 247 (22%) to severe autoimmune diabetes (SAID), 121 (11%) to severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD), and 28 (3%) to severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD). At 5-year follow-up, 367 patients were reassessed, 128 (35%) with MARD, 106 (29%) with MOD, 88 (24%) with SAID, 35 (10%) with SIRD, and ten (3%) with SIDD. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was lowest in patients with SIRD at baseline (mean 4·3 mg/kg per min [SD 2·0]) compared with those with SAID (8·4 mg/kg per min [3·2]; p<0·0001), MARD (7·5 mg/kg per min [2·5]; p<0·0001), MOD (6·6 mg/kg per min [2·6]; p=0·0011), and SIDD (5·5 mg/kg per min [2·4]; p=0·0035). The fasting adipose-tissue insulin resistance index at baseline was highest in patients with SIRD (median 15·6 [IQR 9·3-20·9]) and MOD (11·6 [7·4-17·9]) compared with those with MARD (6·0 [3·9-10·3]; both p<0·0001) and SAID (6·0 [3·0-9·5]; both p<0·0001). In patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, hepatocellular lipid content was highest at baseline in patients assigned to the SIRD cluster (median 19% [IQR 11-22]) compared with all other clusters (7% [2-15] for MOD, p=0·00052; 5% [2-11] for MARD, p<0·0001; 2% [0-13] for SIDD, p=0·0083; and 1% [0-3] for SAID, p<0·0001), even after adjustments for baseline medication. Accordingly, hepatic fibrosis at 5-year follow-up was more prevalent in patients with SIRD (n=7 [26%]) than in patients with SAID (n=5 [7%], p=0·0011), MARD (n=12 [12%], p=0·012), MOD (n=13 [15%], p=0·050), and SIDD (n=0 [0%], p value not available). Confirmed diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy was more prevalent at baseline in patients with SIDD (n=9 [36%]) compared with patients with SAID (n=10 [5%], p<0·0001), MARD (n=39 [15%], p=0·00066), MOD (n=26 [11%], p<0·0001), and SIRD (n=10 [17%], p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Cluster analysis can characterise cohorts with different degrees of whole-body and adipose-tissue insulin resistance. Specific diabetes clusters show different prevalence of diabetes complications at early stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetic neuropathy. These findings could help improve targeted prevention and treatment and enable precision medicine for diabetes and its comorbidities. FUNDING: German Diabetes Center, German Federal Ministry of Health, Ministry of Culture and Science of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, German Diabetes Association, German Center for Diabetes Research, Research Network SFB 1116 of the German Research Foundation, and Schmutzler Stiftung.

13.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(14): 4287-4295, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264324

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an accelerated episodic memory decline, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not well understood. Hallmarks of T2D comprise impairment of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Insulin signaling modulates cerebral neurotransmitter activity, including the excitatory glutamate and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems. Here we tested the hypothesis that the glutamate and GABA systems are altered in T2D patients and this relates to memory decline and insulin resistance. Using 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we examined glutamate and GABA concentrations in episodic memory relevant brain regions (medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus) of T2D patients and matched controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and memory performance was assessed using a face-profession associations test. T2D patients exhibited peripheral insulin resistance and had a decreased memory for face-profession associations as well as elevated GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex but not precuneus. In addition, medial prefrontal cortex GABA concentration was negatively associated with memory performance suggesting that abnormal GABA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex are linked to the episodic memory decline that occurs in T2D patients.

14.
MAGMA ; 32(5): 591-597, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a discrepancy between studies suggesting that higher bone marrow fat saturation is associated with impaired health, and studies suggesting that erythropoiesis increases red bone marrow (RBM) fat saturation in young healthy individuals. Here, we seeked to elucidate these discrepancies by using long TE magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to study both yellow bone marrow (YBM) and RBM in the femur of healthy volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three young healthy volunteers (17 females), age range 20-31 years, underwent long TE 1H MRS at 3.0 T of RBM and YBM fat composition in the left femur. The water content of the bone marrow depots was measured using short TE MRS. RESULTS: The female participants displayed a lower unsaturation in the sampled RBM volume (RBMV) than the males (P < 0.01) without displaying a concomitant difference in YBM (P = 0.42). They also showed a higher water content and broader spectral linewidths in RBM (P = 0.04). The water content in RBM strongly associated with broader spectral linewidths (R = 0.887, P ≪ 0.01) and inversely with RBMV fat unsaturation (R = - 0.365, P = 0.04). DISCUSSION: These results partly support the notion that females display higher rate of erythropoiesis and lower fat unsaturation in RBM.

16.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 27-38, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980148

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia significantly contributes to complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. While lifestyle interventions remain cornerstones of disease prevention and treatment, most patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually require pharmacotherapy for glycemic control. The definition of individual targets regarding optimal therapeutic efficacy and safety as well as cardiovascular effects is of great importance. In this guideline we present the most current evidence-based best clinical practice data for healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estilo de Vida
17.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 1): 6-15, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980151

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of heterogeneous disorders, which have an increase in blood glucose concentrations in common. The current classification for diabetes mellitus is presented and the main features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are compared. Furthermore, the criteria for the correct biochemical diagnosis during fasting and oral glucose tolerance tests as well as the use of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are summarized. The increasing prevalence of diabetes requires targeted screening for detecting diabetes and prediabetes in risk groups. This forms the basis for the early initiation of measures to prevent the onset of diabetes in these risk groups and to delay the progression of diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estado Pré-Diabético , Diabetes Mellitus/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Jejum , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Estado Pré-Diabético/classificação , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Terminologia como Assunto
19.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 30(5): 286-298, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935671

RESUMO

The most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes are diabetic neuropathies, among which distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) are the best studied. Their major clinical sequelae such as foot ulcers, neuropathic pain, and orthostatic hypotension are associated with lower quality of life and increased risk of mortality. Here we discuss the recent insights into DSPN and CAN focusing on two prospective cohorts; that is, the German Diabetes Study (GDS) including recent-onset diabetes patients and the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, Germany (KORA) surveys. The insights from these studies investigating novel tools for early detection and prediction of (pre)diabetic neuropathy as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation should ultimately culminate in improving the health care of patients affected by this serious condition.

20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(6): 381-386, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991361

RESUMO

Objective Insulinomas are rare pancreatic endocrine tumors characterized by hypoglycemia. Guidelines by the Endocrine Society (ES), the European (ENETS) and the North American (NANETS) Neuroendocrine Tumor Societies provide divergent diagnostic criteria. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of these different criteria during the 72-h fasting test. Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods From 2000 to 2014, 64 patients with a suspected insulinoma underwent a 72-h fasting test and were included in the analysis. This study assessed the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy based on venous blood glucose and corresponding insulin levels measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Results Based on 64 individuals (18 with, 46 without insulinoma), the ES criteria provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.94 (0.73-1.00), specificity of 0.89 (0.76-0.96) and accuracy of 0.91 (0.81-0.96). ENETS/NANETS criteria reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.78 (0.52-0.94), specificity of 1.00 (0.92-1.00) and accuracy of 0.94 (0.85-0.98). Conclusions These results point to a higher diagnostic sensitivity with less specificity for diagnosing insulinoma using ES criteria and a higher specificity at lower sensitivity by using ENETS/NANETS criteria. Before considering these results when applying the different criteria in clinical practice, the results should be confirmed in further studies comprising larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Insulinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulinoma/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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