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1.
PLoS Biol ; 17(9): e3000414, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479441

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a ciliopathy, is a rare genetic condition characterised by retinal degeneration, obesity, kidney failure, and cognitive impairment. In spite of progress made in our general understanding of BBS aetiology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in BBS remain elusive. Here, we report that the loss of BBS proteins causes synaptic dysfunction in principal neurons, providing a possible explanation for the cognitive impairment phenotype observed in BBS patients. Using synaptosomal proteomics and immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate the presence of Bbs proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of hippocampal neurons. Loss of Bbs results in a significant reduction of dendritic spines in principal neurons of Bbs mouse models. Furthermore, we show that spine deficiency correlates with events that destabilise spine architecture, such as impaired spine membrane receptor signalling, known to be involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest a role for BBS proteins in dendritic spine homeostasis that may be linked to the cognitive phenotype observed in BBS.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is recognised to be a heritable disorder, yet clinical genetic testing does not produce a diagnosis in >50% of paediatric patients. Identifying a genetic cause is crucial because this knowledge can affect management options, cardiac surveillance in relatives and reproductive decision-making. In this study, we sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a patient born to consanguineous parents with rapidly progressive DCM that led to death in early infancy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Exome sequencing revealed a potentially pathogenic, homozygous missense variant, c.542G>T, p.(Gly181Val), in SOD2. This gene encodes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or manganese-superoxide dismutase, a mitochondrial matrix protein that scavenges oxygen radicals produced by oxidation-reduction and electron transport reactions occurring in mitochondria via conversion of superoxide anion (O2 -·) into H2O2. Measurement of hydroethidine oxidation showed a significant increase in O2 -· levels in the patient's skin fibroblasts, as compared with controls, and this was paralleled by reduced catalytic activity of SOD2 in patient fibroblasts and muscle. Lentiviral complementation experiments demonstrated that mitochondrial SOD2 activity could be completely restored on transduction with wild type SOD2. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that defective SOD2 may lead to toxic increases in the levels of damaging oxygen radicals in the neonatal heart, which can result in rapidly developing heart failure and death. We propose SOD2 as a novel nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein involved in severe human neonatal cardiomyopathy, thus expanding the wide range of genetic factors involved in paediatric cardiomyopathies.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 534-548, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422819

RESUMO

Early-infantile encephalopathies with epilepsy are devastating conditions mandating an accurate diagnosis to guide proper management. Whole-exome sequencing was used to investigate the disease etiology in four children from independent families with intellectual disability and epilepsy, revealing bi-allelic GOT2 mutations. In-depth metabolic studies in individual 1 showed low plasma serine, hypercitrullinemia, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia. The epilepsy was serine and pyridoxine responsive. Functional consequences of observed mutations were tested by measuring enzyme activity and by cell and animal models. Zebrafish and mouse models were used to validate brain developmental and functional defects and to test therapeutic strategies. GOT2 encodes the mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. GOT2 enzyme activity was deficient in fibroblasts with bi-allelic mutations. GOT2, a member of the malate-aspartate shuttle, plays an essential role in the intracellular NAD(H) redox balance. De novo serine biosynthesis was impaired in fibroblasts with GOT2 mutations and GOT2-knockout HEK293 cells. Correcting the highly oxidized cytosolic NAD-redox state by pyruvate supplementation restored serine biosynthesis in GOT2-deficient cells. Knockdown of got2a in zebrafish resulted in a brain developmental defect associated with seizure-like electroencephalography spikes, which could be rescued by supplying pyridoxine in embryo water. Both pyridoxine and serine synergistically rescued embryonic developmental defects in zebrafish got2a morphants. The two treated individuals reacted favorably to their treatment. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for the biochemical abnormalities in GOT2 deficiency that may also hold for other MAS defects.

4.
Brain Dev ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ARX genetic defect is associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders that exhibit a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity. METHODS: We studied a family with a 13-year old Chinese boy and his two elder brothers presented with infantile epileptic-dyskinetic encephalopathy and clarified the unknown genetic etiology of the youngest brother by whole exome sequencing. RESULTS: The youngest brother of this family presented with developmental regression, dystonia, epilepsy, microcephaly, visual impairment and oromotor dysfunction. Hyperlactataemia, raised alanine and muscle complex IV deficiency indicated that he had mitochondrial dysfunction. Likely pathogenic hemizygous missense ARX variants (c.989G > A; p.Arg330His) located in conserved nuclear localization sequence was identified. The variant was carried by his asymptomatic mother and not found in his asymptomatic third elder brother. The intractable seizures showed complete but transient responsiveness to pyridoxal phosphate and finally controlled by valproate treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the first case of ARX-associated encephalopathy showing mitochondrial dysfunction and transient responsiveness to pyridoxal phosphate treatment.

5.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(3): 503-513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872186

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disease (MD) is a group of rare inherited disorders with clinical heterogeneous phenotypes. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) allow for rapid genetic diagnostics in patients who experience MD, resulting in significant strides in determining its etiology. This, however, has not been the case in many patient populations. We report on a molecular diagnostic study using mitochondrial DNA and targeted nuclear DNA (nDNA) NGS of an extensive cohort of predominantly sub-Saharan African pediatric patients with clinical and biochemically defined MD. Patients in this novel cohort presented mostly with muscle involvement (73%). Of the original 212 patients, a muscle respiratory chain deficiency was identified in 127 cases. Genetic analyses were conducted for these 127 cases based on biochemical deficiencies, for both mitochondrial (n = 123) and nDNA using panel-based NGS (n = 86). As a pilot investigation, whole-exome sequencing was performed in a subset of African patients (n = 8). These analyses resulted in the identification of a previously reported pathogenic mitochondrial DNA variant and seven pathogenic or likely pathogenic nDNA variants (ETFDH, SURF1, COQ6, RYR1, STAC3, ALAS2, and TRIOBP), most of which were identified via whole-exome sequencing. This study contributes to knowledge of MD etiology in an understudied, ethnically diverse population; highlights inconsistencies in genotype-phenotype correlations; and proposes future directions for diagnostic approaches in such patient populations.

6.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1225-e1237, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the leukodystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in LARS2 and KARS, encoding mitochondrial leucyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthase and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lysyl tRNA synthase, respectively. METHODS: We composed a group of 5 patients with leukodystrophy, in whom whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in LARS2 or KARS. Clinical information, brain MRIs, and postmortem brain autopsy data were collected. We assessed aminoacylation activities of purified mutant recombinant mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthase and performed aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts. RESULTS: Patients had a combination of early-onset deafness and later-onset neurologic deterioration caused by progressive brain white matter abnormalities on MRI. Female patients with LARS2 pathogenic variants had premature ovarian failure. In 2 patients, MRI showed additional signs of early-onset vascular abnormalities. In 2 other patients with LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants, magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated white matter lactate, suggesting mitochondrial disease. Pathology in one patient with LARS2 pathogenic variants displayed evidence of primary disease of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with lack of myelin and deficient astrogliosis. Aminoacylation activities of purified recombinant mutant leucyl tRNA synthase showed a 3-fold loss of catalytic efficiency. Aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts showed about 50% reduction of enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: This study adds LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants as gene defects that may underlie deafness, ovarian failure, and leukodystrophy with mitochondrial signature. We discuss the specific MRI characteristics shared by leukodystrophies caused by mitochondrial tRNA synthase defects. We propose to add aminoacylation assays as biochemical diagnostic tools for leukodystrophies.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial DNA m.3243A>G mutation is one the most prevalent mutation causing mitochondrial disease in adult patients. Several cohort studies have used heteroplasmy levels in urinary epithelial cells (UEC) to correlate the genotype of the patients to the clinical severity. However, the interpretation of these data is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the intra-patient variability of the heteroplasmy levels. The goal of this study was to determine the day-to-day variation of the heteroplasmy levels in UEC. METHODS: Fifteen carriers of the m.3243A>G mutation collected five urine samples in a 14-day window. Heteroplasmy levels of the m.3243A>G mutation were determined in these samples. Data from the national cohort study, including Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale scores and clinical diagnosis, were used. RESULTS: In the samples of six patients, heteroplasmy levels were within a 5% margin. In the samples collected from five patients, the margin was >20%. CONCLUSION: Heteroplasmy levels of UEC in carriers of the m.3243A>G mutation have a significant day-to-day variation. The interpretation of a correlation between heteroplasmy levels in urine and disease severity is therefore not reliable. Therefore, heteroplasmy levels in UEC should not be used as a prognostic biomarker in these patients.

8.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423443

RESUMO

Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most frequent mitochondrial disorder presenting in childhood and the mutational spectrum is highly heterogeneous. The NDUFB11 gene is one of the recently identified genes, which is located in the short arm of the X-chromosome. Here we report clinical, biochemical, functional and genetic findings of two male patients with lactic acidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and isolated complex I deficiency due to de novo hemizygous mutations (c.286C > T and c.328C > T) in the NDUFB11 gene. Neither of them had any skin manifestations. The NDUFB11 gene encodes a relatively small integral membrane protein NDUFB11, which is essential for the assembly of an active complex I. The expression levels of this protein was decreased in both patient cells and a lentiviral complementation experiment also supported the notion that the complex I deficiency in those two patients is caused by NDUFB11 genetic defects. Our findings together with a review of the thirteen previously described patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of clinical features associated with NDUFB11-related complex I deficiency. However, histiocytoid cardiomyopathy and/or congenital sideroblastic anemia could be indicative for mutation in the NDUFB11 gene, while the clinical manifestation of the same mutation can be highly variable.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 66(1): 75-82, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248054

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder for which the exact etiology is largely unknown. An increasingly recognized and investigated notion is the pathogenic role of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. We assessed mitochondrial oxidative-phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model from 4.5 to 14 months of age. We show an age-dependent decrease in mitochondrial complex-II activity starting at 9 months in APP/PS1 mice. Other enzymes of the OXPHOS do not show any alterations. Since amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques are already present from 4 months of age, mitochondrial dysfunction likely occurs downstream of Aß pathology in this mouse model.

11.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 15: 80-89, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009132

RESUMO

Objective: Reaching a genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders (MDs) is challenging due to their broad phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. However, there is growing evidence that the use of whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnosing patients with a clinical suspicion of an MD is effective (39-60%). We aimed to study the effectiveness of WES in clinical practice in Estonia, in patients with an unsolved, but suspected MD. We also show our first results of mtDNA analysis obtained from standard WES reads. Methods: Retrospective cases were selected from a database of 181 patients whose fibroblast cell cultures had been stored from 2003 to 2013. Prospective cases were selected during the period of 2014-2016 from patients referred to a clinical geneticist in whom an MD was suspected. We scored each patient according to the mitochondrial disease criteria (MDC) (Morava et al., 2006) after re-evaluation of their clinical data, and then performed WES analysis. Results: A total of 28 patients were selected to the study group. A disease-causing variant was found in 16 patients (57%) using WES. An MD was diagnosed in four patients (14%), with variants in the SLC25A4, POLG, SPATA5, and NDUFB11 genes. Other variants found were associated with a neuromuscular disease (SMN1, MYH2, and LMNA genes), neurodegenerative disorder (TSPOAP1, CACNA1A, ALS2, and SCN2A genes), multisystemic disease (EPG5, NKX1-2, ATRX, and ABCC6 genes), and one in an isolated cardiomyopathy causing gene (MYBPC3). The mtDNA point mutation was found in the MT-ATP6 gene of one patient upon mtDNA analysis. Conclusions: The diagnostic yield of WES in our cohort was 57%, proving to be a very good effectiveness. However, MDs were found in only 14% of the patients. We suggest WES analysis as a first-tier method in clinical genetic practice for children with any multisystem, neurological, and/or neuromuscular problem, as nuclear DNA variants are more common in children with MDs; a large number of patients harbor disease-causing variants in genes other than the mitochondria-related ones, and the clinical presentation might not always point towards an MD. We have also successfully conducted analysis of mtDNA from standard WES reads, providing further evidence that this method could be routinely used in the future.

12.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 41(4): 719-729, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560582

RESUMO

Primary CoQ10 deficiency is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). To date, mutations in nine proteins required for the biosynthesis of CoQ10 cause CoQ10 deficiency with varying clinical presentations. In 2009 the first patient with mutations in COQ9 was reported in an infant with a neonatal-onset, primary CoQ10 deficiency with multi-system disease. Here we describe four siblings with a previously undiagnosed lethal disorder characterized by oligohydramnios and intrauterine growth restriction, variable cardiomyopathy, anemia, and renal anomalies. The first and third pregnancy resulted in live born babies with abnormal tone who developed severe, treatment unresponsive lactic acidosis after birth and died hours later. Autopsy on one of the siblings demonstrated brain changes suggestive of the subacute necrotizing encephalopathy of Leigh disease. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed the siblings shared compound heterozygous mutations in the COQ9 gene with both variants predicted to affect splicing. RT-PCR on RNA from patient fibroblasts revealed that the c.521 + 2 T > C variant resulted in splicing out of exons 4-5 and the c.711 + 3G > C variant spliced out exon 6, resulting in undetectable levels of COQ9 protein in patient fibroblasts. The biochemical profile of patient fibroblasts demonstrated a drastic reduction in CoQ10 levels. An additional peak on the chromatogram may represent accumulation of demethoxy coenzyme Q (DMQ), which was shown previously to accumulate as a result of a defect in COQ9. This family expands our understanding of this rare metabolic disease and highlights the prenatal onset, clinical variability, severity, and biochemical profile associated with COQ9-related CoQ10 deficiencies.

13.
Dis Model Mech ; 11(3)2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590638

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases are associated with a wide variety of clinical symptoms and variable degrees of severity. Patients with such diseases generally have a poor prognosis and often an early fatal disease outcome. With an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births and no curative treatments available, relevant animal models to evaluate new therapeutic regimes for mitochondrial diseases are urgently needed. By knocking down ND-18, the unique Drosophila ortholog of NDUFS4, an accessory subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I), we developed and characterized several dNDUFS4 models that recapitulate key features of mitochondrial disease. Like in humans, the dNDUFS4 KD flies display severe feeding difficulties, an aspect of mitochondrial disorders that has so far been largely ignored in animal models. The impact of this finding, and an approach to overcome it, will be discussed in the context of interpreting disease model characterization and intervention studies.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Doenças Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora , Músculos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 685-695, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576219

RESUMO

Biogenesis of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, which produces the bulk of ATP for almost all eukaryotic cells, depends on the translation of 13 mtDNA-encoded polypeptides by mitochondria-specific ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix. These mitoribosomes are dual-origin ribonucleoprotein complexes, which contain mtDNA-encoded rRNAs and tRNAs and ∼80 nucleus-encoded proteins. An increasing number of gene mutations that impair mitoribosomal function and result in multiple OXPHOS deficiencies are being linked to human mitochondrial diseases. Using exome sequencing in two unrelated subjects presenting with sensorineural hearing impairment, mild developmental delay, hypoglycemia, and a combined OXPHOS deficiency, we identified mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S2, which has not previously been implicated in disease. Characterization of subjects' fibroblasts revealed a decrease in the steady-state amounts of mutant MRPS2, and this decrease was shown by complexome profiling to prevent the assembly of the small mitoribosomal subunit. In turn, mitochondrial translation was inhibited, resulting in a combined OXPHOS deficiency detectable in subjects' muscle and liver biopsies as well as in cultured skin fibroblasts. Reintroduction of wild-type MRPS2 restored mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly. The combination of lactic acidemia, hypoglycemia, and sensorineural hearing loss, especially in the presence of a combined OXPHOS deficiency, should raise suspicion for a ribosomal-subunit-related mitochondrial defect, and clinical recognition could allow for a targeted diagnostic approach. The identification of MRPS2 as an additional gene related to mitochondrial disease further expands the genetic and phenotypic spectra of OXPHOS deficiencies caused by impaired mitochondrial translation.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 30: 86-93, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506874

RESUMO

Mutations in the m.13094T>C MT-ND5 gene have been previously described in three cases of Leigh Syndrome (LS). In this retrospective, international cohort study we identified 20 clinically affected individuals (13 families) and four asymptomatic carriers. Ten patients were deceased at the time of analysis (median age of death was 10years (range: 5·4months-37years, IQR=17·9years). Nine patients manifested with LS, one with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and one with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. The remaining nine patients presented with either overlapping syndromes or isolated neurological symptoms. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity analysis was normal in five out of ten muscle biopsies. We confirmed maternal inheritance in six families, and demonstrated marked variability in tissue segregation, and phenotypic expression at relatively low blood mutant loads. Neuropathological studies of two patients manifesting with LS/MELAS showed prominent capillary proliferation, microvacuolation and severe neuronal cell loss in the brainstem and cerebellum, with conspicuous absence of basal ganglia involvement. These findings suggest that whole mtDNA genome sequencing should be considered in patients with suspected mitochondrial disease presenting with complex neurological manifestations, which would identify over 300 known pathogenic variants including the m.13094T>C.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 41(3): 297-307, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445992

RESUMO

Currently, one of the main challenges in human molecular genetics is the interpretation of rare genetic variants of unknown clinical significance. A conclusive diagnosis is of importance for the patient to obtain certainty about the cause of the disease, for the clinician to be able to provide optimal care to the patient and to predict the disease course, and for the clinical geneticist for genetic counseling of the patient and family members. Conclusive evidence for pathogenicity of genetic variants is therefore crucial. This review gives an introduction to the problem of the interpretation of genetic variants of unknown clinical significance in view of the recent advances in genetic screening, and gives an overview of the possibilities for functional tests that can be performed to answer questions about the function of genes and the functional consequences of genetic variants ("functional genomics") in the field of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), including several examples of functional genomics studies of mitochondrial disorders and several other IEM.

17.
J Pediatr ; 196: 309-313.e3, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395179

RESUMO

We demonstrate that a heterozygous nuclear variant in the gene encoding mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFV1 aggravates the cellular phenotype in the presence of a mitochondrial DNA variant in complex I subunit ND1. Our findings suggest that heterozygous variants could be more significant in inherited mitochondrial diseases than hitherto assumed.

18.
Mitochondrion ; 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471047

RESUMO

We used a comprehensive metabolomics approach to study the altered urinary metabolome of two mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes (MELAS) cohorts carrying the m.3243A>G mutation. The first cohort were used in an exploratory phase, identifying 36 metabolites that were significantly perturbed by the disease. During the second phase, the 36 selected metabolites were able to separate a validation cohort of MELAS patients completely from their respective control group, suggesting usefulness of these 36 markers as a diagnostic set. Many of the 36 perturbed metabolites could be linked to an altered redox state, fatty acid catabolism and one-carbon metabolism. However, our evidence indicates that, of all the metabolic perturbations caused by MELAS, stalled fatty acid oxidation prevailed as being particularly disturbed. The strength of our study was the utilization of five different analytical platforms to generate the robust metabolomics data reported here. We show that urine may be a useful source for disease-specific metabolomics data, linking, amongst others, altered one-carbon metabolism to MELAS. The results reported here are important in our understanding of MELAS and might lead to better treatment options for the disease.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(5): 910-919, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484788

RESUMO

AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure and associated with a poor cardiac function and higher mortality. How iron deficiency impairs cardiac function on a cellular level in the human setting is unknown. This study aims to determine the direct effects of iron deficiency and iron repletion on human cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were depleted of iron by incubation with the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO). Mitochondrial respiration was determined by Seahorse Mito Stress test, and contractility was directly quantified using video analyses according to the BASiC method. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was examined using spectrophotometric enzyme assays. Four days of iron depletion resulted in an 84% decrease in ferritin (P < 0.0001) and significantly increased gene expression of transferrin receptor 1 and divalent metal transporter 1 (both P < 0.001). Mitochondrial function was reduced in iron-deficient cardiomyocytes, in particular ATP-linked respiration and respiratory reserve were impaired (both P < 0.0001). Iron depletion affected mitochondrial function through reduced activity of the iron-sulfur cluster containing complexes I, II and III, but not complexes IV and V. Iron deficiency reduced cellular ATP levels by 74% (P < 0.0001) and reduced contractile force by 43% (P < 0.05). The maximum velocities during both systole and diastole were reduced by 64% and 85%, respectively (both P < 0.001). Supplementation of transferrin-bound iron recovered functional and morphological abnormalities within 3 days. CONCLUSION: Iron deficiency directly affects human cardiomyocyte function, impairing mitochondrial respiration, and reducing contractility and relaxation. Restoration of intracellular iron levels can reverse these effects.

20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(3): 407-419, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343804

RESUMO

Variants in the SPATA5 gene were recently described in a cohort of patients with global developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, cortical visual impairment and microcephaly. SPATA5 protein localizes predominantly in the mitochondria and is proposed to be involved in mitochondrial function and brain developmental processes. However no functional studies have been performed. This study describes five patients with psychomotor developmental delay, microcephaly, epilepsy and hearing impairment, who were thought clinically to have a mitochondrial disease with subsequent whole-exome sequencing analysis detecting compound heterozygous variants in the SPATA5 gene. A summary of clinical data of all the SPATA5 patients reported in the literature confirms the characteristic phenotype. To assess SPATA5's role in mitochondrial dynamics, functional studies were performed on rat cortical neurons. SPATA5-deficient neurons had a significant imbalance in the mitochondrial fusion-fission rate, impaired energy production and short axons. In conclusion, SPATA5 protein has an important role in mitochondrial dynamics and axonal growth. Biallelic variants in the SPATA5 gene can affect mitochondria in cortical neurons and should be considered in patients with a neurodegenerative disorder and/or with clinical presentation resembling a mitochondrial disorder.

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