Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 204
Filtrar
1.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743122

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of HIV treatment in preventing HIV transmission through sexual exposure, at both an individual and at a population level. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent studies on the individual-level efficacy of treatment as prevention (TasP) have added to the now conclusive evidence that HIV cannot be transmitted sexually when the virus is suppressed. However, four large cluster-randomized population-level trials on universal HIV testing and treatment in Africa have not delivered the expected impact in reducing HIV incidence at a population level. Two of these trials showed no differences in HIV incidence between the intervention and control arms, one demonstrated a nonsignificant lower incidence in the intervention arm, and the fourth trial found a reduction between the communities receiving a combination prevention package and the control arm, but no difference between the immediate treatment plus the prevention package and the control arm. Factors contributing to the disconnect between individual high-level efficacy and population-level effectiveness of TasP include undiagnosed infection, delays in linkage to care, challenges in retention and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), time between ART initiation and viral suppression, and stigma and discrimination. SUMMARY: Suppressive ART renders people living with HIV sexually noninfectious. However, epidemic control is unlikely to be achieved by TasP alone.

2.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: London has one of the highest identified prevalence of chemsex (sexualised recreational drug use) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe. We examine MSM's patterns of chemsex and its association with HIV/STI risk behaviours, STI diagnoses and sexual healthcare-seeking behaviours, including if HIV testing behaviour met UK national guidelines (three monthly if engaging in chemsex). METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data from 2013 (n=905) and 2016 (n=739) were collected using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires from MSM recruited in commercial gay venues in London, UK. Descriptive and multivariable analyses, stratified by self-reported HIV status, were conducted. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: Comparing the 2013 and 2016 surveys, chemsex prevalence in the past year remained stable, in both HIV-negative/unknown-status MSM (20.9% in 2013 vs 18.7% in 2016, p=0.301) and HIV-positive MSM (41.6% in 2013 vs 41.7% in 2016, p=0.992). Combined 2013-2016 data showed that compared with other MSM, those reporting chemsex were more likely to report HIV/STI risk behaviours, including condomless anal intercourse with serodifferent HIV-status partners (HIV-negative/unknown-status men: aPR 2.36, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.30; HIV-positive men: aPR 4.19, 95% CI 1.85 to 9.50), and STI diagnoses in the past year (HIV-negative/unknown-status men: aPR 2.10, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.69; HIV-positive men: aPR 2.56, 95% CI 1.57 to 4.20). 68.6% of HIV-negative/unknown-status men reporting chemsex attended sexual health clinics and 47.6% had tested for HIV more than once in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Chemsex in London MSM remained stable but high, particularly among HIV-positive men. Irrespective of HIV status, chemsex was associated with engagement in HIV/STI risk behaviours. Frequency of HIV testing in the past year among HIV-negative/unknown-status men was below national recommendations. Promoting combination prevention strategies, including three monthly HIV/STI testing, access to pre-exposure prophylaxis/antiretroviral treatment and behavioural interventions among MSM reporting chemsex, remains vital to address sexual health inequalities in MSM.

3.
AIDS ; 33(15): 2337-2350, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV infectiousness but the effect of early ART on sexual behaviour is unclear. METHODS: We assessed, within the START randomized trial that enrolled HIV-positive adults with CD4 cell count greater than 500 cells/µl, the effect of early (immediate) versus deferred ART on: condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners (CLS-D); all condomless sex (CLS); HIV transmission-risk sex (CLS-D-HIV risk, defined as CLS-D and: not on ART or started ART <6 months ago or viral load greater than 200 copies/ml or no viral load in past 6 months), during 2-year follow-up. Month-12 CLS-D (2010-2014) was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Among 2562 MSM, there was no difference between immediate and deferred arms in CLS-D at month 12 [12.6 versus 13.1%; difference (95% CI): -0.4% (-3.1 to 2.2%), P = 0.75] or month 24, or in CLS. Among 2010 heterosexual men and women, CLS-D at month 12 tended to be higher in the immediate versus deferred arm [10.8 versus 8.3%; difference:2.5% (-0.1 to 5.2%), P = 0.062]; the difference was greater at month 24 [9.3 versus 5.6%; difference: 3.7% (1.0 to 6.4%), P = 0.007], at which time CLS was higher in the immediate arm (20.7 versus 15.7%, P = 0.013). CLS-D-HIV risk at month 12 was substantially lower in the immediate versus deferred arm for MSM [0.2 versus 11%; difference: -10.7% (-12.5 to -8.9%), P < 0.001] and heterosexuals [0.6% versus 7.7%; difference: -7.0% (-8.8 to -5.3%), P < 0.001], because of viral suppression on ART. CONCLUSION: A strategy of early ART had no effect on condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners among MSM, but resulted in modestly higher prevalence among heterosexuals. However, among MSM and heterosexuals, early ART resulted in a substantial reduction in HIV-transmission-risk sex, to a very low absolute level.

4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 6(1): e000395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673360

RESUMO

Introduction: People living with HIV (PLWH) are more likely to smoke than the general population and are at greater risk of smoking-related illness. Healthcare services need to address this burden of preventable disease. Methods: We evaluated the impact of a brief intervention that asked service users about smoking when they attended for ambulatory HIV care in London, UK, and offered referral to smoking cessation. Results: Overall, 1548 HIV-positive individuals were asked about their smoking status over a 12-month period. Of this group, 385 (25%) reported that they were current smokers, 372 (97%) were offered referral to smoking cessation services and 154 (40%) accepted this. We established an outcome of referral for 114 (74%) individuals. A total of 36 (10% of smokers) attended stop smoking clinics and 16 (4%) individuals were recorded as having quit smoking. Discussion: The simple intervention of asking PLWH about tobacco smoking and offering referral to smoking cessation services rapidly identified current smokers, 40% of whom accepted referral to smoking cessation services. This highlights the importance of promoting behaviour and lifestyle changes with every contact with health services. However, a large proportion of those referred were either not seen in local services or the outcome of referral could not be ascertained. If the risk of smoking-related morbidity among PLWH is to be reduced, more sustainable referral pathways and ways of improving uptake of smoking cessation services must be developed.

5.
Anal Chem ; 91(21): 13794-13802, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584804

RESUMO

Assessing the physical stability of proteins is one of the most important challenges in the development, manufacture, and formulation of biotherapeutics. Here, we describe a method for combining and automating circular dichroism and intrinsic protein fluorescence spectroscopy. By robotically injecting samples from a 96-well plate into an optically compliant capillary flow cell, complementary information about the secondary and tertiary structural state of a protein can be collected in an unattended manner from considerably reduced volumes of sample compared to conventional techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of this method. Furthermore, we show how structural screening can be used to monitor unfolding of proteins in two case studies using (i) a chaotropic denaturant (urea) and (ii) low-pH buffers used for monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification during Protein A chromatography.

6.
Nature ; 574(7776): 117-121, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534227

RESUMO

Immediately after birth, newborn babies experience rapid colonization by microorganisms from their mothers and the surrounding environment1. Diseases in childhood and later in life are potentially mediated by the perturbation of the colonization of the infant gut microbiota2. However, the effects of delivery via caesarean section on the earliest stages of the acquisition and development of the gut microbiota, during the neonatal period (≤1 month), remain controversial3,4. Here we report the disrupted transmission of maternal Bacteroides strains, and high-level colonization by opportunistic pathogens associated with the hospital environment (including Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Klebsiella species), in babies delivered by caesarean section. These effects were also seen, to a lesser extent, in vaginally delivered babies whose mothers underwent antibiotic prophylaxis and in babies who were not breastfed during the neonatal period. We applied longitudinal sampling and whole-genome shotgun metagenomic analysis to 1,679 gut microbiota samples (taken at several time points during the neonatal period, and in infancy) from 596 full-term babies born in UK hospitals; for a subset of these babies, we collected additional matched samples from mothers (175 mothers paired with 178 babies). This analysis demonstrates that the mode of delivery is a significant factor that affects the composition of the gut microbiota throughout the neonatal period, and into infancy. Matched large-scale culturing and whole-genome sequencing of over 800 bacterial strains from these babies identified virulence factors and clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance in opportunistic pathogens that may predispose individuals to opportunistic infections. Our findings highlight the critical role of the local environment in establishing the gut microbiota in very early life, and identify colonization with antimicrobial-resistance-containing opportunistic pathogens as a previously underappreciated risk factor in hospital births.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oportunistas/congênito , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Gravidez
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1236, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) in England is a pressing public health concern. Interventions targeting MSM, including information provision that effectively promotes sexual health, are needed. To support such intervention development, it is necessary to understand acceptable ways of delivering sexual health information. We explored the acceptability and potential uses and impacts of delivering sexual health information to MSM through social media and geosocial networking apps or dating apps. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in person or by telephone with 25 MSM resident in England recruited via dating apps and social media advertisements. Interviews explored sexual health information sources, perceptions and uses. Attitudes towards sexual health promotion through social media and dating apps were then discussed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Sexual health information delivery through social media and dating apps was considered acceptable. Receiving information when browsing social media was viewed positively by most, as people have time to absorb information. In contrast, concerns were expressed that sharing or commenting on social media sexual health information may lead to judgements and discrimination. While social media reaches a high proportion of the population, dating apps can easily target MSM. However, tensions exist between the ability to provide information at an opportune time through dating apps, when users are connecting with new sexual partners, with the potential to adversely affect the app user's experience. Hypothetical and actual uses and impacts of sexual health information ranged from no impact to reading information, sharing with peers, and increased awareness, to influencing healthcare-seeking, decision-making and risk-taking behaviours. Ensuring that information is engaging, positive in tone, not too clinical, focused on building social norms and delivered by trusted organisations were viewed as important for supporting its use. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings support the development of new interventions that use dating apps and social media for sexual health promotion.

8.
AIDS ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV infectiousness, but the effect of early ART on sexual behaviour is unclear. METHODS: We assessed, within the START randomised trial that enrolled HIV-positive adults with CD4>500/mm, the effect of early (immediate) versus deferred ART on: (i) condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners (CLS-D); (ii) all condomless sex (CLS); (iii) HIV transmission-risk-sex (CLS-D-HIV-risk, defined as CLS-D and: not on ART or started ART < 6 months ago or viral load(VL)>200c/mL or no VL in past 6 months), during two year follow-up. Month-12 CLS-D (2010-2014) was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Among 2562 MSM, there was no difference between immediate and deferred arms in CLS-D at month 12 [12.6% versus 13.1%; difference (95% CI): -0.4% (-3.1%, 2.2%), p = 0.75] or month 24, or in CLS. Among 2010 heterosexual men and women, CLS-D at month 12 tended to be higher in the immediate versus deferred arm [10.8% versus 8.3%; difference:2.5% (-0.1%, 5.2%), p = 0.062]; the difference was greater at month 24 [9.3% versus 5.6%; difference:3.7%(1.0%, 6.4%), p = 0.007], at which time CLS was higher in the immediate arm [20.7% versus 15.7%, p = 0.013]. CLS-D-HIV-risk at month 12 was substantially lower in the immediate versus deferred arm for MSM [0.2% versus 11.0%; difference: -10.7% (-12.5%, -8.9%), p < 0.001] and heterosexuals [0.6% versus 7.7%; difference: -7.0% (-8.8%, -5.3%), p < 0.001], due to viral suppression on ART. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of early ART had no effect on condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners among MSM, but resulted in modestly higher prevalence among heterosexuals. However, among MSM and heterosexuals, early ART resulted in a substantial reduction in HIV-transmission-risk-sex, to a very low absolute level.

9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(25): 6575-6581, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384985

RESUMO

The application of proteomic liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for identifying proteins and peptides associated with human disease is rapidly growing in clinical diagnostics. However, the ability to accurately and consistently detect disease-associated peptides remains clinically uncertain. Variability in diagnostic testing occurs in part due to the absence of appropriate reference testing materials and standardised clinical guidelines for proteomic testing. In addition, multiple proteomic testing pipelines have not been fully assessed through external quality assurance (EQA). This trial was therefore devised to evaluate the performance of a small number of mass spectrometry (MS) testing facilities to (i) evaluate the EQA material for potential usage in a proteomic quality assurance program, and to (ii) identify key problem areas associated with human peptide testing. Five laboratories were sent six peptide reference testing samples formulated to contain a total of 35 peptides in differing ratios of light (natural) to heavy (labelled) peptides. Proficiency assessment of laboratory data used a modified approach to similarity and dissimilarity testing that was based on Bray-Curtis and Sorensen indices. Proficiency EQA concordant consensus values could not be derived from the assessed data since none of the laboratories correctly identified all reference testing peptides in all samples. However, the produced data may be reflective of specific inter-laboratory differences for detecting multiple peptides since no two testing pipelines used were the same for any laboratory. In addition, laboratory feedback indicated that peptide filtering of the reference material was a common key problem area prior to analysis. These data highlight the importance of an EQA programme for identifying underlying testing issues so that improvements can be made and confidence for clinical diagnostic analysis can be attained.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Proteômica/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/normas
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 699, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SELPHI study (An HIV Self-Testing Public Health Intervention) is an online randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HIV self-testing (HIVST). The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recruiting UK men who have sex with men (cis and trans) and trans women who have sex with men to the SELPHI pilot, and the acceptability of the HIVST intervention used among those randomised to receive a kit. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach to assessing trial feasibility and intervention acceptability was taken, using quantitative data from advertising sources and RCT surveys alongside qualitative data from a nested sub-study. RESULTS: Online recruitment and intervention delivery was feasible. The recruitment strategy led to the registration of 1370 participants of whom 76% (1035) successfully enrolled and were randomised 60/40 to baseline testing vs no baseline testing. Advertising platforms performed variably. Reported HIVST kit use increased from 83% at two weeks to 96% at three months. Acceptability was very high across all quantitative measures. Participants described the instructions as easy to use, and the testing process as simple. The support structures in SELPHI were felt to be adequate. Described emotional responses to HIVST varied. CONCLUSIONS: Recruiting to a modest sized HIVST pilot RCT is feasible, and the recruitment, intervention and HIVST kit were acceptable. Research on support needs of individuals with reactive results is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Inglaterra , Estudos de Viabilidade , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Autocuidado , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , País de Gales
11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Behavioural interventions have been shown to reduce sexual behaviours associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections in young people (<25 years) and men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally, but evidence from England is limited. We aimed to explore service provider and user experiences and perspectives on behavioural interventions to reduce sexual behaviour risks, and the use of automated methods to triage individuals to these services. METHODS: We conducted a sequential mixed methods study with sexual health service providers and users in 2015/2016. Qualitative interviews with providers and service users (heterosexual young people and MSM) in London and Brighton allowed us to explore a range of experiences and expectations. A subsequent national web-survey of service providers measured the feasibility of delivery within existing resources and preferences for intervention attributes. RESULTS: We conducted 35 service user (15 heterosexual young people; 20 MSM) and 26 provider interviews and had 100 web-survey responses. We found considerable heterogeneity in prevention services offered. Service users and providers were broadly supportive of tailoring interventions offered, but service users raised concerns about automated, data-driven triage, particularly around equity and fairness of service delivery. Digital technologies, including social media or apps, were appealing to providers, being less resource intensive. However, one-to-one talking interventions remained popular with both service users and providers, being familiar, trustworthy and personal. Key tensions between desirability of interventions and availability of resources to deliver them were acknowledged/recognised by providers and users. CONCLUSION: Overall, behavioural interventions to reduce sexual behaviour risks were viewed favourably by service providers and users, with key considerations including: privacy, personalisation and convenience. However, introducing desirable targeted interventions within heterogeneous sexual health settings will require resources to adapt interventions and research to fully understand the barriers and facilitators to use within routine services.

12.
Euro Surveill ; 24(25)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241039

RESUMO

BackgroundMen who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of HIV and are an important population to monitor and ameliorate combination prevention efforts.AimTo estimate HIV prevalence and identify factors associated with frequent HIV testing (≥ 2 HIV tests in the last year) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among MSM in London.MethodsFor this cross-sectional study, MSM recruited from 22 social venues provided oral-fluid samples for anonymous HIV antibody (Ab) testing and completed a questionnaire. Factors associated with frequent HIV testing and PrEP use were identified through logistic regression.ResultsOf 767 men recruited, 545 provided an eligible oral specimen. Among these, 38 MSM (7.0%) were anti-HIV positive including five (13.2%; 5/38) who reported their status as negative. Condomless anal sex within the previous 3 months was reported by 60.1% (412/685) men. Frequent HIV testing was associated with, in the past year, a reported sexually transmitted infection (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.66-9.58) or ≥ 2 casual condomless partners (AOR 2-4 partners: 3.65 (95% CI: 1.87-7.10); AOR 5-10 partners: 3.34(95% CI: 1.32-8.49). Age ≥ 35 years was related to less frequent HIV testing (AOR 35-44 years: 0.34 (95% CI: 0.16-0.72); AOR ≥ 45 years: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12-0.69). PrEP use in the past year was reported by 6.2% (46/744) of MSM and associated with ≥ 2 casual condomless sex partners (AOR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.17-6.98) or chemsex (AOR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.09-4.91).ConclusionThis bio-behavioural study of MSM found high rates of behaviours associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. Combination prevention, including frequent HIV testing and use of PrEP, remains crucial in London.

14.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2428-2438, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The level of evidence for HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited compared with the evidence available for transmission risk in heterosexual couples. The aim of the second phase of the PARTNER study (PARTNER2) was to provide precise estimates of transmission risk in gay serodifferent partnerships. METHODS: The PARTNER study was a prospective observational study done at 75 sites in 14 European countries. The first phase of the study (PARTNER1; Sept 15, 2010, to May 31, 2014) recruited and followed up both heterosexual and gay serodifferent couples (HIV-positive partner taking suppressive ART) who reported condomless sex, whereas the PARTNER2 extension (to April 30, 2018) recruited and followed up gay couples only. At study visits, data collection included sexual behaviour questionnaires, HIV testing (HIV-negative partner), and HIV-1 viral load testing (HIV-positive partner). If a seroconversion occurred in the HIV-negative partner, anonymised phylogenetic analysis was done to compare HIV-1 pol and env sequences in both partners to identify linked transmissions. Couple-years of follow-up were eligible for inclusion if condomless sex was reported, use of pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis was not reported by the HIV-negative partner, and the HIV-positive partner was virally suppressed (plasma HIV-1 RNA <200 copies per mL) at the most recent visit (within the past year). Incidence rate of HIV transmission was calculated as the number of phylogenetically linked HIV infections that occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up divided by eligible couple-years of follow-up. Two-sided 95% CIs for the incidence rate of transmission were calculated using exact Poisson methods. FINDINGS: Between Sept 15, 2010, and July 31, 2017, 972 gay couples were enrolled, of which 782 provided 1593 eligible couple-years of follow-up with a median follow-up of 2·0 years (IQR 1·1-3·5). At baseline, median age for HIV-positive partners was 40 years (IQR 33-46) and couples reported condomless sex for a median of 1·0 years (IQR 0·4-2·9). During eligible couple-years of follow-up, couples reported condomless anal sex a total of 76 088 times. 288 (37%) of 777 HIV-negative men reported condomless sex with other partners. 15 new HIV infections occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up, but none were phylogenetically linked within-couple transmissions, resulting in an HIV transmission rate of zero (upper 95% CI 0·23 per 100 couple-years of follow-up). INTERPRETATION: Our results provide a similar level of evidence on viral suppression and HIV transmission risk for gay men to that previously generated for heterosexual couples and suggest that the risk of HIV transmission in gay couples through condomless sex when HIV viral load is suppressed is effectively zero. Our findings support the message of the U=U (undetectable equals untransmittable) campaign, and the benefits of early testing and treatment for HIV. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina , Sexo sem Proteção , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Preservativos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais , Carga Viral
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024085, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increased test uptake for HIV and viral hepatitis is fast becoming a health priority at both national and global levels. Late diagnosis of these infections remains a critical public health concern in the UK. Recommendations have been issued to expand blood-borne virus (BBV) testing in alternative settings. Emergency departments (EDs) offer a potentially important point of testing. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study which aimed to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a routine opt-out combined BBV testing intervention implemented at an inner London ED. METHODS: We conducted 22 semistructured interviews with patients and service providers in the ED over a 4-month period during the intervention pilot. A grounded analytical approach was employed to conduct thematic analysis of qualitative study data. RESULTS: Core interrelating thematic areas, identified and analytically developed in relation to test intervention implementation and experience, included the following: the remaking of routine test procedure; notions of responsibility in relation to status knowledge and test engagement; the opportunity and constraints of the ED as a site for testing; and the renegotiation of testing cultures within and beyond the clinic space. CONCLUSION: Study findings demonstrate how relational and spatial dynamics specific to the ED setting shape test meaning and engagement. We found acceptability of the test practice was articulated through narratives of situated responsibility, with the value of the test offset by perceptions of health need and justification of the test expense. Participant accounts indicate that the nontargeted approach of the test affords a productive disruption to 'at-risk' identities, yet they also reveal limits to the test intervention's 'normalising' effect. Evaluation of the intervention must attend to the situated dynamics of the test practice if opportunities of an opt-out BBV test procedure are to be fully realised. Findings also highlight the critical need to further evaluate post-test intervention practices and experiences.

16.
J Hepatol ; 71(2): 371-378, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of non-invasive liver fibrosis tests may enable earlier identification of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) requiring referral to secondary care. We developed and evaluated a pathway for the management of patients with NAFLD, aimed at improving the detection of cases of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and avoiding unnecessary referrals. METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study, with analyses performed before and after introduction of the pathway, and comparisons made to unexposed controls. We used a 2-step algorithm combining the use of Fibrosis-4 score followed by the ELF™ test if required. RESULTS: In total, 3,012 patients were analysed. Use of the pathway detected 5 times more cases of advanced fibrosis (Kleiner F3) and cirrhosis (odds ratio [OR]5.18;95%CI2.97-9.04; p <0.0001), while reducing unnecessary referrals from primary care to secondary care by 81% (OR0.193; 95%CI 0.111-0.337; p <0.0001). Although it was used for only 48% of referrals, significant benefits were observed in practices exposed to the pathway compared to those which were not, with unnecessary referrals falling by 77% (OR0.23; 95% CI0.658-0.082; p = 0.006) and a 4-fold improvement in detection of cases of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (OR4.32; 95% CI1.52-12.25; p = 0.006). Compared to referrals made before the introduction of the pathway, unnecessary referrals fell from 79/83 referrals (95.2%) to 107/152 (70.4%), representing an 88% reduction in unnecessary referrals when the pathway was followed (OR0.12; 95%CI0.042-0.349; p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of non-invasive blood tests for liver fibrosis improves the detection of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, while reducing unnecessary referrals in patients with NAFLD. This strategy improves resource use and benefits patients. LAY SUMMARY: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease effects up to 30% of the population but only a minority of cases develop liver disease. Our study has shown that established blood tests can be used in primary care to stratify patients with fatty liver disease, leading to a reduction in unnecessary referrals by 80% and greatly improving the detection of cases of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis.

17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 68: 54-61, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has suggested that chemsex (the use of mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine and γ -hydroxybutyrate/ γ -butryolactone (GHB/GBL) to enable, enhance and prolong sexual interactions) has increased among men having sex with men (MSM) attending sexual health clinics in large UK cities. To date there has been no data from the UK or Europe that describes changes in chemsex over time within a cohort of MSM. METHODS: The prospective cohort study, Attitudes to and Understanding Risk of Acquisition of HIV over Time (AURAH2), collected online questionnaire data from HIV negative or undiagnosed MSM (at enrolment) from 2015 to 2018, recruited from sexual health clinics. We aim to investigate changes in chemsex, three individual drugs associated with chemsex, frequency of chemsex sessions and measures of sexual behaviour, among the cohort of MSM over the study's 3 year follow-up period. RESULTS: In total 622 MSM completed at least one online questionnaire for the AURAH2 study, of which 400 (64.3%) were still engaged with the study within the last six months of follow-up. Prevalence of chemsex significantly declined during the follow-up from 31.8% (198/622) at the first online questionnaire, to 11.1% (8/72; p < 0.001) at the 9th. This decline was reflected in the proportion of MSM reporting use of two of the three individual chemsex drugs: mephedrone use had significantly declined from 25.2% at the first online questionnaire to 9.7% (p < 0.001) at the 9th, GHB/GBL use had also declined from 19.9% to 8.3% (p = 0.001). While crystal methamphetamine use declined, but not significantly (11.1%-6.9% [p = 0.289]). Most measures of sexual behaviour (any anal sex, group sex, recent HIV test and bacterial STI) also tended to decline over the follow-up period, with the exception of CLAI with more than one and more than two partners. CONCLUSIONS: Chemsex and use of two individual chemsex drugs (mephedrone and GHB/GBL) significantly declined over time among individuals in the study, alongside most measures of sexual behaviour with the exception of those related to CLAI. Focusing health promotion and HIV prevention, such as awareness of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), on MSM that report chemsex, and in particular problematic chemsex, would be highly beneficial, potentially only necessary for a relatively short period of time for individuals, and could have long term benefits for HIV and STI prevention.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 431, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IPV, associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with IPV, and the association of IPV with depression and sexual behaviour, among GBMSM in the PROUD trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: PROUD enrolled 544 HIV-negative participants in England from 2012 to 2014; participants were randomised to immediate or deferred PrEP. This analysis included 436 GBMSM who had IPV data at month-12 and/or 24. Prevalence of IPV victimization and perpetration (lifetime, and in the past year) was assessed at these time-points. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate associations with IPV, using pooled data from both time-points. RESULTS: At month-12 (N = 410), 44.9% of men reported ever being a victim of IPV, 15.6% in the last year, and 19.5% reported ever perpetrating IPV, 7.8% in the last year. At month-24 (N = 333), the corresponding prevalence was 40.2 and 14.7% for lifetime and past year IPV victimization and 18.0 and 6.9% for lifetime and past year IPV perpetration. IPV prevalence did not differ by randomised arm. Men reporting internalized homophobia and sexualized drug use were more likely to report IPV. Lifetime and last year experience of IPV victimization and perpetration were strongly associated with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) (adjusted for socio-demographics: lifetime IPV victimization PR 2.57 [95% CI: 1.71, 3.86]; past year IPV victimization PR 2.93 [95% CI: 1.96, 4.40]; lifetime IPV perpetration PR 2.87 [95% CI: 1.91, 4.32]; past year IPV perpetration PR 3.47 [95% CI: 2.13, 5.64], p < 0.001 for all); IPV was not consistently associated with measures of condomless anal sex or high partner numbers. CONCLUSIONS: GBMSM at high-risk of HIV who are seeking/taking PrEP may experience a high burden of IPV, which may be linked to depression. Training on awareness of and enquiry for IPV among GBMSM in sexual health clinics is recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02065986 . Registered 19 February 2014 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Prevalência , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Med ; 16(4): e1002779, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the UK, approximately 4,200 men who have sex with men (MSM) are living with HIV but remain undiagnosed. Maximising the number of high-risk people testing for HIV is key to ensuring prompt treatment and preventing onward infection. This study assessed how different HIV test characteristics affect the choice of testing option, including remote testing (HIV self-testing or HIV self-sampling), in the UK, a country with universal access to healthcare. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 3 April and 11 May 2017, a cross-sectional online-questionnaire-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in which respondents who expressed an interest in online material used by MSM were asked to imagine that they were at risk of HIV infection and to choose between different hypothetical HIV testing options, including the option not to test. A variety of different testing options with different defining characteristics were described so that the independent preference for each characteristic could be valued. The characteristics included where each test is taken, the sampling method, how the test is obtained, whether infections other than HIV are tested for, test accuracy, the cost of the test, the infection window period, and how long it takes to receive the test result. Participants were recruited and completed the instrument online, in order to include those not currently engaged with healthcare services. The main analysis was conducted using a latent class model (LCM), with results displayed as odds ratios (ORs) and probabilities. The ORs indicate the strength of preference for one characteristic relative to another (base) characteristic. In total, 620 respondents answered the DCE questions. Most respondents reported that they were white (93%) and were either gay or bisexual (99%). The LCM showed that there were 2 classes within the respondent sample that appeared to have different preferences for the testing options. The first group, which was likely to contain 86% of respondents, had a strong preference for face-to-face tests by healthcare professionals (HCPs) compared to remote testing (OR 6.4; 95% CI 5.6, 7.4) and viewed not testing as less preferable than remote testing (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.09, 0.11). In the second group, which was likely to include 14% of participants, not testing was viewed as less desirable than remote testing (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.53, 0.59) as were tests by HCPs compared to remote testing (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.15, 0.36). In both classes, free remote tests instead of each test costing £30 was the test characteristic with the largest impact on the choice of testing option. Participants in the second group were more likely to have never previously tested and to be non-white than participants in the first group. The main study limitations were that the sample was recruited solely via social media, the study advert was viewed only by people expressing an interest in online material used by MSM, and the choices in the experiment were hypothetical rather than observed in the real world. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that preferences in the context we examined are broadly dichotomous. One group, containing the majority of MSM, appears comfortable testing for HIV but prefers face-to-face testing by HCPs rather than remote testing. The other group is much smaller, but contains MSM who are more likely to be at high infection risk. For these people, the availability of remote testing has the potential to significantly increase net testing rates, particularly if provided for free.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Confidencialidade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
20.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(12): 1-122, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to represent a major public health challenge. There is evidence that behavioural interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviours can reduce STI rates in patients attending sexual health (SH) services. However, it is not known if these interventions are effective when implemented at scale in SH settings in England. OBJECTIVES: The study (Santé) had two main objectives - (1) to develop and pilot a package of evidence-based sexual risk reduction interventions that can be delivered through SH services and (2) to assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine effectiveness against usual care. DESIGN: The project was a multistage, mixed-methods study, with developmental and pilot RCT phases. Preparatory work included a systematic review, an analysis of national surveillance data, the development of a triage algorithm, and interviews and surveys with SH staff and patients to identify, select and adapt interventions. A pilot cluster RCT was planned for eight SH clinics; the intervention would be offered in four clinics, with qualitative and process evaluation to assess feasibility and acceptability. Four clinics acted as controls; in all clinics, participants would be consented to a 6-week follow-up STI screen. SETTING: SH clinics in England. PARTICIPANTS: Young people (aged 16-25 years), and men who have sex with men. INTERVENTION: A three-part intervention package - (1) a triage tool to score patients as being at high or low risk of STI using routine data, (2) a study-designed web page with tailored SH information for all patients, regardless of risk and (3) a brief one-to-one session based on motivational interviewing for high-risk patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The three outcomes were (1) the acceptability of the intervention to patients and SH providers, (2) the feasibility of delivering the interventions within existing resources and (3) the feasibility of obtaining follow-up data on STI diagnoses (primary outcome in a full trial). RESULTS: We identified 33 relevant trials from the systematic review, including videos, peer support, digital and brief one-to-one sessions. Patients and SH providers showed preferences for one-to-one and digital interventions, and providers indicated that these intervention types could feasibly be implemented in their settings. There were no appropriate digital interventions that could be adapted in time for the pilot; therefore, we created a placeholder for the purposes of the pilot. The intervention package was piloted in two SH settings, rather than the planned four. Several barriers were found to intervention implementation, including a lack of trained staff time and clinic space. The intervention package was theoretically acceptable, but we observed poor engagement. We recruited patients from six clinics for the follow-up, rather than eight. The completion rate for follow-up was lower than anticipated (16% vs. 46%). LIMITATIONS: Fewer clinics were included in the pilot than planned, limiting the ability to make strong conclusions on the feasibility of the RCT. CONCLUSION: We were unable to conclude whether or not a definitive RCT would be feasible because of challenges in implementation of a pilot, but have laid the groundwork for future research in the area. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16738765. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 12. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA