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1.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223184

RESUMO

Efficient DNA mutation-detection methods are required for diagnosis, personalized therapy development, and prognosis assessment for diseases such as cancer. To address this issue, we proposed a straightforward approach by combin-ing active plasmonic nanostructures, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with a statistical tool to identify and classify BRAF wild type (WT) and V600E mutant genes. The nanostructures provide enhanced sensitivity, while PCR offers the high specificity towards target DNA. A series of positively charged plasmonic nanostructures including gold/silver nanospheres, nanoshells, nanoflowers and nanostars, were synthesized with a one-pot strategy and characterized. By changing the shape of nanostructures, we are able to vary the surface plasmon resonance from 551 nm to 693 nm. The gold/silver nanostar showed the highest SERS activity, which was employed for DNA muta-tion detection. We reproducibly analyzed as few as 100 copies of target DNA sequences using gold/silver nanostars, thus demonstrating the high sensitivity of the direct SERS detection. By means of statistical analysis (principal component anal-ysis-linear discriminant analysis, PCA-LDA), this method was successfully applied to differentiate the WT and V600E mu-tant both from whole genome DNA (gDNA) lysed from cell line and from cell-free DNA (cfDNA) collected from cell culture media. We further proved that this assay is capable of specifically amplifying and accurately classifying a real plasma sample. Thus this direct SERS strategy combined with the active plasmonic nanostructures has the potential for wide appli-cations as an alternative tool for sensitively monitoring and evaluating clinical important nucleotide biomarkers.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modeling of the London hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) and are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suggested that early access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment may reduce incidence. With high rates of linkage to care, microelimination of HCV within MSM living with HIV may be realistic ahead of 2030 World Health Organization targets. We examined trends in HCV incidence in the pre- and post-DAA eras for MSM living with HIV in London and Brighton, United Kingdom. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 5 HIV clinics in London and Brighton between 2013 and 2018. Each site reported all acute HCV episodes during the study period. Treatment timing data were collected. Incidence rates and reinfection proportion were calculated. RESULTS: A total of.378 acute HCV infections were identified, comprising 292 first infections and 86 reinfections. Incidence rates of acute HCV in MSM living with HIV peaked at 14.57/1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.95-18.20) in 2015. Rates fell to 4.63/1000 PYFU (95% CI, 2.60 to 6.67) by 2018. Time from diagnosis to starting treatment declined from 29.8 (2013) to 3.7 months (2018). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a 78% reduction in the incidence of first HCV episode and a 68% reduction in overall HCV incidence since the epidemic peak in 2015, which coincides with wider access to DAAs in England. Further interventions to reduce transmission, including earlier access to treatment and for reinfection, are likely needed for microelimination to be achieved in this population.

3.
AIDS Care ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114800

RESUMO

We assessed attitudes to disclosure to new sexual partners and association with sexual behaviours among HIV-diagnosed gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in the UK Antiretrovirals, Sexual Transmission Risk and Attitudes (ASTRA) study in 2011-12. Among 1373 GBMSM diagnosed with HIV for ≥3 months and reporting sex in the past three months (84% on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 75% viral load (VL) ≤50c/mL), 56.3% reported higher sexual disclosure ("agree" or "tend to agree" with "I'd expect to tell a new partner I'm HIV-positive before we have sex"). GBMSM on ART with self-reported undetectable VL had lower disclosure than those on ART without self-reported undetectable VL and those not on ART. Higher sexual disclosure was associated with higher prevalence of CLS in the past three months; this was due to its association with CLS with other HIV-positive partners. Higher sexual disclosure was more common among GBMSM who had CLS with other HIV-positive partners only (72.1%) compared to those who had higher-risk CLS with HIV-serodifferent partners (55.6%), other CLS with HIV-serodifferent partners (45.9%), or condom-protected sex only (47.6%). Findings suggest mutual HIV-disclosure and HIV-serosorting were occurring in this population. Knowledge of VL status may have impacted on disclosure to sexual partners.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936798

RESUMO

SELPHI involves two interventions: (A) It provides one HIV self-testing (HIVST) kit; (B) It offers 3-monthly repeat HIVST kits if participants report ongoing risk. A logic model underpinned by the Behaviour Change Wheel informed the design of the intervention. SELPHI recruited 10,135 cis-men and trans people in England and Wales, all reporting anal sex with a man. This paper explores how the interventions were experienced and the pathways to impact for different groups of trial participants. In-depth interviews with 37 cis-men who have sex with men (MSM) were used to inductively categorise participants based on sexual and HIV testing histories. Themes relating to intervention experiences and impacts were mapped onto SELPHI-hypothesised intermediate outcomes to consider intervention impacts. Three groups were identified: 'Inexperienced testers' engaged with SELPHI to overcome motivational and social and physical opportunity testing barriers. For 'pro self-testers', testing frequency was constrained by psychological and social barriers and lack of opportunity. 'Opportunistic adopters' engaged in HIVST for novelty and convenience. Perceived impacts for inexperienced testers were most closely aligned with the logic model, but for opportunistic adopters there was little evidence of impact. Distinctive groups were discernible with divergent intervention experiences. Using COM-B as a model for understanding behaviour change in relation to HIVST, our results indicate how HIVST interventions could be adapted to respond to different needs based on the target population's demographic and behavioural features.

5.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 33(1): 20-27, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743122

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of HIV treatment in preventing HIV transmission through sexual exposure, at both an individual and at a population level. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent studies on the individual-level efficacy of treatment as prevention (TasP) have added to the now conclusive evidence that HIV cannot be transmitted sexually when the virus is suppressed. However, four large cluster-randomized population-level trials on universal HIV testing and treatment in Africa have not delivered the expected impact in reducing HIV incidence at a population level. Two of these trials showed no differences in HIV incidence between the intervention and control arms, one demonstrated a nonsignificant lower incidence in the intervention arm, and the fourth trial found a reduction between the communities receiving a combination prevention package and the control arm, but no difference between the immediate treatment plus the prevention package and the control arm. Factors contributing to the disconnect between individual high-level efficacy and population-level effectiveness of TasP include undiagnosed infection, delays in linkage to care, challenges in retention and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), time between ART initiation and viral suppression, and stigma and discrimination. SUMMARY: Suppressive ART renders people living with HIV sexually noninfectious. However, epidemic control is unlikely to be achieved by TasP alone.

6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(1): 26-32, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Behavioural interventions have been shown to reduce sexual behaviours associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections in young people (<25 years) and men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally, but evidence from England is limited. We aimed to explore service provider and user experiences and perspectives on behavioural interventions to reduce sexual behaviour risks, and the use of automated methods to triage individuals to these services. METHODS: We conducted a sequential mixed methods study with sexual health service providers and users in 2015/2016. Qualitative interviews with providers and service users (heterosexual young people and MSM) in London and Brighton allowed us to explore a range of experiences and expectations. A subsequent national web-survey of service providers measured the feasibility of delivery within existing resources and preferences for intervention attributes. RESULTS: We conducted 35 service user (15 heterosexual young people; 20 MSM) and 26 provider interviews and had 100 web-survey responses. We found considerable heterogeneity in prevention services offered. Service users and providers were broadly supportive of tailoring interventions offered, but service users raised concerns about automated, data-driven triage, particularly around equity and fairness of service delivery. Digital technologies, including social media or apps, were appealing to providers, being less resource intensive. However, one-to-one talking interventions remained popular with both service users and providers, being familiar, trustworthy and personal. Key tensions between desirability of interventions and availability of resources to deliver them were acknowledged/recognised by providers and users. CONCLUSION: Overall, behavioural interventions to reduce sexual behaviour risks were viewed favourably by service providers and users, with key considerations including: privacy, personalisation and convenience. However, introducing desirable targeted interventions within heterogeneous sexual health settings will require resources to adapt interventions and research to fully understand the barriers and facilitators to use within routine services.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e031085, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this analysis is to: (i) assess the prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline and follow-up for participants in the PROUD trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), examining changes in prevalence over time and (ii) investigate the association of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with depression. METHODS: PROUD was an open label randomised trial evaluating the benefit of PrEP for 544 HIV-negative gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in England. Enrolment was between 2012 and 2014, with at least 2 years follow-up. Prevalence of depression (score ≥10 on Patient Health Questionnaire-9) was assessed and compared across time-points (using McNemar's χ2 tests) and between trial arms (using χ2 tests). Cross-sectional associations with socioeconomic and psychosocial factors were examined using baseline data in modified Poisson regression models and combined 12 and 24 month follow-up data in generalised estimating equations (GEEs). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were presented as unadjusted PR and adjusted PR (aPR) for age, UK birth, sexual identity, university education, London study clinic site and calendar time (and follow-up time-point in GEEs). RESULTS: Depression increased significantly from baseline (9.1%; 49/540) to the 12 month (14.4%; 59/410) and 24 month (14.4%; 48/333) follow-ups, possibly explained by underreporting at baseline. The prevalence of depression did not differ by study trial arm, at any time-point. In the baseline analysis, younger age, unemployment and crystal methamphetamine use, was associated with depression. In combined analysis of 12 and 24 month data, measures of intimate partner violence (IPV) (lifetime IPV victimisation aPR 2.57 (95% CI: 1.71 to 3.86)), internalised homophobia (aPR 1.91 (95% CI: 1.29 to 2.83)) and concealment of sexual identity (aPR 1.75 (95% CI: 1.16 to 2.65)), were strongly associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high concomitant burden of psychosocial factors with depression among GBMSM. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN (ISRCTN94465371) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02065986).

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18712, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822696

RESUMO

The E. coli membrane protein ZipA, binds to the tubulin homologue FtsZ, in the early stage of cell division. We isolated ZipA in a Styrene Maleic Acid lipid particle (SMALP) preserving its position and integrity with native E. coli membrane lipids. Direct binding of ZipA to FtsZ is demonstrated, including FtsZ fibre bundles decorated with ZipA. Using Cryo-Electron Microscopy, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, we determine the encapsulated-ZipA structure in isolation, and in complex with FtsZ to a resolution of 1.6 nm. Three regions can be identified from the structure which correspond to, SMALP encapsulated membrane and ZipA transmembrane helix, a separate short compact tether, and ZipA globular head which binds FtsZ. The complex extends 12 nm from the membrane in a compact structure, supported by mesoscale modelling techniques, measuring the movement and stiffness of the regions within ZipA provides molecular scale analysis and visualisation of the early divisome.

9.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861313

RESUMO

Linker-protein G (LPG) is a bifunctional fusion protein composed of a solid-binding peptide (SBP, referred as the "linker") with high affinity to silica-based compounds and a Streptococcus protein G (PG), which binds antibodies. The binding mechanisms of LPG to silica-based materials was studied using different biophysical techniques and compared to that of PG without the linker. LPG displayed high binding affinity to a silica surface (KD = 34.77 ± 11.8 nM), with a vertical orientation, in comparison to parent PG, which exhibited no measurable binding affinity. Incorporation of the linker in the fusion protein, LPG, had no effect on the antibody-binding function of PG, which retained its secondary structure and displayed no alteration of its chemical stability. The LPG system provided a milder, easier, and faster affinity-driven immobilization of antibodies to inorganic surfaces when compared to traditional chemical coupling techniques.

10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 6(1): e000395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673360

RESUMO

Introduction: People living with HIV (PLWH) are more likely to smoke than the general population and are at greater risk of smoking-related illness. Healthcare services need to address this burden of preventable disease. Methods: We evaluated the impact of a brief intervention that asked service users about smoking when they attended for ambulatory HIV care in London, UK, and offered referral to smoking cessation. Results: Overall, 1548 HIV-positive individuals were asked about their smoking status over a 12-month period. Of this group, 385 (25%) reported that they were current smokers, 372 (97%) were offered referral to smoking cessation services and 154 (40%) accepted this. We established an outcome of referral for 114 (74%) individuals. A total of 36 (10% of smokers) attended stop smoking clinics and 16 (4%) individuals were recorded as having quit smoking. Discussion: The simple intervention of asking PLWH about tobacco smoking and offering referral to smoking cessation services rapidly identified current smokers, 40% of whom accepted referral to smoking cessation services. This highlights the importance of promoting behaviour and lifestyle changes with every contact with health services. However, a large proportion of those referred were either not seen in local services or the outcome of referral could not be ascertained. If the risk of smoking-related morbidity among PLWH is to be reduced, more sustainable referral pathways and ways of improving uptake of smoking cessation services must be developed.

11.
AIDS ; 33(15): 2337-2350, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV infectiousness but the effect of early ART on sexual behaviour is unclear. METHODS: We assessed, within the START randomized trial that enrolled HIV-positive adults with CD4 cell count greater than 500 cells/µl, the effect of early (immediate) versus deferred ART on: condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners (CLS-D); all condomless sex (CLS); HIV transmission-risk sex (CLS-D-HIV risk, defined as CLS-D and: not on ART or started ART <6 months ago or viral load greater than 200 copies/ml or no viral load in past 6 months), during 2-year follow-up. Month-12 CLS-D (2010-2014) was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Among 2562 MSM, there was no difference between immediate and deferred arms in CLS-D at month 12 [12.6 versus 13.1%; difference (95% CI): -0.4% (-3.1 to 2.2%), P = 0.75] or month 24, or in CLS. Among 2010 heterosexual men and women, CLS-D at month 12 tended to be higher in the immediate versus deferred arm [10.8 versus 8.3%; difference:2.5% (-0.1 to 5.2%), P = 0.062]; the difference was greater at month 24 [9.3 versus 5.6%; difference: 3.7% (1.0 to 6.4%), P = 0.007], at which time CLS was higher in the immediate arm (20.7 versus 15.7%, P = 0.013). CLS-D-HIV risk at month 12 was substantially lower in the immediate versus deferred arm for MSM [0.2 versus 11%; difference: -10.7% (-12.5 to -8.9%), P < 0.001] and heterosexuals [0.6% versus 7.7%; difference: -7.0% (-8.8 to -5.3%), P < 0.001], because of viral suppression on ART. CONCLUSION: A strategy of early ART had no effect on condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners among MSM, but resulted in modestly higher prevalence among heterosexuals. However, among MSM and heterosexuals, early ART resulted in a substantial reduction in HIV-transmission-risk sex, to a very low absolute level.

12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: London has one of the highest identified prevalence of chemsex (sexualised recreational drug use) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe. We examine MSM's patterns of chemsex and its association with HIV/STI risk behaviours, STI diagnoses and sexual healthcare-seeking behaviours, including if HIV testing behaviour met UK national guidelines (three monthly if engaging in chemsex). METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data from 2013 (n=905) and 2016 (n=739) were collected using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires from MSM recruited in commercial gay venues in London, UK. Descriptive and multivariable analyses, stratified by self-reported HIV status, were conducted. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: Comparing the 2013 and 2016 surveys, chemsex prevalence in the past year remained stable, in both HIV-negative/unknown-status MSM (20.9% in 2013 vs 18.7% in 2016, p=0.301) and HIV-positive MSM (41.6% in 2013 vs 41.7% in 2016, p=0.992). Combined 2013-2016 data showed that compared with other MSM, those reporting chemsex were more likely to report HIV/STI risk behaviours, including condomless anal intercourse with serodifferent HIV-status partners (HIV-negative/unknown-status men: aPR 2.36, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.30; HIV-positive men: aPR 4.19, 95% CI 1.85 to 9.50), and STI diagnoses in the past year (HIV-negative/unknown-status men: aPR 2.10, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.69; HIV-positive men: aPR 2.56, 95% CI 1.57 to 4.20). 68.6% of HIV-negative/unknown-status men reporting chemsex attended sexual health clinics and 47.6% had tested for HIV more than once in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Chemsex in London MSM remained stable but high, particularly among HIV-positive men. Irrespective of HIV status, chemsex was associated with engagement in HIV/STI risk behaviours. Frequency of HIV testing in the past year among HIV-negative/unknown-status men was below national recommendations. Promoting combination prevention strategies, including three monthly HIV/STI testing, access to pre-exposure prophylaxis/antiretroviral treatment and behavioural interventions among MSM reporting chemsex, remains vital to address sexual health inequalities in MSM.

13.
Anal Chem ; 91(21): 13794-13802, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584804

RESUMO

Assessing the physical stability of proteins is one of the most important challenges in the development, manufacture, and formulation of biotherapeutics. Here, we describe a method for combining and automating circular dichroism and intrinsic protein fluorescence spectroscopy. By robotically injecting samples from a 96-well plate into an optically compliant capillary flow cell, complementary information about the secondary and tertiary structural state of a protein can be collected in an unattended manner from considerably reduced volumes of sample compared to conventional techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of this method. Furthermore, we show how structural screening can be used to monitor unfolding of proteins in two case studies using (i) a chaotropic denaturant (urea) and (ii) low-pH buffers used for monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification during Protein A chromatography.

14.
Nature ; 574(7776): 117-121, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534227

RESUMO

Immediately after birth, newborn babies experience rapid colonization by microorganisms from their mothers and the surrounding environment1. Diseases in childhood and later in life are potentially mediated by the perturbation of the colonization of the infant gut microbiota2. However, the effects of delivery via caesarean section on the earliest stages of the acquisition and development of the gut microbiota, during the neonatal period (≤1 month), remain controversial3,4. Here we report the disrupted transmission of maternal Bacteroides strains, and high-level colonization by opportunistic pathogens associated with the hospital environment (including Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Klebsiella species), in babies delivered by caesarean section. These effects were also seen, to a lesser extent, in vaginally delivered babies whose mothers underwent antibiotic prophylaxis and in babies who were not breastfed during the neonatal period. We applied longitudinal sampling and whole-genome shotgun metagenomic analysis to 1,679 gut microbiota samples (taken at several time points during the neonatal period, and in infancy) from 596 full-term babies born in UK hospitals; for a subset of these babies, we collected additional matched samples from mothers (175 mothers paired with 178 babies). This analysis demonstrates that the mode of delivery is a significant factor that affects the composition of the gut microbiota throughout the neonatal period, and into infancy. Matched large-scale culturing and whole-genome sequencing of over 800 bacterial strains from these babies identified virulence factors and clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance in opportunistic pathogens that may predispose individuals to opportunistic infections. Our findings highlight the critical role of the local environment in establishing the gut microbiota in very early life, and identify colonization with antimicrobial-resistance-containing opportunistic pathogens as a previously underappreciated risk factor in hospital births.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oportunistas/congênito , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Gravidez
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1236, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) in England is a pressing public health concern. Interventions targeting MSM, including information provision that effectively promotes sexual health, are needed. To support such intervention development, it is necessary to understand acceptable ways of delivering sexual health information. We explored the acceptability and potential uses and impacts of delivering sexual health information to MSM through social media and geosocial networking apps or dating apps. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in person or by telephone with 25 MSM resident in England recruited via dating apps and social media advertisements. Interviews explored sexual health information sources, perceptions and uses. Attitudes towards sexual health promotion through social media and dating apps were then discussed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Sexual health information delivery through social media and dating apps was considered acceptable. Receiving information when browsing social media was viewed positively by most, as people have time to absorb information. In contrast, concerns were expressed that sharing or commenting on social media sexual health information may lead to judgements and discrimination. While social media reaches a high proportion of the population, dating apps can easily target MSM. However, tensions exist between the ability to provide information at an opportune time through dating apps, when users are connecting with new sexual partners, with the potential to adversely affect the app user's experience. Hypothetical and actual uses and impacts of sexual health information ranged from no impact to reading information, sharing with peers, and increased awareness, to influencing healthcare-seeking, decision-making and risk-taking behaviours. Ensuring that information is engaging, positive in tone, not too clinical, focused on building social norms and delivered by trusted organisations were viewed as important for supporting its use. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings support the development of new interventions that use dating apps and social media for sexual health promotion.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
AIDS ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV infectiousness, but the effect of early ART on sexual behaviour is unclear. METHODS: We assessed, within the START randomised trial that enrolled HIV-positive adults with CD4>500/mm, the effect of early (immediate) versus deferred ART on: (i) condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners (CLS-D); (ii) all condomless sex (CLS); (iii) HIV transmission-risk-sex (CLS-D-HIV-risk, defined as CLS-D and: not on ART or started ART < 6 months ago or viral load(VL)>200c/mL or no VL in past 6 months), during two year follow-up. Month-12 CLS-D (2010-2014) was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Among 2562 MSM, there was no difference between immediate and deferred arms in CLS-D at month 12 [12.6% versus 13.1%; difference (95% CI): -0.4% (-3.1%, 2.2%), p = 0.75] or month 24, or in CLS. Among 2010 heterosexual men and women, CLS-D at month 12 tended to be higher in the immediate versus deferred arm [10.8% versus 8.3%; difference:2.5% (-0.1%, 5.2%), p = 0.062]; the difference was greater at month 24 [9.3% versus 5.6%; difference:3.7%(1.0%, 6.4%), p = 0.007], at which time CLS was higher in the immediate arm [20.7% versus 15.7%, p = 0.013]. CLS-D-HIV-risk at month 12 was substantially lower in the immediate versus deferred arm for MSM [0.2% versus 11.0%; difference: -10.7% (-12.5%, -8.9%), p < 0.001] and heterosexuals [0.6% versus 7.7%; difference: -7.0% (-8.8%, -5.3%), p < 0.001], due to viral suppression on ART. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of early ART had no effect on condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners among MSM, but resulted in modestly higher prevalence among heterosexuals. However, among MSM and heterosexuals, early ART resulted in a substantial reduction in HIV-transmission-risk-sex, to a very low absolute level.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 699, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SELPHI study (An HIV Self-Testing Public Health Intervention) is an online randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HIV self-testing (HIVST). The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recruiting UK men who have sex with men (cis and trans) and trans women who have sex with men to the SELPHI pilot, and the acceptability of the HIVST intervention used among those randomised to receive a kit. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach to assessing trial feasibility and intervention acceptability was taken, using quantitative data from advertising sources and RCT surveys alongside qualitative data from a nested sub-study. RESULTS: Online recruitment and intervention delivery was feasible. The recruitment strategy led to the registration of 1370 participants of whom 76% (1035) successfully enrolled and were randomised 60/40 to baseline testing vs no baseline testing. Advertising platforms performed variably. Reported HIVST kit use increased from 83% at two weeks to 96% at three months. Acceptability was very high across all quantitative measures. Participants described the instructions as easy to use, and the testing process as simple. The support structures in SELPHI were felt to be adequate. Described emotional responses to HIVST varied. CONCLUSIONS: Recruiting to a modest sized HIVST pilot RCT is feasible, and the recruitment, intervention and HIVST kit were acceptable. Research on support needs of individuals with reactive results is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Inglaterra , Estudos de Viabilidade , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Autocuidado , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , País de Gales
18.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(25): 6575-6581, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384985

RESUMO

The application of proteomic liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for identifying proteins and peptides associated with human disease is rapidly growing in clinical diagnostics. However, the ability to accurately and consistently detect disease-associated peptides remains clinically uncertain. Variability in diagnostic testing occurs in part due to the absence of appropriate reference testing materials and standardised clinical guidelines for proteomic testing. In addition, multiple proteomic testing pipelines have not been fully assessed through external quality assurance (EQA). This trial was therefore devised to evaluate the performance of a small number of mass spectrometry (MS) testing facilities to (i) evaluate the EQA material for potential usage in a proteomic quality assurance program, and to (ii) identify key problem areas associated with human peptide testing. Five laboratories were sent six peptide reference testing samples formulated to contain a total of 35 peptides in differing ratios of light (natural) to heavy (labelled) peptides. Proficiency assessment of laboratory data used a modified approach to similarity and dissimilarity testing that was based on Bray-Curtis and Sorensen indices. Proficiency EQA concordant consensus values could not be derived from the assessed data since none of the laboratories correctly identified all reference testing peptides in all samples. However, the produced data may be reflective of specific inter-laboratory differences for detecting multiple peptides since no two testing pipelines used were the same for any laboratory. In addition, laboratory feedback indicated that peptide filtering of the reference material was a common key problem area prior to analysis. These data highlight the importance of an EQA programme for identifying underlying testing issues so that improvements can be made and confidence for clinical diagnostic analysis can be attained.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Proteômica/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/normas
20.
Euro Surveill ; 24(25)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241039

RESUMO

BackgroundMen who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of HIV and are an important population to monitor and ameliorate combination prevention efforts.AimTo estimate HIV prevalence and identify factors associated with frequent HIV testing (≥ 2 HIV tests in the last year) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among MSM in London.MethodsFor this cross-sectional study, MSM recruited from 22 social venues provided oral-fluid samples for anonymous HIV antibody (Ab) testing and completed a questionnaire. Factors associated with frequent HIV testing and PrEP use were identified through logistic regression.ResultsOf 767 men recruited, 545 provided an eligible oral specimen. Among these, 38 MSM (7.0%) were anti-HIV positive including five (13.2%; 5/38) who reported their status as negative. Condomless anal sex within the previous 3 months was reported by 60.1% (412/685) men. Frequent HIV testing was associated with, in the past year, a reported sexually transmitted infection (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.66-9.58) or ≥ 2 casual condomless partners (AOR 2-4 partners: 3.65 (95% CI: 1.87-7.10); AOR 5-10 partners: 3.34(95% CI: 1.32-8.49). Age ≥ 35 years was related to less frequent HIV testing (AOR 35-44 years: 0.34 (95% CI: 0.16-0.72); AOR ≥ 45 years: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12-0.69). PrEP use in the past year was reported by 6.2% (46/744) of MSM and associated with ≥ 2 casual condomless sex partners (AOR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.17-6.98) or chemsex (AOR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.09-4.91).ConclusionThis bio-behavioural study of MSM found high rates of behaviours associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. Combination prevention, including frequent HIV testing and use of PrEP, remains crucial in London.

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