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1.
Elife ; 102021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874010

RESUMO

As the final outputs of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology are published, it is clear that preclinical research in cancer biology is not as reproducible as it should be.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Neoplasias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 214, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Area-proportional Euler diagrams are frequently used to visualize data from Microarray experiments, but are also applied to a wide variety of other data from biosciences, social networks and other domains. RESULTS: This paper details Edeap, a new simple, scalable method for drawing area-proportional Euler diagrams with ellipses. We use a search-based technique optimizing a multi-criteria objective function that includes measures for both area accuracy and usability, and which can be extended to further user-defined criteria. The Edeap software is available for use on the web, and the code is open source. In addition to describing our system, we present the first extensive evaluation of software for producing area-proportional Euler diagrams, comparing Edeap to the current state-of-the-art; circle-based method, venneuler, and an alternative ellipse-based method, eulerr. CONCLUSIONS: Our evaluation-using data from the Gene Ontology database via GoMiner, Twitter data from the SNAP database, and randomly generated data sets-shows an ordering for accuracy (from best to worst) of eulerr, followed by Edeap and then venneuler. In terms of runtime, the results are reversed with venneuler being the fastest, followed by Edeap and finally eulerr. Regarding scalability, eulerr cannot draw non-trivial diagrams beyond 11 sets, whereas no such limitation is present in Edeap or venneuler, both of which draw diagrams up to the tested limit of 20 sets.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Software , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0211234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921363

RESUMO

This paper presents the first empirical investigation that compares Euler and linear diagrams when they are used to represent set cardinality. A common approach is to use area-proportional Euler diagrams but linear diagrams can exploit length-proportional straight-lines for the same purpose. Another common approach is to use numerical annotations. We first conducted two empirical studies, one on Euler diagrams and the other on linear diagrams. These suggest that area-proportional Euler diagrams with numerical annotations and length-proportional linear diagrams without numerical annotations support significantly better task performance. We then conducted a third study to investigate which of these two notations should be used in practice. This suggests that area-proportional Euler diagrams with numerical annotations most effectively supports task performance and so should be used to visualize set cardinalities. However, these studies focused on data that can be visualized reasonably accurately using circles and the results should be taken as valid within that context. Future work needs to determine whether the results generalize both to when circles cannot be used and for other ways of encoding cardinality information.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Computação Matemática , Algoritmos , Gráficos por Computador , Computadores , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Software , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
5.
F1000Res ; 7: 1655, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416719

RESUMO

Publishing peer review materials alongside research articles promises to make the peer review process more transparent as well as making it easier to recognise these contributions and give credit to peer reviewers. Traditionally, the peer review reports, editors letters and author responses are only shared between the small number of people in those roles prior to publication, but there is a growing interest in making some or all of these materials available. A small number of journals have been publishing peer review materials for some time, others have begun this practice more recently, and significantly more are now considering how they might begin. This article outlines the outcomes from a recent workshop among journals with experience in publishing peer review materials, in which the specific operation of these workflows, and the challenges, were discussed. Here, we provide a draft as to how to represent these materials in the JATS and Crossref data models to facilitate the coordination and discoverability of peer review materials, and seek feedback on these initial recommendations.


Assuntos
Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Editoração , Autoria , Metadados
6.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197103, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746576

RESUMO

Graph drawing, or the automatic layout of graphs, is a challenging problem. There are several search based methods for graph drawing which are based on optimizing an objective function which is formed from a weighted sum of multiple criteria. In this paper, we propose a new neighbourhood search method which uses a tabu search coupled with path relinking to optimize such objective functions for general graph layouts with undirected straight lines. To our knowledge, before our work, neither of these methods have been previously used in general multi-criteria graph drawing. Tabu search uses a memory list to speed up searching by avoiding previously tested solutions, while the path relinking method generates new solutions by exploring paths that connect high quality solutions. We use path relinking periodically within the tabu search procedure to speed up the identification of good solutions. We have evaluated our new method against the commonly used neighbourhood search optimization techniques: hill climbing and simulated annealing. Our evaluation examines the quality of the graph layout (objective function's value) and the speed of layout in terms of the number of evaluated solutions required to draw a graph. We also examine the relative scalability of each method. Our experimental results were applied to both random graphs and a real-world dataset. We show that our method outperforms both hill climbing and simulated annealing by producing a better layout in a lower number of evaluated solutions. In addition, we demonstrate that our method has greater scalability as it can layout larger graphs than the state-of-the-art neighbourhood search methods. Finally, we show that similar results can be produced in a real world setting by testing our method against a standard public graph dataset.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos
7.
Elife ; 72018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658883

RESUMO

How does a scientist balance establishing a career and starting a family?


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Família , Pesquisadores , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino
8.
Elife ; 62017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959940

RESUMO

Journals are exploring new approaches to peer review in order to reduce bias, increase transparency and respond to author preferences. Funders are also getting involved.


Assuntos
Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Editoração/normas , Financiamento de Capital/normas , Humanos
9.
Elife ; 62017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28294937

RESUMO

More could be done to make research papers readily understandable by the public.


Assuntos
Políticas Editoriais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
10.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e101717, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25032825

RESUMO

Venn diagrams with three curves are used extensively in various medical and scientific disciplines to visualize relationships between data sets and facilitate data analysis. The area of the regions formed by the overlapping curves is often directly proportional to the cardinality of the depicted set relation or any other related quantitative data. Drawing these diagrams manually is difficult and current automatic drawing methods do not always produce appropriate diagrams. Most methods depict the data sets as circles, as they perceptually pop out as complete distinct objects due to their smoothness and regularity. However, circles cannot draw accurate diagrams for most 3-set data and so the generated diagrams often have misleading region areas. Other methods use polygons to draw accurate diagrams. However, polygons are non-smooth and non-symmetric, so the curves are not easily distinguishable and the diagrams are difficult to comprehend. Ellipses are more flexible than circles and are similarly smooth, but none of the current automatic drawing methods use ellipses. We present eulerAPE as the first method and software that uses ellipses for automatically drawing accurate area-proportional Venn diagrams for 3-set data. We describe the drawing method adopted by eulerAPE and we discuss our evaluation of the effectiveness of eulerAPE and ellipses for drawing random 3-set data. We compare eulerAPE and various other methods that are currently available and we discuss differences between their generated diagrams in terms of accuracy and ease of understanding for real world data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Teóricos , Gráficos por Computador
11.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 6(5): 139-44, 2014 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24834144

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the influence of baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on survival in a cohort of patients, undergoing positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan for esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: The pre-treatment SUVmax numeric reading was determined in patients with confirmed esophageal or junctional cancer having PET-CT scan during the time period 1(st) January 2007 until 31(st) July 2012. A minimum follow up of 12 mo was required. Patients were subdivided into quartiles according to SUVmax value and the influence of SUVmax on survival was assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. The following pre-treatment factors were investigated: patient characteristics, tumor characteristics and planned treatment. RESULTS: The study population was 271 patients (191 male) with esophageal or junctional carcinoma. The median age was 65 years (range 40-85) and histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma in 197 patients and squamous carcinoma in 74 patients. The treatment intent was radical in 182 and palliative in 89 patients. SUVmax was linked to histologic subtype (P = 0.008), tumor site (P = 0.01) and Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage (P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, prognosis was significantly associated with SUVmax (P = 0.001), T-stage (P < 0.001) and UICC stage (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only T-stage and UICC stage remained significant. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment SUVmax was not a useful marker in isolation for determining prognosis of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

12.
13.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(1): 56-69, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24201326

RESUMO

Area-proportional Euler diagrams representing three sets are commonly used to visualize the results of medical experiments, business data, and information from other applications where statistical results are best shown using interlinking curves. Currently, there is no tool that will reliably visualize exact area-proportional diagrams for up to three sets. Limited success, in terms of diagram accuracy, has been achieved for a small number of cases, such as Venn-2 and Venn-3 where all intersections between the sets must be represented. Euler diagrams do not have to include all intersections and so permit the visualization of cases where some intersections have a zero value. This paper describes a general, implemented, method for visualizing all 40 Euler-3 diagrams in an area-proportional manner. We provide techniques for generating the curves with circles and convex polygons, analyze the drawability of data with these shapes, and give a mechanism for deciding whether such data can be drawn with circles. For the cases where nonconvex curves are necessary, our method draws an appropriate diagram using nonconvex polygons. Thus, we are now always able to automatically visualize data for up to three sets.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Gráficos por Computador , Modelos Estatísticos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
14.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 51(1): 133-48, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23182513

RESUMO

This article considers the case for a strategic place for ultrasound (US) bowel evaluation focusing on three common clinical contexts. These include imaging for suspected acute appendicitis and acute diverticulitis, as well as the role of US in a multimodality approach for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease and associated complications.


Assuntos
Apendicite/diagnóstico por imagem , Diverticulite/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Doença Aguda , Apendicite/complicações , Meios de Contraste , Diverticulite/complicações , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações
15.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 18(7): 1089-100, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22577151

RESUMO

Euler diagrams are often used to visualize intersecting data sets in applications such as criminology; genetics, medicine, and computer file systems. One interesting aspect of these diagrams is that some data sets cannot be drawn without breaking one or more "wellformedness properties," which are considered to reduce the user comprehension of the diagrams. However, it is possible to draw the same data with different diagrams, each of which breaks different wellformedness properties. Hence, some properties are "swappable," so motivating the study of which of the alternatives would be best to use. This paper reports on the two empirical studies to determine how wellformedness properties affect comprehension. One study was with abstract data, the other was with concrete data that visualized students' enrollment on university modules. We have results from both studies that imply that diagrams with concurrency or disconnected zones perform less well than other some other properties. Further, we have no results that imply that diagrams with brushing points adversely affect performance. Our data also indicate that nonsimple curves are preferred less than diagrams with other properties. These results will inform both human diagram designers and the developers of automated drawing systems on the best way to visualize data using Euler diagrams.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Cor , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Estatística como Assunto
17.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(1): 88-100, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21071789

RESUMO

Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Software
18.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(1): 101-14, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21071790

RESUMO

This paper describes an automatic mechanism for drawing metro maps. We apply multicriteria optimization to find effective placement of stations with a good line layout and to label the map unambiguously. A number of metrics are defined, which are used in a weighted sum to find a fitness value for a layout of the map. A hill climbing optimizer is used to reduce the fitness value, and find improved map layouts. To avoid local minima, we apply clustering techniques to the map-the hill climber moves both stations and clusters when finding improved layouts. We show the method applied to a number of metro maps, and describe an empirical study that provides some quantitative evidence that automatically-drawn metro maps can help users to find routes more efficiently than either published maps or undistorted maps. Moreover, we have found that, in these cases, study subjects indicate a preference for automatically-drawn maps over the alternatives.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Gráficos por Computador , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Mapas como Assunto , Interface Usuário-Computador , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Software
19.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(7): 1020-32, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20855916

RESUMO

Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 5(4): 245, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20376070
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