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1.
Pleura Peritoneum ; 6(2): 49-55, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a beneficial surgical technique for patients, but the surgeons are being exposed to cytotoxic drugs. Few biomonitoring studies were led on blood samples in the context of HIPEC. This study aimed to evaluate the surgeon's plasmatic and red blood cell (RBC) contamination by irinotecan, two of its major metabolites and platinum compounds. METHODS: HIPEC procedures performed using the coliseum techniques were observed between September 2015 and April 2018 in a French comprehensive cancer center. Irinotecan and its metabolites SN-38 and APC were dosed by UHPLC with a limit of quantification determined at 50 pg/mL. Platinum compounds were dosed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a limit of quantification determined at 16 pg/mL. RESULTS: Despite collective and personal protective equipment, 80% of plasma samples were contaminated by irinotecan and 33% by platinum compounds out of 21. The results showed that the surgeon was contaminated after HIPEC and even after a period of HIPEC inactivity. Nineteen percent of plasmatic samples and 45% of RBC samples were contaminated by SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. APC was only found in some RBC samples (33%). CONCLUSIONS: Even if this study shows blood contamination by irinotecan, two of its major metabolites (including active SN-38) and platinum compounds both in the plasma and RBC of a surgeon performing the HIPEC procedures, further studies should be performed to confirm these results. Additional studies should be carried out to further investigate the contamination in the context of HIPEC and more broadly in the hospital.

2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
3.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
4.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(1): 145-151, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common morbidity in trauma patients. Standard VTE chemoprophylaxis is often inadequate. We hypothesized that weight-based dosing would result in appropriate prophylaxis more reliably than fixed dosing. METHODS: All patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center over a 6-month period were included unless contra-indications for VTE prophylaxis existed. A prospective adjusted-dosing group was compared to a retrospective uniform-dosing group. The adjusted-dosing approach consisted of initial weight-based dosing of 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (subQ) every 12 h (q12h). Peak anti-factor Xa was measured. Patients outside of the prophylactic range had their dose adjusted by ± 10 mg. The uniform-dosing group received 30 mg subQ q12h, without adjustments. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients were included: 44 in the retrospective control cohort and 40 in the prospective experimental cohort. More patients were sub-prophylactically dosed in the uniform-dosing group relative to the adjusted-dosing group (25% vs 5%, p = 0.03). There was no difference in overall prophylactic range targeting, because the supra-prophylactically dosed patients in the adjusted-dosing group eliminated the effect (p = 0.173). However, after a single dose adjustment, zero patients were outside of prophylactic range (25% versus 0%, RR = infinite, p = 0.003). In the uniform-dosing group, anti-Xa level correlated with body surface area (BSA; R2 = 0.33, p < 0.0001) and weight (R2 = 0.26, p = 0.0005). Weight-based dosing both pre- and post-readjustment normalized the correlation of anti-Xa with BSA (R2 = 0.07, p = 0.1) and weight (R2 = 0.07, p = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Weight-based VTE prophylaxis with anti-Xa-based dose adjustment improves prophylactic range targeting relative to uniform dosing and eliminates variances secondary to BSA and weight in trauma patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Peso Corporal , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 843-847, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570501

RESUMO

Global public health surveillance relies on reporting structures and transmission of trustworthy health reports. But in practice, these processes may not always be fast enough, or are hindered by procedural, technical, or political barriers. GPHIN, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, was designed in the late 1990s to scour mainstream news for health events, as that travels faster and more freely. This paper outlines the next generation of GPHIN, which went live in 2017, and reports on design decisions underpinning its new functions and innovations.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Saúde Global , Saúde Pública
6.
Am Surg ; 86(4): 369-376, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391762

RESUMO

This study evaluated the safety of early anti-factor Xa assay-guided enoxaparin dosing for chemoprophylaxis in patients with TBI. We hypothesized that assay-guided chemoprophylaxis would be comparable in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) progression to fixed dosing. An observational analysis of adult patients with blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI) was performed at a Level I trauma center from August 2016 to September 2017. Patients in the assay-guided group were treated with an initial enoxaparin dose of 0.5 mg/kg, with peak anti-factor Xa activity measured four hours after the third dose. Prophylactic range was defined as 0.2 to 0.5 IU/mL with a dose adjustment of ± 10 mg based on the assay result. The assay-guided group was compared with historical fixed-dose controls and to a TBI cohort from the most recent Trauma Quality Improvement Project dataset. Of 179 patients included in the study, 85 were in the assay-guided group and 94 were in the fixed-dose group. Compared with the fixed-dose group, the assay-guided group had a lower Glasgow Coma Score and higher Injury Severity Score. The proportion of severe (Abbreviated Injury Score, head ≥3) TBI, ICH progression, and venous thromboembolism rates were similar between all groups. The assay-guided and fixed-dose groups had chemoprophylaxis initiated earlier than the Trauma Quality Improvement Project group. The assay-guided group had the highest percentage of low molecular weight heparin use. Early initiation of enoxaparin anti-factor Xa assay-guided venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis has a comparable risk of ICH progression to fixed dosing in patients with TBI. These findings should be validated prospectively in a multicenter study.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Quimioprevenção , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
8.
J Emerg Med ; 55(2): 165-171.e1, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016. Descriptive epidemiology of patient demographics, incident details, injuries, and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Over 15 years, 254 patients were admitted for subway-related trauma. The mean (standard error of the mean) age was 41 (1.0) years, 80% were male (95% confidence interval [CI] 74-84%) and median Injury Severity Score was 14 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-24). The overall case-fatality rate was 10% (95% CI 7-15%). The most common injuries were long-bone fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic amputations. Median length of stay was 6 days (IQR 1-18 days). Thirty-seven percent of patients required surgical intervention. At the time of injury, 55% of patients (95% CI 49-61%) had a positive urine drug or alcohol screen, 16% (95% CI 12-21%) were attempting suicide, and 39% (95% CI 33-45%) had a history of psychiatric illness. CONCLUSIONS: Subway-related trauma is associated with a high case-fatality rate. Alcohol or drug intoxication and psychiatric illness can increase the risk of this type of injury.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/normas , Ferrovias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Ferrovias/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Surg Oncol ; 26(3): 242-251, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), caregivers are exposed by different routes to cytotoxic drugs. This review proposes an overview of the safety of HIPEC by assessing existing data on protection procedures, biological and non-biological samples. Based on these data, relevant good practices, eventual irrelevant overprotection procedures and missing data to implement adapted protections are highlighted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from a systematic review of literature from 1980 till 2016: number and type of surgical procedure, healthcare professionals present, protective equipment, samples, pre-analytical method and analytical method. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Only 55 HIPEC procedures have been evaluated. The majority of antineoplastic drugs used have all required characteristics to penetrate the organism and are recognized as very dangerous. Moreover, a great heterogeneity in protective equipment used, either individual or collective is observed. Environmental contamination occurs during HIPEC, especially for all surfaces in the operating room. Compounds penetration into caregivers lungs cannot be excluded. Priority remains to prove professionals contamination by focusing on biological samples. Biological material is rarely sampled or samples are not necessarily adapted. CONCLUSION: Repeated blood tests should be preferred using appropriate sampling schedules and validated sensitive analytical methods. Furthermore, there is a great need of new biological indicators to monitor caregivers exposure. During hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), healthcare workers are exposed by different routes to cytotoxic drugs. There are currently few available occupational exposure data and environmental monitoring and biomonitoring must be improved in order to ensure optimal protection against antineoplastic drugs.


Assuntos
Citotoxinas/toxicidade , Pessoal de Saúde , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamentos de Proteção , Gestão de Riscos , Gestão da Segurança , Manejo de Espécimes
10.
Neural Plast ; 2016: 3407135, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26881106

RESUMO

Postnatal sensory experience plays a significant role in the maturation and synaptic stabilization of sensory cortices, such as the primary auditory cortex (A1). Here, we examined the effects of patterned sound deprivation (by rearing in continuous white noise, WN) during early postnatal life on short- and long-term plasticity of adult male rats using an in vivo preparation (urethane anesthesia). Relative to age-matched control animals reared under unaltered sound conditions, rats raised in WN (from postnatal day 5 to 50-60) showed greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP) of field potentials in A1 induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). In contrast, analyses of short-term plasticity using paired-pulse stimulation (interstimulus intervals of 25-1000 ms) did not reveal any significant effects of WN rearing. However, LTP induction resulted in a significant enhancement of paired-pulse depression (PPD) for both rearing conditions. We conclude that patterned sound deprivation during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of heightened, juvenile-like long-term plasticity (LTP) into adulthood. Further, the enhanced PPD following LTP induction provides novel evidence that presynaptic mechanisms contribute to thalamocortical LTP in A1 under in vivo conditions.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Privação Sensorial/fisiologia , Som , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Fatores de Tempo
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