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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 335: 77-83, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CCN family member 1 (CCN1) has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker of myocardial injury, improving prediction of 30-day and one-year mortality following acute coronary syndromes. Among ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, we evaluated the utility of CCN1 measured immediately before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) as a predictor of two earlier endpoints: final myocardial infarct size and post-infarction left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of CCN1 on the discriminatory power of the CADILLAC score. METHODS: STEMI patients were obtained from the SPUM-ACS cohort. Serum CCN1 was measured prior to PPCI. Linear regression assessed the association between CCN1, peak creatinine kinase (CK), and post-infarction LVEF. Cox models assessed an association between CCN1 and 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: CCN1 was measured in 989 patients with a median value of 706.2 ng/l (IQR 434.3-1319.6). A significant correlation between CCN1, myocardial infarct size (peak CK) and LVEF was observed in univariate and multivariate analysis (both p < 0.001). Even among patients with normal classical cardiac biomarker levels at the time of PPCI, CCN1 correlated significantly with final infarct size. CCN1 significantly improved prediction of 30-day all-cause mortality by the CADILLAC score (C-index 0.864, likelihood-ratio chi-square test statistic 6.331, p = 0.012; IDI 0.026, p= 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with classical cardiac biomarkers, CCN1 is potentially the earliest predictor of final myocardial infarct size and post-infarction LVEF. CCN1 improved the discriminatory capacity of the CADILLAC score suggesting a potential role in the very-early risk stratification of STEMI patients.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e020488, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622666

RESUMO

Background It remains unclear whether the novel biomarker cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CCN1) adds incremental prognostic value to the GRACE 2.0 (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score and biomarkers high-sensitivity Troponin T, hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Methods and Results Patients referred for coronary angiography with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes were enrolled in the Special Program University Medicine - Acute Coronary Syndromes and Inflammation cohort. The primary/secondary end points were 30-day/1-year all-cause mortality and the composite of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction as used in the GRACE risk score. Associations between biomarkers and outcome were assessed using log-transformed biomarker values and the GRACE risk score (versions 1.0 and 2.0). The incremental value of CCN1 beyond a reference model was assessed using Harrell's C-statistics calculated from a Cox proportional-hazard model. The P value of the C-statistics was derived from a likelihood ratio test. Among 2168 patients recruited, 1732 could be analyzed. CCN1 was the strongest single predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.77 [1.31, 2.40]) and 1 year (HR, 1.81 [1.47, 2.22]). Adding CCN1 alone to the GRACE 2.0 risk score improved C-statistics for prognostic accuracy of all-cause mortality at 30 days (0.87-0.88) and 1 year (0.81-0.82) and when combined with high-sensitivity Troponin T, hsCRP, NT-proBNP for 30 days (0.87-0.91), and for 1-year follow-up (0.81-0.84). CCN1 also increased the prognostic value for the composite of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction. Conclusions CCN1 predicts adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes adding incremental information to the GRACE risk score, suggesting distinct underlying molecular mechanisms. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01000701.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low blood pressure (BP) is associated with frailty in older adults. Our aim was to explore how BP predicts transitions between frailty states. METHODS: We used data from the Lausanne cohort Lc65+, a population-based cohort of older adults randomly drawn from a population registry in Switzerland, in 2004, 2009 and 2014. BP was measured using a clinically validated oscillometric automated device and frailty was defined using Fried's phenotype, every 3 years. We used an illness-death discrete multi-state Markov model to estimate hazard ratios of forward and backward transitions between frailty states (outcome) in relation to BP categories (predictor of interest) with adjustment for sex, age and antihypertensive medication (other predictors). RESULTS: Among 4200 participants aged 65-70 years (58% female) at baseline, 70% were non-frail, 27% pre-frail and 2.0% frail. Over an average follow-up of 5.8 years, 2422 transitions were observed, with 1575 (65%) forward and 847 (35%) backward. Compared with systolic BP (SBP) <130 mmHg, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the transition from non-frail to pre-frail was 0.86 (0.74 to 1.00) for SBP 130-150 mmHg, and 0.89 (0.74 to 1.06) for SBP ≥150 mmHg. Compared with SBP <130 mmHg, the hazard ratio of the transition from pre-frail to frail was 0.71 (0.50 to 1.01) for SBP 130-150 mmHg, and 0.90 (0.62 to 1.32) for SBP ≥150 mmHg. Diastolic BP was a weaker predictor of forward transitions. CONCLUSIONS: BP categories had no strong relationship with either forward transitions or backward transitions in frailty states. If our findings are confirmed with greater precision and assuming a causal relationship, they would suggest that there is no well-defined optimal BP level to prevent frailty among older adults.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491268

RESUMO

Importance: In clinical guidelines, overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction are mentioned as causal and treatable factors for cognitive decline. However, the scientific literature on these associations shows inconsistent findings. Objective: To assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline thyroid dysfunction with cognitive function and dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicohort individual participant data analysis assessed 114 267 person-years (median, 1.7-11.3 years) of follow-up for cognitive function and 525 222 person-years (median, 3.8-15.3 years) for dementia between 1989 and 2017. Analyses on cognitive function included 21 cohorts comprising 38 144 participants. Analyses on dementia included eight cohorts with a total of 2033 cases with dementia and 44 573 controls. Data analysis was performed from December 2016 to January 2021. Exposures: Thyroid function was classified as overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism based on uniform thyrotropin cutoff values and study-specific free thyroxine values. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was global cognitive function, mostly measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Executive function, memory, and dementia were secondary outcomes. Analyses were first performed at study level using multivariable linear regression and multivariable Cox regression, respectively. The studies were combined with restricted maximum likelihood meta-analysis. To overcome the use of different scales, results were transformed to standardized mean differences. For incident dementia, hazard ratios were calculated. Results: Among 74 565 total participants, 66 567 (89.3%) participants had normal thyroid function, 577 (0.8%) had overt hyperthyroidism, 2557 (3.4%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 4167 (5.6%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 697 (0.9%) had overt hypothyroidism. The study-specific median age at baseline varied from 57 to 93 years; 42 847 (57.5%) participants were women. Thyroid dysfunction was not associated with global cognitive function; the largest differences were observed between overt hypothyroidism and euthyroidism-cross-sectionally (-0.06 standardized mean difference in score; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.08; P = .40) and longitudinally (0.11 standardized mean difference higher decline per year; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.23; P = .09). No consistent associations were observed between thyroid dysfunction and executive function, memory, or risk of dementia. Conclusions and Relevance: In this individual participant data analysis of more than 74 000 adults, subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were not associated with cognitive function, cognitive decline, or incident dementia. No rigorous conclusions can be drawn regarding the role of overt thyroid dysfunction in risk of dementia. These findings do not support the practice of screening for subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the context of cognitive decline in older adults as recommended in current guidelines.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048168, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older multimorbid adults have a high risk of mortality and a short life expectancy (LE). Providing high-value care and avoiding care overuse, including of preventive care, is a serious challenge among multimorbid patients. While guidelines recommend to tailor preventive care according to the estimated LE, there is no tool to estimate LE in this specific population. Our objective is therefore to develop an LE estimator for older multimorbid adults by transforming a mortality prognostic index, which will be developed and internally validated in a prospective cohort. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will analyse data of the Optimising Therapy to Prevent Avoidable Hospital Admissions in Multimorbid Older People cohort study in Bern, Switzerland. 822 participants were included at hospitalisation with age of 70 years or older, multimorbidity (three or more chronic medical conditions) and polypharmacy (use of five drugs or more for >30 days). All-cause mortality will be assessed during 3 years of follow-up. We will apply a flexible parametric survival model with backward stepwise selection to identify the mortality risk predictors. The model will be internally validated using bootstrapping techniques. We will derive a point-based risk score from the regression coefficients. We will transform the 3-year mortality prognostic index into an LE estimator using the Gompertz survival function. We will perform a qualitative assessment of the clinical usability of the LE estimator and its application. We will conduct the development and validation of the mortality prognostic index following the Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) framework and report it following the Transparent Reporting of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Written informed consent by patients themselves or, in the case of cognitive impairment, by a legal representative, was required before enrolment. The local ethics committee (Kantonale Ethikkommission Bern) has approved the study. We plan to publish the results in peer-reviewed journals and present them at national and international conferences.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Multimorbidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Polimedicação , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052341, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344686

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMSs) are a major clinical issue in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Current guidelines advise various approaches mainly based on expert opinion. We will lead a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the tolerability and acceptability and effectiveness of statin-based therapy management of patients with a history of SAMS. We aim to provide evidence on the tolerability and different strategies of statin-based management of patients with a history of SAMS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies with a control group. We will search in Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov and Proquest from inception until April 2021. Two independent reviewers will carry out the study selection based on eligibility criteria. We will extract data following a standard data collection form. The reviewers will use the Cochrane Collaboration's tools and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to appraise the study risk of bias. Our primary outcome will be tolerability and our secondary outcomes will be acceptability and effectiveness. We will conduct a qualitative analysis of all included studies. In addition, if sufficient and homogeneous data are available, we will conduct quantitative analysis. We will synthesise dichotomous data using OR with 95% CI and continuous outcomes by using mean difference or standardised mean difference (with 95% CI). We will determine heterogeneity visually with forest plots and quantitatively with I2 and Q-test. We will summarise the confidence in the quantitative estimate by using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As a systematic review of literature without collection of new clinical data, there will be no requirement for ethical approval. We will disseminate findings through peer-reviewed publications. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020202619.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Sistema Musculoesquelético , Viés , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Metanálise como Assunto , Músculos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
BMJ ; 374: n1585, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of optimising drug treatment on drug related hospital admissions in older adults with multimorbidity and polypharmacy admitted to hospital. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 110 clusters of inpatient wards within university based hospitals in four European countries (Switzerland, Netherlands, Belgium, and Republic of Ireland) defined by attending hospital doctors. PARTICIPANTS: 2008 older adults (≥70 years) with multimorbidity (≥3 chronic conditions) and polypharmacy (≥5 drugs used long term). INTERVENTION: Clinical staff clusters were randomised to usual care or a structured pharmacotherapy optimisation intervention performed at the individual level jointly by a doctor and a pharmacist, with the support of a clinical decision software system deploying the screening tool of older person's prescriptions and screening tool to alert to the right treatment (STOPP/START) criteria to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcome was first drug related hospital admission within 12 months. RESULTS: 2008 older adults (median nine drugs) were randomised and enrolled in 54 intervention clusters (963 participants) and 56 control clusters (1045 participants) receiving usual care. In the intervention arm, 86.1% of participants (n=789) had inappropriate prescribing, with a mean of 2.75 (SD 2.24) STOPP/START recommendations for each participant. 62.2% (n=491) had ≥1 recommendation successfully implemented at two months, predominantly discontinuation of potentially inappropriate drugs. In the intervention group, 211 participants (21.9%) experienced a first drug related hospital admission compared with 234 (22.4%) in the control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis censored for death as competing event (n=375, 18.7%), the hazard ratio for first drug related hospital admission was 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.17). In the per protocol analysis, the hazard ratio for a drug related hospital admission was 0.91 (0.69 to 1.19). The hazard ratio for first fall was 0.96 (0.79 to 1.15; 237 v 263 first falls) and for death was 0.90 (0.71 to 1.13; 172 v 203 deaths). CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate prescribing was common in older adults with multimorbidity and polypharmacy admitted to hospital and was reduced through an intervention to optimise pharmacotherapy, but without effect on drug related hospital admissions. Additional efforts are needed to identify pharmacotherapy optimisation interventions that reduce inappropriate prescribing and improve patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02986425.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Multimorbidade , Polimedicação , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/efeitos adversos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), surgical therapy is the most invasive. As Switzerland has the highest transurethral prostatectomy rate among OECD countries, we assessed the regional variation in prostate surgery for BPH and explored potential determinants of variation. METHODS: We conducted a population-based analysis using discharge data for men aged ≥40 years with transurethral or simple prostatectomy from all Swiss hospitals during 2013-2018. After excluding patients with genitourinary/prostate cancer, we derived hospital service areas (HSAs) by analyzing patient flows. We calculated age-standardized mean procedure rates and variation indices (extremal quotient [EQ] and systematic component of variation [SCV]). We estimated the reduction in variance across HSAs of prostatectomy rates in multilevel regression models, with incremental adjustment for age, regional cultural and socioeconomic factors, disease burden, density of urologists, and the time since urologists' graduation. RESULTS: Overall, 44,253 prostatectomies (42,710 transurethral and 1543 simple) from 44 HSAs were analyzed. The mean age-standardized prostate surgery rate was 314 (range 166-500) per 100,000 men aged ≥40 years per year. The EQ was 3.01 and the SCV 5.53, indicating a high regional variation. In multivariate models, men aged 75-79 years had an 11.6-fold higher prostatectomy rate than those aged 50-54 years. French/Italian language areas had a 21% lower rate than Swiss German speaking areas. Socioeconomic factors, disease burden, and density of urologist/time since graduation were not associated with prostatectomy rates. After full adjustment, 80% of the variance in prostate surgery across HSAs remained unexplained. CONCLUSION: We found a remarkably high regional variation in prostate surgery rates for BPH within Switzerland.

9.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: older people remain underrepresented in clinical trials, and evidence generated in younger populations cannot always be generalized to older patients. OBJECTIVE: to identify key barriers and to discuss solutions to specific issues affecting recruitment and retention of older participants in clinical trials based on experience gained from six current European randomised controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on older people. METHODS: a multidisciplinary group of experts including representatives of the six RCTs held two networking conferences and compiled lists of potential barriers and solutions. Every item was subsequently allocated points by each study team according to how important it was perceived to be for their RCTs. RESULTS: the six RCTs enrolled 7,612 older patients. Key barriers to recruitment were impaired health status, comorbidities and diverse health beliefs including priorities within different cultural systems. All trials had to increase the number of recruitment sites. Other measures felt to be effective included the provision of extra time, communication training for the study staff and a re-design of patient information. Key barriers for retention included the presence of severe comorbidities and the occurrence of adverse events. Long study duration, frequent study visits and difficulties accessing the study site were also mentioned. Solutions felt to be effective included spending more time maintaining close contact with the participants, appropriate measures to show appreciation and reimbursement of travel arrangements. CONCLUSION: recruitment and retention of older patients in trials requires special recognition and a targeted approach. Our results provide scientifically-based practical recommendations for optimizing future studies in this population.

10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(3): 375-385, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228632

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate if subclinical thyroid dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Swiss-AF is a prospective cohort of community-dwelling participants aged ≥ 65 years with AF. Primary outcome was a composite endpoint of CV events (myocardial infarctions, stroke/transitory ischemic events, systemic embolism, heart failure (HF) hospitalizations, CV deaths). Secondary outcomes were component endpoints, total mortality, and AF-progression. Exposures were thyroid dysfunction categories, TSH and fT4. Sensitivity analyses were performed for amiodarone use, thyroid hormones use, and competing events. Results: 2415 patients were included (mean age: 73.2 years; 27% women). 196 (8.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 53 (2.3%) subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction was not associated with CV events, during a median follow-up of 2.1 years (max 5 years): age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.69-1.41) for subclinical hypothyroidism and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.23-1.32) for subclinical hyperthyroidism. Results remained robust following multivariable adjustment and sensitivity analyses. In euthyroid patients, fT4 levels were associated with an increased risk for the composite endpoint and HF (adjHR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05; adjHR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08-2.66, respectively, for the highest quintile vs the middle quintile). Results remained similar following multivariable adjustment and remained significant for HF in sensitivity analyses. No association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and total mortality or AF-progression was found. Conclusions: Subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased CV risk in AF patients. Higher levels of fT4 with normal TSH were associated with a higher risk for HF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2973-2984, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of single, multiple, and multifactorial interventions to prevent falls and fall-related fractures in community-dwelling older persons. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions in community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years, from inception until February 27, 2019. Two large RCTs (published in 2020 after the search closed) were included in post hoc analyses. Pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted. RESULTS: NMA including 192 studies revealed that the following single interventions, compared with usual care, were associated with reductions in number of fallers: exercise (risk ratio [RR] 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.89) and quality improvement strategies (e.g., patient education) (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.98). Exercise as a single intervention was associated with a reduction in falls rate (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.73-0.86). Common components of multiple interventions significantly associated with a reduction in number of fallers and falls rate were exercise, assistive technology, environmental assessment and modifications, quality improvement strategies, and basic falls risk assessment (e.g., medication review). Multifactorial interventions were associated with a reduction in falls rate (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80-0.95), but not with a reduction in number of fallers (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.89-1.01). The following single interventions, compared with usual care, were associated with reductions in number of fall-related fractures: basic falls risk assessment (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39-0.94) and exercise (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: In keeping with Tricco et al. (2017), several single and multiple fall prevention interventions are associated with fewer falls. In addition to Tricco, we observe a benefit at the NMA-level of some single interventions on preventing fall-related fractures.

12.
Nutrition ; 89: 111279, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients with aging-related vulnerability defined by very old age (≥80 y), physical frailty or cognitive impairment, and increases the risks for morbidity and mortality. The effects of individualized nutritional support for patients with aging-related vulnerability in the acute hospital setting on mortality and other clinical outcomes remains understudied. METHODS: For this secondary analysis of the randomized-controlled Effect of Early Nutritional Support on Frailty, Functional Outcomes, and Recovery of Malnourished Medical Inpatients Trial (EFFORT), we analyzed data of patients at a nutritional risk (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 score ≥3 points) with aging-related vulnerability, randomized to receive protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach specific protein and energy goals (intervention group) or routine hospital food (control group). The primary endpoint was all-cause 30-d mortality. RESULTS: Of the 881 patients with aging-related vulnerability, 23.4% presented with a frailty syndrome, 81.8% were age ≥80 y and 15.3% showed cognitive impairment. Patients with aging-related vulnerability receiving individualized nutritional support compared with routine hospital food showed a >50% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality (60 of 442 [13.6%] versus 31 of 439 [7.1%]; odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.76; P = 0.002). Significant improvements were also found for long-term mortality at 180 days, as well as functional outcomes and quality of life measures. CONCLUSIONS: Malnourished patients with aging-related vulnerability show a significant and clinically relevant reduction in the risk of mortality and other adverse clinical outcomes after individualized in-hospital nutritional support compared to routine hospital nutrition. These data support the early screening of patients with aging-related vulnerability for nutritional risk, followed by a nutritional assessment and implementation of individualized nutritional interventions.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Desnutrição , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Idoso Fragilizado , Hospitalização , Humanos , Desnutrição/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with loss of cognition and dementia. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been linked to cognitive decline. We aimed to investigate if reduced cardiac autonomic function (CAF) is associated with cognitive impairment in AF patients. METHODS: Patients with paroxysmal, persistent and permanent AF were enrolled from a multicenter cohort study if they had AF ("AF group") or sinus rhythm ("SR group") on a baseline 5 min ECG recording. Parameters quantifying CAF (heart rate variability triangular index (HRVI), mean heart rate (MHR), RMSSD, SDNN, total power and power in the VLF, LF, HF ranges) were calculated. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to assess global cognitive function. RESULTS: 1685 AF patients with a mean age of 73 ± 8 years, 29% females, were included. MoCA score was 24.5 ± 3.2 in the AF group (N = 710 patients) and 25.4 ± 3.2 in the SR group (N = 975 patients). After adjusting for multiple confounders, lower HRVI was associated with lower MoCA scores, both in the SR group [ß = 0.049; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.016-0.081; p = 0.003] and in the AF group (ß = 0.068; 95% CI 0.020-0.116; p = 0.006). In the AF group, higher MHR was associated with a poorer performance in the MoCA (ß = - 0.008; 95% CI - 0.014 to - 0.002; p = 0.014). We found no convincing evidence of association for other CAF parameters with cognition. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that impaired CAF is associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with AF. Among standard HRV parameters, HRVI might be the most promising ECG index. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02105844.

14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 674841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093444

RESUMO

Background: The cardiovascular effects of treating older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are uncertain. Although concerns have been raised regarding a potential increase in cardiovascular side effects from thyroid hormone replacement, undertreatment may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events, especially for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To determine the effects of levothyroxine treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with SCH. Methods: Combined data of two parallel randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials TRUST (Thyroid hormone Replacement for Untreated older adults with Subclinical hypothyroidism - a randomised placebo controlled Trial) and IEMO80+ (the Institute for Evidence-Based Medicine in Old Age 80-plus thyroid trial) were analysed as one-stage individual participant data. Participants aged ≥65 years for TRUST (n=737) and ≥80 years for IEMO80+ (n=105) with SCH, defined by elevated TSH with fT4 within the reference range, were included. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or levothyroxine, with titration of the dose until TSH level was within the reference range. Cardiovascular events and cardiovascular side effects of overtreatment (new-onset atrial fibrillation and heart failure) were investigated, including stratified analyses according to CVD history and age. Results: The median [IQR] age was 75.0 [69.7-81.1] years, and 448 participants (53.2%) were women. The mean TSH was 6.38± SD 5.7 mIU/L at baseline and decreased at 1 year to 5.66 ± 3.3 mIU/L in the placebo group, compared with 3.66 ± 2.1 mIU/L in the levothyroxine group (p<0.001), at a median dose of 50 µg. Levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of any of the prespecified cardiovascular outcomes, including cardiovascular events (HR 0.74 [0.41-1.25]), atrial fibrillation (HR 0.69 [0.32-1.52]), or heart failure (0.41 [0.13-1.35]), or all-cause mortality (HR 1.28 [0.54-3.03]), irrespective of history of CVD and age. Conclusion: Treatment with levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, irrespective of a history of cardiovascular disease and age. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT01660126] (TRUST); Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3851 (IEMO80+).

15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2831-2841, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Hypertension treatment reduces cardiovascular events. However, uncertainty remains about benefits and harms of deintensification or further intensification of antihypertensive medication when systolic blood pressure (SBP) is tightly controlled in older multimorbid patients, because of their frequent exclusion in trials. We assessed the association of hypertension treatment deintensification or intensification with clinical outcomes in older adults with tightly controlled SBP. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study (2011-2013) with 9-month follow-up. SETTING: U.S.-nationwide primary care Veterans Health Administration healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans aged 65 and older with baseline SBP <130 mmHg and ≥1 antihypertensive medication during ≥2 consecutive visits (N = 228,753). EXPOSURE: Deintensification or intensification, compared with stable treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Cardiovascular events, syncope, or fall injury, as composite and distinct outcomes, within 9 months after exposure. Adjusted logistic regression and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW, sensitivity analysis). RESULTS: Among 228,753 patients (mean age 75 [SD 7.5] years), the composite outcome occurred in 11,982/93,793 (12.8%) patients with stable treatment, 14,768/72,672 (20.3%) with deintensification, and 11,821/62,288 (19.0%) with intensification. Adjusted absolute outcome risk (95% confidence interval) was higher for deintensification (18.3% [18.1%-18.6%]) and intensification (18.7% [18.4%-19.0%]), compared with stable treatment (14.8% [14.6%-15.0%]), p < 0.001 for both effects in the multivariable model). Deintensification was associated with fewer cardiovascular events than intensification. At baseline SBP <95 mmHg, cardiovascular event risk was similar for deintensification and stable treatment, and fall risk lower for deintensification than intensification. IPTW yielded similar results. Mean follow-up SBP was 124.1 mmHg for stable treatment, 125.1 mmHg after deintensification (p < 0.001), and 124.0 mmHg after intensification (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Antihypertensive treatment deintensification in older patients with tightly controlled SBP was associated with worse outcomes than continuing same treatment intensity. Given higher mortality among patients with treatment modification, confounding by indication may not have been fully corrected by advanced statistical methods for observational data analysis.

16.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 123, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recruiting general practitioners (GPs) and their multimorbid older patients for trials is challenging for multiple reasons (e.g., high workload, limited mobility). The comparability of study participants is important for interpreting study findings. This manuscript describes the baseline characteristics of GPs and patients participating in the 'Optimizing PharmacoTherapy in older multimorbid adults In primary CAre' (OPTICA) trial, a study of optimization of pharmacotherapy for multimorbid older adults. The overall aim of this study was to determine if the GPs and patients participating in the OPTICA trial are comparable to the real-world population in Swiss primary care. DESIGN: Analysis of baseline data from GPs and patients in the OPTICA trial and a reference cohort from the FIRE ('Family medicine ICPC Research using Electronic medical records') project. SETTING: Primary care, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twenty-three multimorbid (≥ 3 chronic conditions) patients with polypharmacy (≥ 5 regular medications) aged ≥ 65 years and 43 GPs recruited for the OPTICA trial were compared to 22,907 older multimorbid patients with polypharmacy and 227 GPs from the FIRE database. METHODS: We compared the characteristics of GPs and patients participating in the OPTICA trial with other GPs and other older multimorbid adults with polypharmacy in the FIRE database. We described the baseline willingness to have medications deprescribed of the patients participating in the OPTICA trial using the revised Patients' Attitudes Towards Deprescribing (rPATD) questionnaire. RESULTS: The GPs in the FIRE project and OPTICA were similar in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and their work as a GP (e.g. aged in their fifties, ≥ 10 years of experience, ≥ 60% are self-employed, ≥ 80% work in a group practice). The median age of patients in the OPTICA trial was 77 years and 45% of trial participants were women. Patients participating in the OPTICA trial and patients in the FIRE database were comparable in terms of age, certain clinical characteristics (e.g. systolic blood pressure, body mass index) and health services use (e.g. selected lab and vital data measurements). More than 80% of older multimorbid patients reported to be willing to stop ≥ 1 of their medications if their doctor said that this would be possible. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of patients and GPs recruited into the OPTICA trial are relatively comparable to characteristics of a real-world Swiss population, which indicates that recruiting a generalizable patient sample is possible in the primary care setting. Multimorbid patients in the OPTICA trial reported a high willingness to have medications deprescribed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT03724539 ), KOFAM (Swiss national portal) ( SNCTP000003060 ), Universal Trial Number (U1111-1226-8013).


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Clínicos Gerais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Multimorbidade , Polimedicação , Atenção Primária à Saúde
17.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2762-2771, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at substantial risk of malnutrition, which negatively affects clinical outcomes. We investigated the association of kidney function assessed at hospital admission and effectiveness of nutritional support in hospitalized medical patients at risk of malnutrition. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of an investigator-initiated, randomized-controlled, Swiss multicenter trial (EFFORT) that compared individualised nutritional support with usual hospital food on clinical outcomes. We compared effects of nutritional support on mortality in subgroups of patients stratified according to kidney function at the time of hospital admission (estimated glomerular filtration rates [eGFR] <15, 15-29, 30-59, 60-89 and ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m2). RESULTS: We included 1943 of 2028 patients (96%) from the original trial with known admission creatinine levels. Admission eGFR was a strong predictor for the beneficial effects of nutritional support in regard to lowering of 30-day mortality. Patients with an eGFR <15, 15-29 and 30-59 had the strongest mortality benefit (odds ratios [95%CI] of 0.24 [0.05 to 1.25], 0.37 [0.14 to 0.95] and 0.39 [0.21 to 0.75], respectively), while patients with less severe impairment in kidney function had a less pronounced mortality benefits (p for interaction 0.001). A similar stepwise association of kidney function and response to nutritional support was found also for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: In medical inpatients at nutritional risk, admission kidney function was a strong predictor for the response to nutritional therapy. Initial kidney function may help to individualize nutritional support in the future by identification of patients with most clinical benefit. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02517476.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score is an established clinical risk stratification tool for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We developed and internally validated a model for 1-year all-cause mortality prediction in ACS patients. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, 2'168 ACS patients were enrolled into the Swiss SPUM-ACS Cohort. Biomarkers were determined in 1'892 patients and follow-up was achieved in 95.8% of patients. 1-year all-cause mortality was 4.3% (n = 80). In our analysis we consider all linear models using combinations of 8 out of 56 variables to predict 1-year all-cause mortality and to derive a variable ranking. RESULTS: 1.3% of 1'420'494'075 models outperformed the GRACE 2.0 Score. The SPUM-ACS Score includes age, plasma glucose, NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), Killip class, history of peripheral artery disease (PAD), malignancy, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. For predicting 1-year mortality after ACS, the SPUM-ACS Score outperformed the GRACE 2.0 Score which achieves a 5-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84). Ranking individual features according to their importance across all multivariate models revealed age, trimethylamine N-oxide, creatinine, history of PAD or malignancy, LVEF, and haemoglobin as the most relevant variables for predicting 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The variable ranking and the selection for the SPUM-ACS Score highlight the relevance of age, markers of heart failure, and comorbidities for prediction of all-cause death. Before application, this score needs to be externally validated and refined in larger cohorts. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01000701.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(18): 2307-2319, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deterioration of nutritional status during hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure increases mortality. Whether nutritional support during hospitalization reduces these risks, or on the contrary, may be harmful due to an increase in salt and fluid intake, remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this trial was to study the effect of nutritional support on mortality in patients hospitalized with chronic heart failure who are at nutritional risk. METHODS: A total of 645 patients with chronic heart failure (36% [n = 234] with acute decompensation) participated in the investigator-initiated, open-label EFFORT (Effect of early nutritional support on Frailty, Functional Outcomes and Recovery of malnourished medical inpatients) trial. Patients were randomized to protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach energy, protein, and micronutrient goals (intervention group) or standard hospital food (control group). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 30 days. RESULTS: Mortality over 180 days increased with higher severity of malnutrition (odds ratio per 1-point increase in Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 score: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21 to 2.24; p = 0.001). By 30 days, 27 of 321 intervention group patients (8.4%) died, compared with 48 of 324 (14.8%) control group patients (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.75; p = 0.002). Patients at high nutritional risk showed the most benefit from nutritional support. Mortality effects remained significant at 180-day follow-up. Intervention group patients also had a lower risk for major cardiovascular events at 30 days (17.4% vs. 26.9%; odds ratio: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.75; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure at high nutritional risk, individualized nutritional support reduced the risk for mortality and major cardiovascular events compared with standard hospital food. These data support malnutrition screening upon hospital admission followed by an individualized nutritional support strategy in this vulnerable patient population. (Effect of Early Nutritional Therapy on Frailty, Functional Outcomes and Recovery of Undernourished Medical Inpatients Trial [EFFORT]; NCT02517476).

20.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(11): 1406-1414, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031890

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed in inflammatory diseases and have recently experienced a boom in the treatment of COVID-19. Small studies have shown an effect of glucocorticoids on inflammatory marker levels, but definitive proof is lacking. We investigated the influence of prednisone on inflammatory biomarkers in a previous multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that compared a 7-day treatment course of 50-mg prednisone to placebo in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. We compared levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), leukocyte and neutrophil count between patients with and without glucocorticoid treatment at baseline and on days 3, 5, and 7 and at discharge by Wilcoxon tests and analysis of variance. A total of 356 patient data sets in the prednisone group and 355 in the placebo group were available for analysis. Compared to placebo, use of prednisone was associated with reductions in levels of CRP on days 3, 5, and 7 (mean difference of 46%, P < .001 for each time point). For PCT, no such difference was observed. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were higher in the prednisone group at all time points (mean difference of 27% for leukocytes and 33% for neutrophils, P <.001 for all time points). We conclude that after administration of glucocorticoids in community-acquired pneumonia, patients had lower CRP levels and increased leukocyte and neutrophil count as compared to the placebo group. PCT levels were not different between treatment groups. PCT levels thus may more appropriately mirror the resolution of infection compared to more traditional inflammatory markers.

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