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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1499, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyberbullying among children and adolescents is a major public health concern. However, research has not yet definitively identified the risk factors associated with cybervictimization. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of cybervictimization with use of social networks, personality traits and parental education in secondary students. METHODS: The study population consisted of 765 secondary students (56.5% girls) from Majorca (Spain) who were aged 15.99 years (grade 4). The data were from the 16 secondary school centers that participated in the ITACA Project, a multi-center, cluster randomized controlled trial. Cybervictimization was measured by the Garaigordobil Cybervictimization Scale, and the Big Five Questionnaire for Children was used to assess personality traits. RESULTS: Results showed that 39.9% of the students were cybervictims. Univariate analysis indicated that more girls than boys were cybervictimized (43.1% vs 35.7%). Cybervictims spent more time in social networking sites than non-victims (6 h 30 min vs. 5 h 16 min) and had greater emotional instability (0.16 vs. -0.23) and extraversion (0.11 vs. -0.09) and were less conscientious (- 0.001 vs. 0.20). Multivariable analysis indicated that social networking time was not significantly associated with cybervictimization after controlling for personality traits, but the same personality traits remained significantly associated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cyberbullying is a frequent and relevant problem in adolescents. Big Five personality traits are related with cybervictimization. Possible ways to design interventions include promoting social leisure activities, encourage responsible attitudes and provide stress coping tools.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466216

RESUMO

Cyberbullying has emerged as a public health problem. Personality may play an important role in substance use and cybervictimization. The aim of this study was to examine whether tobacco and alcohol consumption and personality traits are associated with cybervictimization in Spanish adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 765 secondary students (aged 14-16) from 16 secondary schools in Spain. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics; tobacco and alcohol consumption; cybervictimization (Garaigordobil Scale); and personality traits (Big Five Questionnaire). A logistic regression model controlling for sex, age, parental education and personality traits was used to determine the independent associations and interactions between tobacco and alcohol consumption and cybervictimization. The results indicate that a total of 305 adolescents (39.9%) reported that they were cyberbullied in the past year. Girls were more likely to be cyberbullied than boys. Cybervictims had a significantly greater monthly alcohol consumption (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.05-2.15), higher scores for extraversion (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.06-1.63) and emotional instability (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.27-1.83); as well as lower scores for conscientiousness (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63-0.95). These results suggest that personality traits and alcohol consumption are independently associated with cybervictimization. Our study suggests the existence of underlying common personality factors for cybervictimization and alcohol and tobacco use.

3.
Psychiatry Res ; 256: 312-317, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28666201

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the criterion validity of a computerized version of the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire to detect general anxiety disorder in Spanish primary care centers. A total of 178 patients completed the GAD-7 and were administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, which was used as a reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated. A cut-off of 10 yielded a sensitivity of .87, a specificity of .78, a positive predictive value of .93, a negative predictive value of .64, a positive likelihood ratio of 3.96 a negative likelihood ratio of .17 and Younden's Index of .65. The GAD-7 performed very well with a cut-off value of 10, the most frequently used cut-off point. Thus, a computerized version of the GAD-7 is an excellent screening tool for detecting general anxiety disorder in Spanish primary care settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
4.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 146(3): 108-111, feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-147821

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: La sensibilidad química múltiple (.SQM) es un trastorno multisistémico de etiología controvertida que afecta a algunos sujetos al exponerse a productos químicos a concentraciones no perjudiciales. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y psicológicas de una muestra de pacientes con SQM, para un posterior tratamiento grupal específico. Pacientes y método: Estudio descriptivo de los pacientes diagnosticados de SQM en una unidad de toxicología, mediante la administración del cuestionario Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory, junto con la entrevista estructurada SCID-II, la escala de ansiedad HAS y el test de personalidad tipo A, PCTA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 73 pacientes, con una edad media de 52,6 años (rango 33-77; DE 9,29), siendo 66 mujeres (90,4%). El 53% estaban clasificados como grado i-ii y ii. Sesenta y un pacientes (83%) presentaron algún tipo de comorbilidad, fundamentalmente dolor crónico, fibromialgia y fatiga crónica, con niveles de ansiedad mayores (puntuación media 19,2), predominio de rasgos de personalidad fóbico-evitativo y patrón de conducta tipo A (31,1%). Conclusiones: La SQM afecta principalmente a mujeres de mediana edad, con comorbilidades (dolor crónico, fibromialgia y fatiga crónica), elevada ansiedad y conductas de evitación. Este análisis previo debería ayudar a ofrecer un abordaje psicoterapéutico específico a estos pacientes (AU)


Introduction and objective: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a multisystem disorder of controversial etiology, affecting some subjects when exposed to chemicals at no harmful concentrations. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and psychological features of a sample of patients with MCS for further specific group treatment. Patiens and method: Descriptive study of patients diagnosed with MCS in a toxicology unit. We administered the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory, the structured interview SCID-II, the anxiety scale HAS and the type A personality test, PCTA. Results: Seventy-three patients were included. The mean age was 52,6 years (range 33-77; SD 9.29). Sixty-six were females (90.4%). Fifty-three percent were classified as i-ii and ii grade. Sixty-one patients (83%) presented some type of comorbidity, mainly chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue. They exhibited higher levels of anxiety (average score of 19.2), prevalence of phobic-avoidant traits of personality and type A behavior in 31.1%. Conclusions: MCS affects middle-aged women with comorbidities (chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue) and high anxiety and avoidance behaviors. This preliminary analysis should help provide a specific therapeutic approach to these patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/complicações , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Exposição a Produtos Químicos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Escala de Ansiedade Manifesta/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Ansiedade Manifesta/normas , Comorbidade
5.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 146(3): 108-11, 2016 Feb 05.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a multisystem disorder of controversial etiology, affecting some subjects when exposed to chemicals at no harmful concentrations. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and psychological features of a sample of patients with MCS for further specific group treatment. PATIENS AND METHOD: Descriptive study of patients diagnosed with MCS in a toxicology unit. We administered the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory, the structured interview SCID-II, the anxiety scale HAS and the type A personality test, PCTA. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were included. The mean age was 52,6 years (range 33-77; SD 9.29). Sixty-six were females (90.4%). Fifty-three percent were classified as i-ii and ii grade. Sixty-one patients (83%) presented some type of comorbidity, mainly chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue. They exhibited higher levels of anxiety (average score of 19.2), prevalence of phobic-avoidant traits of personality and type A behavior in 31.1%. CONCLUSIONS: MCS affects middle-aged women with comorbidities (chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue) and high anxiety and avoidance behaviors. This preliminary analysis should help provide a specific therapeutic approach to these patients.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Polimedicação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
6.
Psicooncología (Pozuelo de Alarcón) ; 12(2/3): 417-429, dic. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-147293

RESUMO

Objetivo: La muerte es un tema tabú en la sociedad actual, y por ello es común que los padres tengan dudas acerca de cómo abordar este tema con los menores. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: 1) describir el concepto evolutivo de muerte y la forma de afrontamiento de niños y adolescentes ante una pérdida y 2) hacer una revisión bibliográfica de las principales recomendaciones y pautas para abordar el proceso de comunicación y preparación de los niños ante esta situación. Método: Se ha hecho una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática en bases de datos primarias y secundarias (TripDatbase, PsycInfo, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Psicodoc) combinando diferentes términos clave. Resultados: La mayor parte del material revisado procede del ámbito anglosajón. En nuestro país la mayoría tiene un formato divulgativo, y no consta a los autores de este trabajo la publicación de investigaciones regladas. Sin embargo sí es posible extraer de todo el material revisado una serie de pautas generales que facilitan la comunicación con los menores en esas situaciones. Conclusiones: La comunicación adecuada y en base a unas pautas establecidas contribuye a facilitar el proceso de elaboración del duelo en los niños y adolescentes


Aims: Death is a taboo in our society, and it is common that parents have questions about how to cope with children this issue. The aims of this paper are: 1) to describe the developmental concept of death and the ways of coping in children and adolescents in case of loss 2) to make a literature review of the main recommendations and guidelines to address the communication process and preparation children in this situation. Method: A systematic literature search has been made in primary and secondary databases (TripDatbase, PsycInfo, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Psicodoc), by combining different keywords. Results: Most of the reviewed material comes from England and USA. In our country the majority has an informative format, and we have no evidence of published regulated research. However it is possible to remove from all the material reviewed a number of general guidelines to facilitate communication with children in case of loss of a loved one. Conclusions: The correct and based on established guidelines communication makes easier the process of grief in children and adolescents


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Morte , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Ajustamento Social , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Luto , Comunicação , Pesar , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Relações Profissional-Família
7.
Apuntes psicol ; 32(2): 103-106, 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-142732

RESUMO

Introducción: el uso adecuado de estrategias de afrontamiento está relacionado con una mayor sensación de bienestar. Esta relación podría ser muy importante para el tratamiento de pacientes con trastorno límite de la personalidad. Las personas diagnosticadas con TLP tienen dificultades para el manejo del estrés. Este estudio trata de averiguar si existen diferencias entre las estrategias de afrontamiento que emplea la población no-clínica y los pacientes con TLP. El cuestionario COPE lo evalúa. Metodología: Se analizan las puntuaciones del cuestionario COPE en 58 pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno límite de personalidad en terapia dialéctico-conductual. Resultados: en los pacientes con TLP evaluados existe un predominio de estrategias de afrontamiento basadas en el afrontamiento emocional y evitación cognitiva. Conclusiones: los pacientes con TLP emplean estrategias de afrontamiento más desadaptativas que la población no-clínica. Un entrenamiento en habilidades de afrontamiento podría suponer una mejoría en el bienestar de estos pacientes. En la terapia dialéctico-conductual de Linehan se promueven el aprendizaje y desarrollo de habilidades de afrontamiento. Son necesarios estudios que evalúen la eficacia del entrenamiento en habilidades de afrontamiento al estrés en pacientes con TLP


Introduction: The proper use of coping strategies is related to a greater sense of wellbeing. This relationship could be very important for the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. Individuals diagnosed with BPD have significant difficulty managing stress. The current study seeks to ascertain whether there are indeed differences between the coping strategies employed by the non-clinical population and patients with BPD. The COPE is a questionnaire that assesses. Methodology: We analyzed COPE questionnaire scores in 58 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder treated with dialectical behavioral therapy. Results: BPD patients assessed there is a predominance of coping strategies based on emotional and cognitive avoidance coping. Conclusions: Patients with BPD use more maladaptive coping strategies than non-clinical population. A coping skills training could lead to an improvement in the welfare of these patients. In dialectical behavioral therapy learning are promoved and skills development adaptive stress coping. Studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of training in stress coping skills in patients with BPD


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/ética , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Apoio Social , Ajustamento Social , Terapia Comportamental/instrumentação , Terapia Comportamental/organização & administração , Terapia Comportamental/tendências
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