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J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 25(1): 105-114, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628811


This article presents the adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993, Guide and technical manual for the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. San Diego, CA: Singular Press; Fenson et al. 1994, Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 1-173) to Spanish Sign Language (LSE). Data were collected from 55 participants (32 boys and 23 girls; 17 deaf signers, 38 hearing signers) who, evaluated by their caregivers every 4 months, presented a total of 170 records. The parents reported the signs that the children could understand or produce between 8 and 36 months. Results suggested that the CDI adapted to LSE is a valid and reliable instrument. Signing children could understand more signs than they produced at this early developmental stage. There were no significant differences between boys and girls, or between deaf and hearing children. The development of LSE is similar to other sign languages, although with a lower production of signs in the early stages, perhaps due to the bilingualism of most of the children of our study.

J Commun Disord ; 82: 105922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425855


BACKGROUND: The relationship between parental input and child language development has had a complex history. It has become clear that indirect parent training for the parents of children with delayed language development is an important feature of interventions offered by speech and language therapists in the anglophone countries. Yet we know less about how this type of approach is realised in other countries. METHODS: In this paper we report the results of a survey of practice undertaken as part of the work of COST Action IS1406, a European Union (EU) funded research network. The focus of this paper is specifically on parent-related questions and responses referring to children under the age of twelve. The survey was devised by members of the Action and circulated electronically during the summer of 2017. In all, 4024 practitioners responded from 60 countries, the majority of whom came from EU member countries. FINDINGS: Respondents to the survey indicated that indirect therapy is commonly carried out via the parent in the early years and via teachers later. A range of professional groups, in addition to speech and language therapists, is likely to adopt this approach; including teachers, pedagogues and psychologists. A variety of interventions is reported, some of which have a reasonable evidence-base underpinning them. It is interesting to see the widespread involvement of fathers and other family members in interventions. Finally, the fact that practitioner characteristics (age, experience, location of practice etc.) are not related to the use of indirect techniques points to the universal recognition of the value of these approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very different traditions in the practice of intervention across countries, there is clearly a widespread recognition of the importance of indirect approaches to intervention and specifically those focusing on parents. The mixture of family members being involved in interventions is a very promising indication of the role sharing commonly associated with the contemporary family. Yet the number of specific intervention approaches identified is relatively small given the number of respondents. There is a need for a better understanding of what exactly practitioners are doing when they involve parents in intervention or carry out parent-child interaction interventions and how well these interventions work in routine practice. This also has implications for the application of evidence-based practice and the precise nature of the interventions concerned (advice to parents, video interaction training etc.).

J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(6): 1625-1656, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095442


Purpose The use of sign-supported speech (SSS) in the education of deaf students has been recently discussed in relation to its usefulness with deaf children using cochlear implants. To clarify the benefits of SSS for comprehension, 2 eye-tracking experiments aimed to detect the extent to which signs are actively processed in this mode of communication. Method Participants were 36 deaf adolescents, including cochlear implant users and native deaf signers. Experiment 1 attempted to shift observers' foveal attention to the linguistic source in SSS from which most information is extracted, lip movements or signs, by magnifying the face area, thus modifying lip movements perceptual accessibility (magnified condition), and by constraining the visual field to either the face or the sign through a moving window paradigm (gaze contingent condition). Experiment 2 aimed to explore the reliance on signs in SSS by occasionally producing a mismatch between sign and speech. Participants were required to concentrate upon the orally transmitted message. Results In Experiment 1, analyses revealed a greater number of fixations toward the signs and a reduction in accuracy in the gaze contingent condition across all participants. Fixations toward signs were also increased in the magnified condition. In Experiment 2, results indicated less accuracy in the mismatching condition across all participants. Participants looked more at the sign when it was inconsistent with speech. Conclusions All participants, even those with residual hearing, rely on signs when attending SSS, either peripherally or through overt attention, depending on the perceptual conditions. Supplemental Material

J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(4): 797-817, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771064


The present study focuses on the development of Spanish pronominal processing. We investigate whether the pronoun interpretation problem (i.e., reflexive pronouns comprehension is resolved at an earlier age than that of personal pronouns, also known as the Delay of the Principle B Effect), which has been documented in other languages, also occurs in Spanish. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments including pronoun resolution tasks. In Experiment 1, a task adapted from the experimental paradigm proposed by Love et al. (J Psycholinguist Res 38:285-304, 2009. ) was used, which examines the off-line processing of the Spanish pronouns se and le. In Experiment 2, on-line processing of the same pronouns was evaluated with eye-tracking, using a paradigm developed by Thompson and Choy (J Psycholinguist Res 38:255-283, 2009. ). Forty-three participants aged 4-16 years completed both experiments. Results indicated that there is no developmental asymmetry in the acquisition of successful resolution of the two types of anaphora in Spanish: from age 4, reflexive and clitic pronouns are processed with the same degree of accuracy.

Idioma , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
Front Psychol ; 9: 1492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233442


In recent decades there have been significant changes in the conceptualization of reading as well as in the perception of how this activity should be assessed. Interest in the analysis of reading processes has led to the emergence of new explanatory models based primarily on the contributions of cognitive psychology. In parallel, there have been notable advances in measurement procedures, especially in models based on Item Response Theory (IRT), as well as in the capacity and performance of specific software programs that allow data to be managed and analyzed. These changes have contributed significantly to the rise of testing procedures such as computerized adaptive tests (CATs), whose fundamental characteristic is that the sequence of items presented in the tests is adapted to the level of competence that the subject manifests. Likewise, the incorporation of elements of dynamic assessment (DA) as the prompts are gradually offered allows for obtaining information about the type and degree of support required to optimize the subject's performance. In this sense, the confluence of contributions from DA and CATs offers a new possibility for approaching the assessment of learning processes. In this article, we present a longitudinal research developed in two phases, through which a computerized dynamic adaptive assessment battery of reading processes (EDPL-BAI) was configured. The research frame involved 1,831 students (46% girls) from 13 public schools in three regions of Chile. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differential contribution on reading competence of dynamic scores obtained in a subsample composed of 324 (47% girls) students from third to sixth grade after the implementation of a set of adaptive dynamic tests of morpho-syntactic processes. The results achieved in the structural equation modeling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show a significant contribution of calibrated score that reflects estimated knowledge level on reading competence, as well as dynamic scores based on the assigned value of graduated prompts required by the students. These results showed significant predictive values on reading competence and incremental validity in relation to predictions made by static criterion tests.

Front Psychol ; 8: 1044, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680416


An eye tracking experiment explored the gaze behavior of deaf individuals when perceiving language in spoken and sign language only, and in sign-supported speech (SSS). Participants were deaf (n = 25) and hearing (n = 25) Spanish adolescents. Deaf students were prelingually profoundly deaf individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) used by age 5 or earlier, or prelingually profoundly deaf native signers with deaf parents. The effectiveness of SSS has rarely been tested within the same group of children for discourse-level comprehension. Here, video-recorded texts, including spatial descriptions, were alternately transmitted in spoken language, sign language and SSS. The capacity of these communicative systems to equalize comprehension in deaf participants with that of spoken language in hearing participants was tested. Within-group analyses of deaf participants tested if the bimodal linguistic input of SSS favored discourse comprehension compared to unimodal languages. Deaf participants with CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing controls in all communicative systems while deaf native signers with no CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing participants if tested in their native sign language. Comprehension of SSS was not increased compared to spoken language, even when spatial information was communicated. Eye movements of deaf and hearing participants were tracked and data of dwell times spent looking at the face or body area of the sign model were analyzed. Within-group analyses focused on differences between native and non-native signers. Dwell times of hearing participants were equally distributed across upper and lower areas of the face while deaf participants mainly looked at the mouth area; this could enable information to be obtained from mouthings in sign language and from lip-reading in SSS and spoken language. Few fixations were directed toward the signs, although these were more frequent when spatial language was transmitted. Both native and non-native signers looked mainly at the face when perceiving sign language, although non-native signers looked significantly more at the body than native signers. This distribution of gaze fixations suggested that deaf individuals - particularly native signers - mainly perceived signs through peripheral vision.

Apuntes psicol ; 35(3): 143-158, 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178014


Este estudio pretende conocer cómo es el rendimiento en varias tareas relacionadas con la Teoría de la Mente dentro de la población con discapacidad intelectual. Estas están formadas por tareas de primer y segundo orden y una prueba sobre atribuciones de estados mentales. El trabajo se inicia con una revisión sobre la definición de la Teoría de la mente, los instrumentos que se han empleado en su estudio y qué resultados se han obtenido hasta la fecha en la población con discapacidad intelectual. La muestra se compone de 30 adultos, 15 de ellos con discapacidad intelectual, y 15 niños/as de desarrollo normativo. Entre los resultados que hallan, se ha encontrado, por un lado, que el grupo control adultos realiza más atribuciones de estados mentales y, por otro lado, que existen algunas diferencias de rendimiento en las tareas de primer orden entre el grupo control niños y el grupo de adultos con discapacidad intelectual

This study aims to know the performance of adults with intellectual disability in several tasks related to the Theory of Mind. They consist of tasks of first and second order and mental states attributions test. The work starts with a review to define the Theory of mind, in order to know how it has been studied and what results have been previously obtained. The sample is composed of 30 adults, 15 of them with intellectual disability, and 15 children of normative development. The results obtained, found that the adult control group makes more attributions of mental states and there are some differences in the performance of the first-order false belief tasks between children control group and the clinical group

Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Testes Psicológicos , Planejamento Social , Desenvolvimento Humano , Análise de Variância , Planos de Contingência
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 21(3): 326-38, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143715


The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants.

Cognição , Grupo Associado , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 20(4): 374-84, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26209448


Different studies have showed poor reading performance in the deaf compared to the hearing population. This has overshadowed the fact that a minority of deaf children learns to read successfully and reaches levels similar to their hearing peers. We analyze whether deaf people deploy the same cognitive and learning processes in reading as their hearing peers. For this purpose, we analyzed the relation between phonological processing, speechreading, vocabulary, reading speed, and accuracy with reading efficiency in a sample of deaf people and two control groups respectively matched on chronological age and reading level. The results indicate that deaf people's level of reading efficiency is lower than hearing people's of the same age, but that deafness status in itself is not a good predictor of reading level. The results do not support the idea that deaf people's reading is the result of different processes from the hearing population.

Cognição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Adulto Jovem
Span. j. psychol ; 16: e107.1-e107.9, 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-130440


The aims of this study are to assess L1 and L2 variables that influence the reading acquisition of students of Moroccan origin in the South of Spain and compare their reading ability with native Spanish-speaking children. Participants were 38 students of Moroccan origin and 37 native Spanish-speaking students from the same classes. We used an oral vocabulary test and a reading comprehension test, which taps lexical, semantic, and syntactic reading processes, and reading fluency. The results indicated that immigrant students differed from native Spanish-speaking students in word reading, reading fluency, and the use of punctuation marks, but there were no significant differences in reading comprehension. In native Spanish-speaking students, reading comprehension correlated significantly with oral vocabulary and the other reading processes, but in the students of Moroccan origin, only receptive oral vocabulary in L2 correlated with the use of punctuation marks. Being in schools with educational resources specifically aimed at helping the Moroccan pupils was associated with a higher level of word reading in immigrant students (AU)

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Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Compreensão/fisiologia , Testes de Linguagem , Vocabulário , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comunicação