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1.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(2): 252-255, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement between an oscillometric device and invasive blood pressure (IBP) measurements in anesthetized healthy adult guinea pigs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A total of eight adult Hartley guinea pigs. METHODS: All animals were anesthetized; a carotid artery was surgically exposed and catheterized for IBP measurements. A size 1 cuff placed on the right thoracic limb was connected to an oscillometric device for noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) assessment. Concurrent pairs of systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressures were recorded simultaneously with both methods every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Agreement between IBP and NIBP measurements was determined using the Bland-Altman method, considering the recommended standards for the validation of NIBP measurement devices proposed by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). RESULTS: The bias and the 95% limits of agreement were: -14 (-31 to 3) mmHg, -2 (-14 to 10) mmHg and -1 (-13 to 11) mmHg for SAP, DAP and MAP, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The oscillometric device used in this study to measure NIBP did not meet ACVIM criteria for validation. It showed good agreement for DAP and MAP but not for SAP measurements. Considering the small size of these animals and the resulting difficulty in performing percutaneous arterial catheterization, this device might be a useful tool to assess MAP and DAP during anesthetic procedures in adult guinea pigs.

2.
Exp Parasitol ; 220: 108033, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166530

RESUMO

Infection with Leishmania infantum causes the disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is a serious clinical and veterinary problem. The drugs used to treat canine leishmaniasis (CanL) do not cause complete parasite clearance; they can be toxic, and emerging drug resistance in parasite populations limits their clinical utility. Therefore, in this study we have evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of joint treatment with a 1:1 mixture of sodium stibogluconate-NIV (SSG-NIV, 10 mg Sbv/day) and paromomycin-NIV (PMM-NIV, 10 mg PMM/kg/day), given intravenously daily for seven days from day 270 post-infection, to nine-month-old female beagle dogs (n = 6) experimentally infected with Leishmania infantum. Treatment significantly improved the clinical symptoms of VL infection in all the treated dogs, reduced parasite burdens in lymph nodes and bone marrow, and all symptomatic treated dogs, were asymptomatic at 90 days post-treatment. Treatment was associated with a progressive and significant decrease in specific IgG anti-Leishmania antibodies using parasite soluble antigen (p < 0.01) or rK39 (p < 0.01) as the target antigen. In addition, all dogs were classified as parasite negative based on Leishmania nested PCR and quantitative real time PCR tests and as well as an inability to culture of promastigote parasites from lymph nodes and bone marrow tissue samples taken at day 90 post-treatment. However, treatment did not cure the dogs as parasites were detected at 10 months post-treatment, indicating that a different dosing regimen is required to cause long term cure or prevent relapse.

3.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128251

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of doxycycline in dogs and assess the efficacy of an oral drug dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg daily for 28 days through Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, using previously published data for the zoonotic pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. After a multiple-dosage regimen, the accumulation index was 1.88 ± 0.82. The Cmaxss and Cminss values were 5.18 ± 1.81 µg/ml and 1.91 ± 1.35 µg/ml, respectively. There were statistically significant differences for Cmax, Cmin at 24 hr, MRTt, AUCt and AUC∞ between days 1 and 28. The Cminss value was over the MIC of the principal pathogens, and Cmaxss was higher than the resistance values (>2 µg/ml). For AUC/MIC indices of 12, 25 and 40, the cumulative fraction responses (CFR) were 94.01%, 69.55% and 60.86%, respectively; for an MIC value of 2 µg/ml, the corresponding probability of target attainment (PTA) was 99.94%, 84.78% and 45.16%, respectively. Doxycycline was used against numerous localized infections in different organs and tissues. For the strains with MIC < 1 µg/mL, PTA was close to 100%, even for the most demanding ones, specifically 94.98% for an index of 40% and 99.9% for an index of 25.

4.
Prev Vet Med ; 175: 104875, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896502

RESUMO

Pododermatitis is a chronic and progressive bacterial infectious disease of birds´ footpads, especially associated with captivity, which could represent an important problem in wildlife rehabilitation centres, delaying the release of the birds to the environment and harming their conservation. The objectives of the present study were i) to estimate the incidence rate of pododermatitis, ii) to analyse the influence of environmental, physiological, and pathological factors which may influence the onset of the infection in raptors after their admission to a rehabilitation centre, and iii) to follow up the evolution and macroscopic characteristics of the lesion. An observational retrospective study was carried out on clinical cases of raptors (n = 2004) admitted in a rehabilitation centre in central Spain from 2009 to 2015. The proportion of pododermatitis was 6.9%, with an incidence density of 6.8 cases/100 bird-years at risk. Our results showed that the disease was more likely to occur in birds staying longer (P < 0.001). According to Cox analysis, the variables 'raptor family' (P < 0.001) and 'age' (P = 0.002) may have significant effects on pododermatitis development. Raptors from the Falconidae and Strigidae families were less likely to develop pododermatitis than those from the Accipitridae family, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.31 and 0.13, respectively. Regarding age, fully feathered raptors had a three-fold higher risk of having pododermatitis than non-fully feathered birds. Survival analysis of time of pododermatitis development revealed significant differences associated with the variables 'raptor family' (P < 0.03); 'age' (P < 0.001) and 'cause of admission' (P = 0.001). Duration of the pathology (P < 0.05) and lesion location (P < 0.001) seemed to be phylogenetic dependent. Injuries were primarily located in the toes area or the whole footpad of birds belonging to the Accipitridae or Falconidae families, respectively (P = 0.003).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Dermatite/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Doenças das Aves/etiologia , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Dermatite/etiologia , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Incidência , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(8): 727-735, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after IV administration in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus), to compare clearance of enrofloxacin in American black vultures with clearance of this fluoroquinolone in other avian species, and to evaluate whether allometric scaling is an appropriate tool for dose extrapolation in avian species. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult American black vultures. PROCEDURES: Enrofloxacin concentrations were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin was determined in American black vultures after IV administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters for 12 avian species obtained from 24 pharmacokinetic studies were used. Allometric analysis of enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters was performed. RESULTS: Volume of distribution at steady state for enrofloxacin was 3.47 L/kg, clearance was 0.147 L/h·kg, and elimination half-life was 18.3 hours. Comparisons among avian species revealed that American black vultures had the lowest extraction ratio for enrofloxacin (1.04%). Only the volume of distribution at steady state and clearance had a good allometric fit. Goodness of fit was improved when ratites were not included in the analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that the use of allometric scaling for the prediction of volume of distribution at steady state could provide a suitable method for extrapolation of enrofloxacin doses among avian species; however, allometric scaling could not be used to adequately predict the clearance of enrofloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Aves/metabolismo , Enrofloxacina/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enrofloxacina/administração & dosagem , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 143: 143-150, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528317

RESUMO

Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings. Also, the influence of age, gender, body condition, season and primary cause of admission were evaluated. This study was realized in all Griffon vultures admitted during a period of one year in the Rehabilitation Center GREFA. Blood lead levels are measured by using anodic stripping voltammetry. In Griffon vultures, we observed that 26% of the analyzed birds presented lead levels above 20µg/dL with 74% below 20µg/dL ([Pb]<20 =9.34±5.60µg/dL). In our study, statistically significant differences were found for lead according to sex, season of admission to the center and body condition. A negative correlation was found between levels of metal and hematocrit. No association was found between clinical signs and blood lead levels in Griffon vultures, except for digestive signs as stasis and weight loss. On numerous occasions, the intoxication in this specie is related to ingestion of lead ammunition; however, we have not detected radiographic lead in our vultures. Compared with other studies, we generally found low levels of lead in blood of Griffon vultures but the blood of all birds admitted to WRC presented detectable lead concentrations. This species apparently presents a higher sensibility to the toxic effects of this metal than that described by other authors. It have been observed that there is some evidence that suggests that subclinical levels of lead could be related with a predisposition to injury or diseases, even though these birds might be admitted for other causes. The detection of levels of blood lead in animals that are admitted to a recovery center will give valuable information which could be used to monitor spatial and temporal variations and provide a clearer picture of temporal levels of this contaminant in this emblematic avian specie.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Falconiformes/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 45(1): 78-85, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24712165

RESUMO

Enrofloxacin is widely used in veterinary medicine and is an important alternative to treating bacterial infections, which play an important role as causes of disease and death in captive snakes. Its extralabel use in nontraditional species has been related to its excellent pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial characteristics. This can be demonstrated by its activity against gram-negative organisms implicated in serious infectious diseases of reptile species with a rapid and concentration-dependent bactericidal effect and a large volume of distribution. Pharmacokinetic parameters for enrofloxacin were investigated in seven urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus), following intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood samples were collected from the ventral coccygeal veins at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 108, and 168 hr. The kinetic behavior was characterized by a relatively slow absorption (time of maximal plasma concentration = 4.50 +/- 3.45 hr) with peak plasma concentration of 4.81 +/- 1.12 microg/ml. The long half-life during the terminal elimination phase (t1/2 lambda = 27.91 +/- 7.55 hr) of enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration, calculated in the present study, could suggest that the antibiotic is eliminated relatively slowly and/or the presence of a slow absorption in urutu pit vipers. Ciprofloxacin reached a peak plasma concentration of 0.35 microg/ml at 13.45 hr, and the fraction of enrofloxacin metabolized to ciprofloxacin was 13.06%. If enrofloxacin's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values of 0.5 microg/ml were used, the ratios AUC(e+c): MIC90 (276 +/- 67 hr) and Cmax(e+c): MIC90 (10 +/- 2) reach the proposed threshold values (125 hr and 10, respectively) for optimized efficacy and minimized resistance development when treating infections caused by Pseudomonas. The administration of 10 mg/kg of enrofloxacin by the i.m. route should be considered to be a judicious choice in urutu pit vipers against infections caused by microorganisms with MIC values < or = 0.5 microg/ml. For less susceptible bacteria, a dose increase and/or an interval reduction should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Bothrops , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/metabolismo , Meia-Vida
8.
J Avian Med Surg ; 27(3): 180-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24344508

RESUMO

To determine the dosage of enrofloxacin in southern crested caracaras (Caracara plancus), plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after intravenous (IV) (5 mg/kg) and intramuscular (IM) (10 mg/kg) administration. This compound presented a relatively high volume of distribution (2.09 L/kg), a total body clearance of 0.24 L/kg x h, and a long permanence as shown by an elimination half-life of 7.81 hours after IV administration and a terminal half-life of 6.58 hours after IM administration. The areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were 21.92 and 34.38 microg x h/mL for IM and IV administration, respectively. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after IM administration with a time to reach maximum concentration of 0.72 hours and bioavailability of 78.76%. After IM administration, the peak drug concentration (C(max)) was 3.92 microg/mL. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), C(max), and AUC have been used to predict the clinical efficacy of a drug in treating bacterial infections, with a C(max)/MIC value of 10 and an AUC/MIC ratio of 125-250 associated with optimal bactericidal effects. By using the study data and a MIC breakpoint of 0.25 microg/mL, values of C(max)/MIC were 13.74 and 15.94 and for AUC/MIC were 90.73 and 139.63, for the IV and IM routes respectively. For the treatment of infectious diseases caused by microorganisms with MIC < or = 0.25 microg/mL, the calculated optimal dosages were 7.5 and 9.5 mg/kg q24h by the IV and IM routes, respectively. For less susceptible bacteria, a dose increase should be evaluated. To treat caracara by the IV route against microorganisms with MIC < or = 0.25 microg/mL, the dose should be higher than the 5 mg/kg used in our study, but possible side effects derived from an increase in the IV dose and efficacy in sick birds should be assessed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Aves/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Enrofloxacina , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Meia-Vida , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
J Avian Med Surg ; 26(1): 6-10, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22645833

RESUMO

Marbofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone developed specifically for veterinary use, has demonstrated considerable pharmokinetic variation among avian species. The goal of this study was to determine the disposition kinetics of marbofloxacin in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after a single intravenous injection. Six wild mallard ducks were used in the study. Marbofloxacin was injected at a dose of 2 mg/kg into the basilic vein, and blood was subsequently collected at regular intervals from each bird. Plasma marbofloxacin concentrations were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The volume of distribution at steady state was 1.78 +/- 0.37 L/kg, and the total plasma clearance was 0.59 +/- 0.08 L/kg per hour. Marbofloxacin had a relatively short permanence, with a elimination half-life of 2.81 +/- 1.20 hours, a terminal half-life of 2.43 +/- 0.61 hours, and a mean residence time of 2.99 +/- 0.52 hour. The maximum observed concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) were 1.34 +/- 0.27 microg/mL and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg x h/mL, respectively. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Cmax, and AUC have been used to predict the clinical efficacy of a drug in treating bacterial infections, with a Cmax: MIC value of 10 and an AUC: MIC ratio of 125-250 associated with optimal bactericidal effects. By using the study data and MIC breakpoints of 0.125 microg/mL or 0.2 microg/mL, values derived for Cmax: MIC were 9.37 +/- 0.99 and 5.85 +/- 0.62, respectively, and for AUC: MIC were 29.99 +/- 4.51 and 18.74 +/- 2.82, respectively. By using MIC values of 0.125 and 0.2 microg/mL and a target AUC: MIC = 125, the calculated optimal daily marbofloxacin dosages for mallard ducks were 9.24 and 14.78 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that, primarily because of the high total plasma clearance observed, the marbofloxacin dose for treatment of bacterial diseases in mallard ducks should be increased after intravenous administration. Intravenous doses of 10-15 mg/kg should be assessed by studying their potential toxicity and efficacy in sick birds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Patos/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Esquema de Medicação , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intravenosas
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 90(2): 288-90, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20605034

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics properties of marbofloxacin were studied in adult Eurassian Griffon vulture after single-dose intravenous (IV) administration of 2mg/kg. Drug concentration in plasma was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and the data obtained were subjected to compartmental and non-compartmental kinetic analysis. Marbofloxacin presented a volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) of 1.51±0.22L and total plasma clearance (Cl) of 0.109±0.023L/hkg. The permanence of this drug was long in vultures (T(1/2)(λ)=12.51±2.52h; MRT(∞)=13.54±2.29h). The optimal dose of marbofloxacin estimated is 2.73mg/kg per day for the treatment of infections in vultures with MIC(90)=0.2µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Falconiformes/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Meia-Vida , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 43(5): 405-9, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18576221

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the pharmacokinetic behavior and the inhibitory effect of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in steer cattle after pour-on administration. Determination of cholinesterase activity in plasma and erythrocyte was carried out according to Ellman kinetic method. CPF was analyzed by gas chromatography. AChE was the predominant form of cholinesterase analyzed, with low levels of BChE in plasma. Following the treatment with CPF, the maximum inhibitory effect on AChE or BChE were 50.88 +/- 11.57 and 42.66 +/- 12.01%, respectively. The chlorpyrifos plasma concentrations observed were low and they presented a high variability. Chlorpyrifos peak plasma concentration (10.42 +/- 4.76 micro g/L) was reached at 8.42 +/- 13.97 h. The pesticide was not detected in plasma after 48 h post treatment. The values of area under the curve (AUC) were 118.48 +/- 87.46 micro g x h/L and mean resistance time (MRT) were 13.38 +/- 10.41 h. The pour-on exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos significantly reduced AChE and BChE activity in steer cattle and the recovery was not reached on 50 days post-treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Administração Tópica , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Clorpirifos/administração & dosagem , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Cinética
12.
Vet Res Commun ; 32(7): 509-19, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18481189

RESUMO

Sulphonamides are still being used widely, influenced by the low cost and the efficacy against many common bacterial infections, since they present a broad spectrum of activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) integration of intravenous sulfamethazine (60 mg/kgbw) in cattle, and the possible therapeutic outcomes. Six healthy female calves, at the age of one, three, seven and fifteen weeks were used. Normality analysis was assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Non-parametric tests for paired data were used. Plasma concentrations were quantified using HPLC/uv. Differences were found between one-three-weeks-old calves and seven-fifteen-weeks-old calves, in pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, area under the concentration-time curve and elimination half-life) and in the PK/PD integration. The ratios obtained in PK/PD integration (T>MIC, WAUC) confirm that it is necessary to apply twice the dose of sulfamethazine in > or = 7 weeks-old cattle to reach a satisfactory dosage regimen (MIC > or = 32 microg/mL).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Sulfametazina/administração & dosagem , Sulfametazina/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intravenosas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sulfametazina/sangue
13.
Vet Res Commun ; 32(5): 401-10, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18266068

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the pharmacokinetic behaviour and the inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities of chlorpyrifos in male and female cattle after pour-on administration. Determination of cholinesterase activity in plasma and erythrocyte was carried out according to Ellman kinetic method. The mean baseline activities were 9338.39 +/- 1331.61 and 13220.69 +/- 2274.18 to acetylcholinesterase and 624.65 +/- 39.32 and 641.68 +/- 88.08 IU/L to butyrylcholinesterase in females and males, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase was the predominant form of cholinesterase analyzed, with low levels of butyrylcholinesterase. The basal acetylcholinesterase activities of the bulls were significantly greater than those of cows. The inhibitory effect of topical chlorpyrifos administration was lower on butyrylcholinesterase than on acetylcholinesterase. Chlorpyrifos peak plasma concentration (male:10.920 +/- 4.18; female:12.12 +/- 3.88 microg/L) were reached at 11.92 +/- 9.19 and 8.17 +/- 7.67 h in male and female, respectively. The values of area under curve were 185.96 +/- 168.45 and 278.89 +/- 270.00 microg h/L and mean residence time were 13.95 +/- 8.10 and 14.90 +/- 9.80 h in male and female, respectively.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Inseticidas/farmacocinética , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Administração Tópica , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/administração & dosagem , Clorpirifos/sangue , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/sangue , Feminino , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/sangue , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Vet J ; 175(1): 136-8, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17303451

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin in greater rheas was investigated after intramuscular (IM) administration of 15 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Enrofloxacin peak plasma concentration (C(max)=3.30+/-0.90 microg/mL) was reached at 24.17+/-9.17 min. The terminal half-life (t(1/2lambda)) and area under the curve (AUC) were 2.85+/-0.54 h and 4.18+/-0.69 microg h/mL, respectively. The AUC and C(max) for ciprofloxacin were 0.25+/-0.06 microg/mL and 0.66+/-0.16 microg h/mL, respectively. Taking into account the values obtained for the efficacy indices, an IM dose of 15 mg/kg of enrofloxacin would appear to be adequate for treating infections caused by highly susceptible bacteria (MIC(90)<0.03 microg/mL) in greater rheas.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Reiformes/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária
15.
Vet J ; 174(2): 425-7, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16807010

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetic behavior of marbofloxacin was studied in goats after single-dose subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2mg/kg bodyweight. Drug concentration in plasma was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the data obtained were subjected to non-compartmental kinetic analysis. Marbofloxacin peak plasma concentration (C(max)=1.77+/-0.24microg/mL) was reached 1.25+/-0.50h (T(max)) after SC administration. The elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)) and area under curve (AUC) were 5.74+/-1.21h and 8.15 vs 2.33microg h/mL, respectively. Taking into account the values obtained for the efficacy indices, it was concluded that a SC dose of 2mg/kg/24h of marbofloxacin could be adequate to treat infections caused by high susceptible bacteria like Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Cabras/metabolismo , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Cabras/sangue , Meia-Vida , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem
16.
Vet J ; 171(3): 551-5, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16624724

RESUMO

This study reports on the administration of a single dose of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg) to five adult Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) by the intraosseous (IO) route, which has been proposed as a rapid and efficient means for the parenteral delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The drug was rapidly absorbed. Peak marbofloxacin concentration (C(max)) in plasma and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 1.92+/-0.78 microg/mL and 8.53+/-2.73 microg h/mL, respectively. The time marbofloxacin remained in the plasma after IO administration was relatively short (elimination half-life, t(1/2beta)=4.91+/-0.65 h; mean residence time (MRT)=5.38+/-0.57 h). Single dose marbofloxacin gave values for C(max)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 19.2 and an AUC/MIC value of 85.3h after IO administration. The IO route appears to be practical and effective for the rapid delivery of marbofloxacin to buzzards.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Infusões Intraósseas/veterinária , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Meia-Vida , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos
17.
Vet J ; 170(3): 364-8, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16266851

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration, both at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, in six clinically healthy domestic ostriches. Plasma concentrations of marbofloxacin was determined by a HPLC/UV method. The high volume of distribution (3.22+/-0.98 L/kg) suggests good tissue penetration. Marbofloxacin presented a high clearance value (2.19+/-0.27 L/kgh), explaining the low AUC values (2.32+/-0.30 microgh/mL and 2.25+/-0.70 microgh/mL, after IV and IM administration, respectively) and a short half life and mean residence time (t(1/2 beta)=1.47+/-0.31 h and 1.96+/-0.35 h; MRT=1.46+/-0.02 h and 2.11+/-0.30 h, IV and IM, respectively). The absorption of marbofloxacin after IM administration was rapid and complete (C(max)=1.13+/-0.29 microg/mL; T(max)=0.36+/-0.071 h; MAT=0.66+/-0.22 h and F (%)=95.03+/-16.89).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Absorção , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Struthioniformes/sangue
18.
J Wildl Dis ; 41(2): 379-86, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16107673

RESUMO

Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, serum biochemistry, and cholinesterase values were determined in 36 free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra) between 25 and 53 days of age in order to establish normal reference values for this population. The following values were evaluated: white blood cell counts, red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, prealbumin, albumin, alpha-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, calcium, phosphorus, iron, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total solids, bile acids, and butyrylcholinesterase. Sex-dependent differences were observed in hemoglobin, prealbumin, albumin, gamma-globulin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, and triglycerides. Packed cell volume, butyrylcholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and creatinine increased with age, whereas albumin, mean cell volume, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, and total solids decreased with age. These hematologic and serum biochemistry values can be used as reference ranges in free-living black stork nestlings.


Assuntos
Albuminas/análise , Aves/sangue , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Aves/fisiologia , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Volume de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Valores de Referência
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