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3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(7): 1932-1942, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) to NNRTIs has consistently increased in low-/middle-income countries during the last decade. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of pre-treatment HIVDR and acquired HIVDR among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART for 12 ±âŸ3 months (ADR12) and ≥48 months (ADR48) in Honduras. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey with a two-stage cluster sampling was conducted from October 2016 to November 2017. Twenty-two of 54 total ART clinics representing >90% of the national cohort of adults on ART were included. HIVDR was assessed for protease and reverse transcriptase Sanger sequences using the Stanford HIVdb tool. RESULTS: A total of 729 PLHIV were enrolled; 26.3% (95% CI 20.1%-33.5%) ART initiators reported prior exposure to antiretrovirals. Pre-treatment HIVDR prevalence was 26.9% (95% CI 20.2%-34.9%) to any antiretroviral and 25.9% (19.2%-33.9%) to NNRTIs. NNRTI pre-treatment HIVDR was higher in ART initiators with prior exposure to antiretrovirals (P = 0.001). Viral load (VL) suppression rate was 89.7% (85.1%-93.0%) in ADR12 and 67.9% (61.7%-73.6%) in ADR48. ADR12 to any drug among PLHIV with VL ≥1000 copies/mL was 86.1% (48.9%-97.6%); 67.1% (37.4%-87.5%) had HIVDR to both NNRTIs and NRTIs, and 3.8% (0.5%-25.2%) to PIs. ADR48 was 92.0% (86.8%-95.3%) to any drug; 78.1% (66.6%-86.5%) to both NNRTIs and NRTIs, and 7.3% (1.8%-25.1%) to PIs. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of NNRTI pre-treatment HIVDR observed in Honduras warrants consideration of non-NNRTI-based first-line regimens for ART initiation. Programmatic improvements in HIVDR monitoring and adherence support may also be considered.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 153: 779-795, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169454

RESUMO

A thrombin-like enzyme, pictobin, was purified from Bothrops pictus snake venom. It is a 41-kDa monomeric glycoprotein as showed by mass spectrometry and contains approx. 45% carbohydrate by mass which could be removed with N-glycosidase. Pictobin coagulates plasma and fibrinogen, releasing fibrinopeptide A and induces the formation of a friable/porous fibrin network as visualized by SEM. The enzyme promoted platelet aggregation in human PRP and defibrination in mouse model and showed catalytic activity on chromogenic substrates S-2266, S-2366, S-2160 and S-2238. Pictobin interacts with the plasma inhibitor α2-macroglobulin, which blocks its interaction with fibrinogen but not with the small substrate BApNA. Heparin does not affect its enzymatic activity. Pictobin cross reacted with polyvalent bothropic antivenom, and its deglycosylated form reduced its catalytic action and antivenom reaction. In breast and lung cancer cells, pictobin inhibits the fibronectin-stimulated migration. Moreover, it produces strong NADH oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization, ATP decrease and fragmentation of mitochondrial network. These results suggest by first time that a snake venom serinprotease produces mitochondrial dysfunction by affecting mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. Structural model of pictobin reveals a conserved chymotrypsin fold ß/ß hydrolase. These data indicate that pictobin has therapeutic potential in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and metastatic disease.

5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101517, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After serious epidemics of chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) in the Americas, dengue (DENV) have reemerged in most countries. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of DENV cases in Honduras from 2015 to 2018 and the ongoing 2019 epidemic. METHODS: Using epidemiological weeks (EW) surveillance data on the DENV in Honduras, we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps at national, departmental, and municipal levels. RESULTS: From January 1, 2016 to July 21, 2019, a total of 109,557 cases of DENV were reported, 28,603 in 2019, with an incidence rate of 312.32 cases/100,000 population this year; 0.13% laboratory-confirmed. The highest peak was reached on the EW 28°, 2019 (5299 cases; 57.89 cases/100,000 population). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (8404 cases, 479.68 cases/100,000 population in 2019). DISCUSSION: The pattern and evolution of DENV epidemic in 2019 in Honduras has been similar to that which occurred for in 2015. As previously reported, this epidemic involved the north and central areas of the country predominantly, reaching municipality incidences there >1000 cases/100,000 population (or 1%). Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to obtain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country.

7.
Biochimie ; 162: 33-45, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946947

RESUMO

Snake venoms are a rich source of enzymes such as metalloproteinases, serine proteinases phospholipases A2 and myotoxins, that have been well characterized structurally and functionally. However, hyaluronidases (E.C.3.2.1.35) have not been studied extensively. In this study, we describe the biochemical and molecular features of a hyaluronidase (Hyal-Ba) isolated from the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothrops atrox. Hyal-Ba was purified by a combination of ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Purified Hyal-Ba is a 69-kDa (SDS-PAGE) monomeric glycoprotein with an N-terminal amino acid sequence sharing high identity with homologous snake venom hyaluronidases. Detected associated carbohydrates were hexoses (16.38%), hexosamines (2.7%) and sialic acid (0.69%). Hyal-Ba selectively hydrolyzed only hyaluronic acid (HA; specific activity = 437.5 U/mg) but it did not hydrolyze chondroitin sulfate or heparin. The optimal pH and temperature for maximum activity were 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively, and its Km was 0.31 µM. Its activity was inhibited by EDTA, iodoacetate, 2-mercaptoethanol, TLCK and dexamethasone. Na+ and K+ (0.2 M) positively affect hyaluronidase activity; while Mg2+, Br2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ reduced catalytic activity. Hyal-Ba potentiates the hemorrhagic and hemolytic activity of whole venom, but decreased subplantar edema caused by an l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). The Hyal-Ba cDNA sequence (2020 bp) encodes 449 amino acid residues, including the catalytic site residues (Glu135, Asp133, Tyr206, Tyr253 and Trp328) and three functional motifs for N-linked glycosylation, which are conserved with other snake hyaluronidases. Spatial modeling of Hyal-Ba displayed a TIM-Barrel (α/ß) fold and an EGF-like domain in the C-terminal portion. The phylogenetic analysis of Hyal-Ba with other homologous Hyals showed the monophyly of viperids. Further, Hyal-Ba studies may extend our knowledge of B. atrox toxinology and provides insight to improve the neutralizing strategies of therapeutic antivenoms.


Assuntos
Bothrops/metabolismo , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , Venenos de Crotalídeos/enzimologia , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , DNA Complementar , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/química , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/classificação , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/toxicidade , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Peru , Filogenia , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(3)2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897829

RESUMO

Background: The first cases of food allergy to amaranth grain have recently been published. This pseudocereal is considered hypoallergenic, and there is scarce information about the allergenic potential of amaranth proteins, either before or after food processing. Objective: To evaluate, in a mouse model of food allergy, the sensitizing and allergenic potential of extruded and non-extruded albumin and globulin fractions from amaranth grains. Materials and Methods: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) flour was obtained and the albumin and globulin fractions isolated. These protein fractions were also obtained after flour extrusion. An intraperitoneal 28-day protocol was carried out to evaluate the sensitizing and allergenic potential of the proteins. The common and rarely allergenic proteins ovalbumin and potato acidic phosphatase were utilized as reference. Specific IgE and IgG antibodies were evaluated for all the proteins tested. Mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) responses were evaluated in serum samples collected after intragastric challenges with the proteins of interest. All serological evaluations were carried out using ELISA. Results: Mice were sensitized to the non-extruded albumin fraction from amaranth grains and to ovalbumin (p = 0.0045). The extrusion process of amaranth proteins abrogated the IgE responses triggered under non-extruded conditions (p = 0.0147). mMCP-1 responses were significantly detected in the group of mice sensitized to ovalbumin (p = 0.0138), but not in others. Conclusions: The non-extruded albumin fraction from amaranth has the potential to sensitize BALB/c mice, but this sensitizing potential fails to induce detectable serum levels of the mast cell degranulation marker mMCP-1 after intragastric challenges. Furthermore, the extrusion process abolished the sensitization potential of the amaranth albumins.


Assuntos
Albuminas/isolamento & purificação , Amaranthus/efeitos adversos , Amaranthus/química , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Globulinas/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Quimases/sangue , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos
9.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 192-199, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737612

RESUMO

Germination of grains is a bioprocess of emerging interest to improve nutritional and nutraceutical profile of cereals in a natural way. The aim of this work was to identify optimal germination conditions (temperature/duration) for producing a functional blue maize flour with maximum values of protein content (PC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and total phenolic and anthocyanin contents (TPC, TAC). A central composite rotatable experimental design (response surface methodology) with two factors [Germination temperature (Gtemp, 20-40 °C) / Germination duration (Gdur, 12-220 h)] in five levels was used (13 treatments). Blue maize seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C / 12 h) before germination. The sprouts were dried, tempered (25 °C), and ground to obtain germinated blue maize flours (GBMF). The prediction models developed for each response variable showed high coefficients of determination, demonstrating their adequacy to explain the variations in experimental data. Maximum values of PC, AoxA, TPC, and TAC were attained at Gtemp = 26.9 °C / Gdur = 207.7 h. Optimized germinated blue maize flour (OGBMF) presented higher PC (+38.48%), AoxA (ABTS: +192%, ORAC: +160%, DPPH: +148%), TPC (+79%), and TAC (+9.9%) than unprocessed blue maize flour (UBMF). Germination at optimal conditions is an effective strategy to increase the nutritional/nutraceutical quality of blue maize seeds, thus the flour of these germinated seeds could be used for the development of functional foods.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Alimento Funcional , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Farinha/análise , Germinação , Fenóis/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Molecules ; 22(11)2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120394

RESUMO

Alcalase is the enzyme of choice to release antihypertensive peptides from amaranth proteins, but the hydrolysis conditions have not been optimized yet. Furthermore, in vivo assays are needed to confirm such a hypotensive effect. Our aim was to optimize the hydrolysis of amaranth protein with alcalase and to test in vivo the hypotensive effect of the hydrolysates. A response surface analysis was carried out to optimize the hydrolysis reaction. The response variable was the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE-I) inhibition. The hydrolysis degree was determined (free alpha-amino groups measurement). The optimized hydrolysate bioavailability was assessed in the sera of mice and the hypotensive effect was assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Control groups were administered captopril or water. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were: pH = 7.01, temperature = 52 °C, enzyme concentration 0.04 mU/mg, and time = 6.16 h. The optimized hydrolysate showed a 93.5% of ACE-I inhibition and a hydrolysis degree of 74.77%. After supplementation, the hydrolysate was bioavailable in mice from 5 to 60 min, and the hypotensive effect started at 4 h in spontaneously hypertensive rats (p < 0.05 vs. water group). This effect was similar to the captopril hypotensive effect for the next 3 h (p > 0.05). The use of amaranth-optimized hydrolysates as hypotensive supplements or ingredient for functional foods seems feasible.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hidrólise , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
11.
Toxicon ; 139: 74-86, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024770

RESUMO

An L-amino acid oxidase from Peruvian Bothrops pictus (Bpic-LAAO) snake venom was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Bpic-LAAO is a homodimeric glycosylated flavoprotein with molecular mass of ∼65 kDa under reducing conditions and ∼132 kDa in its native form as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed highly conserved residues in a glutamine-rich motif related to binding substrate. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity towards L-Leu at pH 8.5, and like other reported SV-LAAOs, it is stable until 55 °C. Kinetic studies showed that the cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ did not alter Bpic-LAAO activity; however, Zn2+ is an inhibitor. Some reagents such as ß-mercaptoethanol, glutathione and iodoacetate had inhibitory effect on Bpic-LAAO activity, but PMSF, EDTA and glutamic acid did not affect its activity. Regarding the biological activities of Bpic-LAAO, this enzyme induced edema in mice (MED = 7.8 µg), and inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by ADP in a dose-dependent manner and showed antibacterial activity on Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. Bpic-LAAO cDNA of 1494 bp codified a mature protein with 487 amino acid residues comprising a signal peptide of 11 amino acids. Finally, the phylogenetic tree obtained with other sequences of LAAOs, evidenced its similarity to other homologous enzymes, showing two well-established monophyletic groups in Viperidae and Elapidae families. Bpic-LAAO is evolutively close related to LAAOs from B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. atrox, and together with the LAAO from B. pauloensis, form a well-defined cluster of the Bothrops genus.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/enzimologia , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/química , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Camundongos , Peru , Filogenia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 72(4): 345-352, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28900797

RESUMO

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant is native from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Their seeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds which protect consumers against chronic diseases. Germination improves functionality of the seeds due to the increase in the bioactive compounds and associated antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to obtain functional flour from germinated chia seeds under optimized conditions with increased antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, GABA, essential amino acids, and dietary fiber with respect to un-germinated chia seeds. The effect of germination temperature and time (GT = 20-35 °C, Gt = 10-300 h) on protein, lipid, and total phenolic contents (PC, LC, TPC, respectively), and antioxidant activity (AoxA) was analyzed by response surface methodology as optimization tool. Chia seeds were germinated inside plastic trays with absorbent paper moisturized with 50 mL of 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite dissolution. The sprouts were dried (50 °C/8 h) and ground to obtain germinated chia flours (GCF). The prediction models developed for PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA showed high coefficients of determination, demonstrating their adequacy to explain the variations in experimental data. The highest values of PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA were obtained at two different optimal conditions (GT = 21 °C/Gt = 157 h; GT = 33 °C/Gt = 126 h). Optimized germinated chia flours (OGCF) had higher PC, TPC, AoxA, GABA, essential amino acids, calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER), and total dietary fiber (TDF) than un-germinated chia seed flour. The OGCF could be utilized as a natural source of proteins, dietary fiber, GABA, and antioxidants in the development of new functional beverages and foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Germinação/fisiologia , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos Essenciais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/química , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
13.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 65(6): 241-248, 16 sept., 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167008

RESUMO

Introducción. Los ictus se sitúan como una de las principales causas de mortalidad e incapacidad funcional en los países desarrollados. La estenosis carotídea (EC) se considera la causa del 20-30% de los ictus. No obstante, los estudios que han profundizado en el estado cognitivo de estos pacientes son escasos. Objetivo. Estudiar el rendimiento cognitivo de pacientes con EC y su relación con variables clínicas (obstrucción de la carótida, estilo de vida). Pacientes y métodos. Se evaluó a 33 pacientes con EC mediante un protocolo europsicológico amplio, distribuidos en dos grupos: EC sintomática y EC asintomática. Resultados. Un 50-57% de los pacientes con EC presentó una ejecución alterada en velocidad de procesamiento y memoria visual (recuerdo inmediato). Un 41,9% rindió de forma alterada en fluidez semántica, mientras que en el subtest de dígitos el porcentaje fue del 30%. En la memoria verbal (curva de aprendizaje, recuerdo demorado) y la memoria visual (recuerdo demorado), el porcentaje de alterados fue del 20-27%. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de EC asintomática y EC sintomática. El rendimiento cognitivo correlacionó significativamente con los factores de la escala de estilo de vida, pero no con el porcentaje de obstrucción de la carótida. Conclusión. Un elevado porcentaje de los pacientes con EC presentó un rendimiento clínicamente alterado en diferentes dominios cognitivos, con independencia de que hubieran experimentado o no sintomatología neurológica vascular (EC asintomática frente a sintomática). Se encontró una estrecha relación entre el estilo de vida y el estado cognitivo de los pacientes con EC (AU)


Introduction. Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and functional disability in developed countries. Carotid stenosis (CS) is considered the reason for 20-30% of strokes. However, the studies that have gone into depth on the cognitive status of these patients are limited. Aim. To investigate the cognitive performance of CS patients and its relationship with clinical variables (carotid obstruction, lifestyle). Patients and methods. 33 CS patients were evaluated using a broad neuropsychological protocol, and were divided into two groups: symptomatic CS and asymptomatic CS. Results. 50-57% of CS patients showed deficits in processing speed and visual memory (immediate recall). 41.9% showed altered performance in semantic fluency, whereas the percentage was 30% in digits subtest. The percentage of altered performance was 20-27% in verbal memory (learning curve, delayed recall) and visual memory (delayed recall). No significant differences were found between the symptomatic CS and asymptomatic CS groups. Cognitive performance correlated significantly with lifestyle scale factors, but not with the percentage of carotid obstruction. Conclusion. A high percentage of CS patients showed a clinically altered performance in different cognitive domains, regardless of suffering vascular neurological symptoms (symptomatic vs asymptomatic CS). A close relationship was found between lifestyle and cognitive status of CS patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/métodos , Angioplastia/métodos
14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 72(3): 314-320, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852927

RESUMO

Phenolic acids profiles, chemical antioxidant activities (ABTS and ORAC), as well as cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of tortilla of Mexican native maize landraces elaborated from nixtamalization and lime cooking extrusion processes were studied. Both cooking procedures decreased total phenolics, chemicals antioxidant activity when compared to raw grains. Extruded tortillas retained 79.6-83.5%, 74.1-77.6% and 79.8-80.5% of total phenolics, ABTS and ORAC values, respectively, compared to 47.8-49.8%, 41.3-42.3% and 43.7-44.4% assayed in traditional tortillas, respectively. Approximately 72.5-88.2% of ferulic acid in raw grains and their tortillas were in the bound form. Regarding of the CAA initially found in raw grains, the retained percentage for traditional and extruded tortillas ranged from 47.4 to 48.7% and 72.8 to 77.5%, respectively. These results suggest that Mexican maize landrace used in this study could be considered for the elaboration of nixtamalized and extruded food products with nutraceutical potential.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Zea mays/química , Pão/análise , Compostos de Cálcio , Culinária , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , México , Óxidos
15.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 31(2): 105-118, mayo-ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167625

RESUMO

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para determinar el comportamiento clínico-seroepidemiológico de la lepra en el período comprendido de enero del 2010 a diciembre del 2015, en el Consejo Popular "La Gloria" perteneciente al municipio Sierra de Cubitas. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por las 471 personas a las que se le realizó test de ELISA, siendo la muestra los 54 pacientes donde el examen fue positivo o se comportó por encima del nivel de cohorte. Se encontró que el año de mayor tasa fue el 2012, con un 2.19 seguido del año 2015 con 1.64. Prevaleciendo la lepra subclínica con un 87 %, mientras que la lepra lepromatosa correspondió al mayor número de síntomas. Predominaron las edades entre 40 y 49 años, el sexo femenino y las amas de casa. Los vecinos fueron la principal fuente de infección. El mayor número de casos osciló entre los resultados serológicos de 0.3001-0.500, correspondiéndose a la forma subclínica de la lepra y en relación a la baciloscopia se constató que a totalidad de los casos presentaron codificación cero


A descriptive study was conducted to determine the clinical-epidemiological evolution of leprosy in the period from January 2010 to December 2015, in the local area "La Gloria" part of the Sierra de Cubitas municipality. The study group was formed by 471 individuals in which we carried out the Elisa test and 54 samples were positive or with values above the level of cut-off. The highest rate was detected in the year 2012 (2.19), followed by the year 2015 (1.64). Subclinical leprosy represented 87% of the cases, while the lepromatous type presented the largest number of symptoms. Most of the cases were between 40 and 49 years old, female and housewives. Neighbors were the main source of infection. The majority of cases presented serological values between 0.3001-0.500, corresponding to the subclinical form of leprosy and the skin smears, were all negative, no bacilli detected


Assuntos
Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Cuba/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Food Chem ; 226: 69-74, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28254020

RESUMO

Isoflavonoid compositions, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated after soaking with different sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) concentrations (0, 1 and 2mg/100g seeds). Chickpea seeds were germinated during four days at 24°C and the isoflavonoid profiles and concentrations evaluated by HPLC-UV daily during four days of germination. Eleven isoflavones and two pterocarpan phytoalexins forms were identified in sprouts, being malonylated formononetin glycoside, formononetin, isoformononetin glycoside and malonylated biochanin A glycoside the major compounds. Compared to untreated sprouts, total isoflavonoid, PAL activity and antioxidant capacity showed a remarkable increase of 83%, 56%, and 33%, respectively in chickpea sprouts that were treated with a high sodium selenite content (2mg/100g seeds). Results suggest that Se-enriched chickpea sprouts could represent a good source of dietary Se and as an upgraded source of isoflavonoids.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cicer/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Cicer/química , Cicer/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Sesquiterpenos
17.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 32(4): 652-658, oct.-dic. 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-790773

RESUMO

Realizar una caracterización bioquímica y molecular del principio coagulante del veneno de Bothrops pictus. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó la amplificación del gen a partir de cDNA, se analizó la homología de la secuencia nucleotídica y de la proteína deducida. Se procedió a purificar la enzima para los análisis de secuenciación directa N terminal de los primeros 20 aminoácidos y los ensayos de coagulación sobre plasma humano y fibrinógeno humano, por otro lado, se evaluó el patrón de corte del fibrinógeno por medio de PAGE SDS y la actividad defibrinogenante en roedores albinos (18-22 g). Se determinó el contenido de carbohidratos asociados, el efecto de inhibidores clásicos de proteasas y el efecto de iones bajo la forma de cloruros. Resultados. La enzima mostró homología en la estructura primaria con otras TLEs reportadas para la familia Viperidae, la dosis coagulante mínima (DCM) sobre plasma y fibrinógeno humano fue de 18 y 6 ug respectivamente y su potencia coagulante fue de 131,1 NHI unidades de trombina. La enzima se mostró estable a condiciones fisiológicas y prescinde de iones para su actividad. Los carbohidratos asociados detectados fueron hexosas (25,76%), hexosaminas (13,1%) y ácido siálico (0,76%). Los agentes fluoruro de fenil metil sulfonil floruro (PMSF) ditiotreitol (DTT) fueron los principales inhibidores de la actividad enzimática en tanto que la heparina no tuvo efecto inhibidor. Conclusiones. El principio coagulante del veneno de Bothrops pictus es una enzima similar a trombina...


To perform a biochemical and molecular characterization of the coagulant principle from Bothrops pictus venom. Materials and methods. We amplified the genetic sequence of this enzyme from cDNA and analyzed the homology of its nucleotide sequence and its deduced protein. This enzyme was also purified for N-terminal sequencing of first 20 amino acids and for coagulation assays using human plasma and human fibrinogen. Furthermore, cleavage pattern on fibrinogen was evaluated using SDS-PAGE and defibrinogenant activity on white mice (18-22 g). Finally, associated carbohydrate content, effect of protease inhibitors and chloride ions on its enzymatic activity were analyzed. Results. The Thrombin-like Enzyme from Bothrops pictus showed homology at primary level of structure with other previously reported TLEs from Viperidae family. Minimum Coagulant Dosis (MCD) on plasma and human fibrinogen were 18 and 6 ug, respectively, and its coagulant potency was 131.1 NHI Thrombin units. This TLE was stable under physiological conditions and chloride ions are not necessary for its activity. Detected associated carbohydrates were hexoses (25.76%), hexosamines (13.12%) and sialic acid (0.76%). Phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) and dithiothreitol (DTT) were the main inhibitors of its enzymatic activity, but heparin had no inhibitor effect. Conclusions. The coagulant principle of Bothrops pictus venom is a Thrombin-like enzyme...


Assuntos
Humanos , Coagulação Sanguínea , Bothrops , Fibrinogênio , Venenos de Serpentes , Trombina
18.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 66(5): 498-504, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166006

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to obtain a functional flour with enhanced nutritional properties, and antioxidant and antihypertensive potential from black bean seeds by optimizing the solid state bioconversion (SSB) process using a Rhizopus oligoporus strain. Response surface methodology was applied as optimization technique. A central composite experimental design with two factors [fermentation temperature (FT) = 30-40 °C/fermentation time (Ft) = 6-108 h] and five levels was used (13 treatments). The bioprocessed cotyledons from each treatment were dried, milled, and blended with its previously dried-milled seed coats. The best combination FT/Ft of SSB to obtain the functional flour was 38 °C/100 h. SSB increased the calculated protein efficiency ratio (from 1.59 to 2.40), antioxidant activity (from 13 948 to 22 733 µmol ET/100 g, dw), total phenolic compounds (TPC) (from 190 to 432 mg EGA/100 g, dw) and antihypertensive potential (IC(50) from 95.57 to 0.0321 µg/mL). SSB is an effective strategy to improve the TPC of common beans for enhanced functionality.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Fermentação , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Biotransformação , Cotilédone , Proteínas na Dieta , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Rhizopus , Sementes/microbiologia , Temperatura
19.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 32(4): 652-8, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To perform a biochemical and molecular characterization of the coagulant principle from Bothrops pictus venom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We amplified the genetic sequence of this enzyme from cDNA and analyzed the homology of its nucleotide sequence and its deduced protein. This enzyme was also purified for N-terminal sequencing of first 20 amino acids and for coagulation assays using human plasma and human fibrinogen. Furthermore, cleavage pattern on fibrinogen was evaluated using SDS-PAGE and defibrinogenant activity on white mice (18-22 g). Finally, associated carbohydrate content, effect of protease inhibitors and chloride ions on its enzymatic activity were analyzed. RESULTS: The Thrombin-like Enzyme from Bothrops pictus showed homology at primary level of structure with other previously reported TLEs from Viperidae family. Minimum Coagulant Dosis (MCD) on plasma and human fibrinogen were 18 and 6 µg, respectively, and its coagulant potency was 131.1 NHI Thrombin units. This TLE was stable under physiological conditions and chloride ions are not necessary for its activity. Detected associated carbohydrates were hexoses (25.76%), hexosamines (13.12%) and sialic acid (0.76%). Phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) and dithiothreitol (DTT) were the main inhibitors of its enzymatic activity, but heparin had no inhibitor effect. CONCLUSIONS: The coagulant principle of Bothrops pictus venom is a Thrombin-like enzyme.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Trombina/química , Animais , Venenos de Crotalídeos/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Camundongos
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