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1.
J Orthop Res ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808575

RESUMO

C1q/TNF-related protein 3 (CTRP3) is a cytokine known to regulate a variety of metabolic processes. Though previously undescribed in the context of bone regeneration, high throughput gene expression experiments in mice identified CTRP3 as one of the most highly upregulated genes in fracture callus tissue. Hypothesizing a positive regulatory role for CTRP3 in bone regeneration, we phenotyped skeletal development and fracture healing in CTRP3 knockout (KO) and CTRP3 overexpressing transgenic (TG) mice relative to wild-type (WT) control animals. CTRP3 KO mice experienced delayed endochondral fracture healing, resulting in abnormal mineral distribution, the presence of periosteal marrow compartments, and a nonunion-like state. Decreased osteoclast number was also observed in CTRP3 KO mice, whereas CTRP3 TG mice underwent accelerated callus remodeling. Gene expression profiling revealed a broad impact on osteoblast/osteoclast lineage commitment and metabolism, including arrested progression toward mature skeletal lineages in the KO group. A single systemic injection of CTRP3 protein at the time of fracture was insufficient to phenocopy the chronic TG healing response in WT mice. By associating CTRP3 levels with fracture healing progression, these data identify a novel protein family with potential therapeutic and diagnostic value. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

2.
FASEB J ; 33(12): 14748-14759, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689374

RESUMO

Interorgan communication mediated by secreted proteins plays a pivotal role in metabolic homeostasis, yet the function of many circulating secretory proteins remains unknown. Here, we describe the function of protease-associated domain-containing 1 (PRADC1), an enigmatic secretory protein widely expressed in humans and mice. In metabolically active tissues (liver, muscle, fat, heart, and kidney), we showed that Pradc1 expression is significantly suppressed by refeeding and reduced in kidney and brown fat in the context of obesity. PRADC1 is dispensable for whole-body metabolism when mice are fed a low-fat diet. However, in obesity induced by high-fat feeding, PRADC1-deficient female mice have reduced weight gain and adiposity despite similar caloric intake. Decreased fat mass is attributed, in part, to increased metabolic rate, physical activity, and energy expenditure in these animals. Reduced adiposity in PRADC1-deficient mice, however, does not improve systemic glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, liver steatosis, or adipose inflammation. Thus, in PRADC1-deficient animals, decreased fat mass and enhanced physical activity are insufficient to confer a healthy metabolic phenotype in the context of an obesogenic diet. Our results shed light on the physiologic function of PRADC1 and the complex regulation of metabolic health.-Rodriguez, S., Stewart, A. N., Lei, X., Cao, X., Little, H. C., Fong, V., Sarver, D. C., Wong, G. W. PRADC1: a novel metabolic-responsive secretory protein that modulates physical activity and adiposity.

3.
Psicothema ; 31(4): 422-428, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a person-centered approach, the aim ofthis study is to identify different profiles of students based on the time they spend on homew he differences between them in the amount of homework done and academic achievement. METHOD: With a sample of 968 students of Primary Education analysis of latent profiles (LPA) and ANOVA were carried out. Once the student profiles were identified, a MANOVA was conducted to analyze the differences between the motivational profiles in the amount of homework assignments done and in academic achievement. RESULTS: We differentiated four profiles of students that differentially combine the time they dedicate to their homework and the use they make of that time. CONCLUSIONS: Of the profiles identified, two can be considered more effective (those that manage time better), and two can be classified as less effective (those that manage time worse). The two profiles that best manage the time spent on homework are also those that do the most homework, and have higher academic achievement. Likewise, the two profiles of students who manage time worst are those who do the least homework, and who have lower academic achievement.

4.
Planta Med ; 85(17): 1351-1362, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559607

RESUMO

Atremorine is a novel bioproduct with neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons and a natural L-DOPA donor in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we show the effects of a single dose of Atremorine (5 g, p. o.) on plasma dopamine (DA) response and brain function in PD (n = 183) and the influence that pathogenic (LRRK2), metabolic (CYP2D5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, NAT2), transporter (ABCB1), pleiotropic (APOE), and detoxifying genes (CYP1B1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTM1, SOD2) involved in the pharmacogenetic network exerts on Atremorine-induced DA response. Over 90% of PD patients at diagnosis show plasma DA levels below 20 pg/mL. Atremorine induces DA synthesis causing a significant increase in plasma DA levels 1 h after administration in practically 100% of patients. Females tend to show lower basal DA levels than males and the response of DA to Atremorine is stronger in males than in females. Atremorine-induced DA response is pharmacogenotype-specific and lasts from 6 - 12 h depending upon the pharmacogenetic profile of each patient. Genetic variants in pathogenic genes, metabolic genes, and genes involved in the detoxification processes affect the response of DA to Atremorine in a genotype-specific manner. Atremorine or any of its bioactive components can cross the blood-brain barrier and improve brain function and motor function, as revealed by the reduction in slow wave activity in brain mapping and psychometric assessment, respectively. Atremorine is a selective neuroprotective agent for dopaminergic neurons with prophylactic and therapeutic potential in PD.

5.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2025-2033, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312929

RESUMO

Outcomes for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that proves refractory to treatment remain poor. Treatment of such patients is individualized and can include enrolment in a clinical trial of novel agents or use of one of a wide array of drug regimens. Initial treatment with anthracyclines such as doxorubicin limits options at later stages of treatment because of anthracycline-related cumulative cardiotoxicity. The aza-anthracenedione pixantrone was developed to reduce the likelihood of cardiotoxicity without compromising efficacy and is currently conditionally approved for use as monotherapy in patients with multiply-relapsed or refractory aggressive B cell NHL. The use of pixantrone in combination therapy, often to replace doxorubicin or mitoxantrone, has or is currently being investigated in numerous studies in patients with aggressive or indolent NHL and is the focus of this review. These include the R-CPOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, pixantrone, vincristine, prednisone) for aggressive NHL in the first-line setting, including a study in elderly patients with limited cardiac function, and for patients with relapsed NHL with prior anthracycline exposure; the PSHAP regimen (pixantrone, cytarabine, prednisone, cisplatin), also in the latter setting; the PREBen/PEBen regimen (pixantrone, bendamustine and etoposide with or without rituximab) as salvage therapy; and pixantrone in combination with fludarabine, dexamethasone, and rituximab (FPD-R) for relapsed indolent NHL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Mitoxantrona/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
6.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 25(2): 109-116, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2108

RESUMO

Es una práctica habitual asignar el mismo número y modalidad de deberes por igual a todos los alumnos del aula. Sin embargo, lo más probable es que no todo el alumnado se encuentre en igualdad de condiciones (conocimientos previos, capacidades, motivación, etc.) para el trabajo sobre esos deberes. El rendimiento previo podría ser una variable crucial en este sentido. Por ello, el principal propósito de este trabajo es analizar la relación entre el rendimiento académico previo (variable de presagio), el tipo de enfoque de trabajo que utiliza el alumnado al realizar los deberes escolares (variable de proceso) y su implicación conductual (cantidad de deberes realizados, tiempo dedicado a los deberes y aprovechamiento del tiempo). Participaron 516 estudiantes de los tres últimos cursos de Educación Primaria. Los resultados indican que a medida que los niveles de rendimiento académico son más altos hay un aumento progresivo en la cantidad de deberes realizados y en el aprovechamiento de ese tiempo y una menor utilización del enfoque superficial. Según van avanzando los estudiantes de curso, se produce un aumento progresivo del tiempo que dedican y, sin embargo, el aprovechamiento de ese tiempo va siendo cada vez menor. El tipo de enfoque que utilizan para afrontar los deberes a medida que avanza el alumnado de curso tiende a ser cada vez menos profundo


It is a common practice to prescribe the same type and amount of homework to all students in the classroom. However, it is very likely that not all students will be in equal conditions to work on homework (previous knowledge, skills, motivation, etc.). Previous academic achievement could be a crucial variable in this regard. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to analyze the relationship between previous academic achievement (presage variable), the type of work approach used by students when performing homework (process variable), and their behavioral engagement (amount of homework done, time dedicated, and use of time). The sample consists of 516 students of the last three years of Primary Education. The results indicate that as the levels of academic achievement are higher, there is a progressive increase in the amount of homework done and in the use of that time. They also indicate less use of the surface approach. As students progress, a progressive increase in time spent occurs. However, the use they make of that time is decreasing. The type of approach they use in homework as they increase in grade tends to be less deep

7.
Front Psychol ; 10: 941, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080431

RESUMO

Currently, the concept of engagement is crucial in the field of learning and school achievement. It is a multidimensional concept (e.g., behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions) that has been widely used as a theoretical framework to explain the processes of school engagement and dropout. However, this conceptual framework has been scarcely used in the field of homework. The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of intrinsic motivation, perceived homework utility, and personal homework attitude as precursors of student homework engagement (behavioral engagement) and, at the same time, how such engagement is the precursor of academic achievement. Seven hundred and thirty students of Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE) (7th to 10th grade) from fourteen schools northern Spain participated. A structural equation model was elaborated on which intrinsic motivation, perceived utility and attitude were observed variables, and student engagement (time spent on homework, time management, and amount of teacher-assigned homework done) and academic achievement (Mathematics, Spanish Language, English Language, and Social Science) were latent variables. The results reveal that (i) intrinsic motivation is a powerful precursor of student behavioral engagement (also perceived utility and attitude, although to a lesser extent), and (ii) academic achievement is closely linked to the level of student engagement, qualifying the results of many of the previous studies conducted from a task-centered perspective (as opposed to a person-centered perspective).

8.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1047, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139114

RESUMO

The interest of assigning homework is frequently discussed due to its alleged low impact on student achievement. One of the current lines of research is to emphasize the quality of student homework engagement rather than the amount of time spent on homework. The aim of this study was to determine (a) the extent to which students' prior achievement affects their homework engagement (i.e., time spent, time management, and amount of teacher-assigned homework done), and (b) how students' intrinsic motivation toward homework may mediate or moderate the relationship between prior achievement and the homework engagement variables. A large sample of students from the first 4 years of Secondary Education (N = 1899) completed questionnaires. The results showed that intrinsic motivation partially mediates, but does not moderate, the effect of prior achievement on the three variables related to homework engagement (time spent, time management, and amount of teacher-assigned homework done). These results highlight the importance of considering both students' current level of achievement and their motivation toward homework engagement when assigning homework.

9.
J Neurophysiol ; 122(1): 350-357, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141442

RESUMO

The impact of rehabilitation on post-stroke motor recovery and its dependency on the patient's chronicity remain unclear. The field has widely accepted the notion of a proportional recovery rule with a "critical window for recovery" within the first 3-6 mo poststroke. This hypothesis justifies the general cessation of physical therapy at chronic stages. However, the limits of this critical window have, so far, been poorly defined. In this analysis, we address this question, and we further explore the temporal structure of motor recovery using individual patient data from a homogeneous sample of 219 individuals with mild to moderate upper-limb hemiparesis. We observed that improvement in body function and structure was possible even at late chronic stages. A bootstrapping analysis revealed a gradient of enhanced sensitivity to treatment that extended beyond 12 mo poststroke. Clinical guidelines for rehabilitation should be revised in the context of this temporal structure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies in humans suggest that there is a 3- to 6-mo "critical window" of heightened neuroplasticity poststroke. We analyze the temporal structure of recovery in patients with hemiparesis and uncover a precise gradient of enhanced sensitivity to treatment that expands far beyond the limits of the so-called critical window. These findings highlight the need for providing therapy to patients at the chronic and late chronic stages.

10.
FASEB J ; 33(7): 8666-8687, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002535

RESUMO

We recently described myonectin (also known as erythroferrone) as a novel skeletal muscle-derived myokine with metabolic functions. Here, we use a genetic mouse model to determine myonectin's requirement for metabolic homeostasis. Female myonectin-deficient mice had larger gonadal fat pads and developed mild insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and had reduced food intake during refeeding after an unfed period but were otherwise indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Male mice lacking myonectin, however, had reduced physical activity when fed ad libitum and in the postprandial state but not during the unfed period. When stressed with an HFD, myonectin-knockout male mice had significantly elevated VLDL-triglyceride (TG) and strikingly impaired lipid clearance from circulation following an oral lipid load. Fat distribution between adipose and liver was also altered in myonectin-deficient male mice fed an HFD. Greater fat storage resulted in significantly enlarged adipocytes and was associated with increased postprandial lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue. Parallel to this was a striking reduction in liver steatosis due to significantly reduced TG accumulation. Liver metabolite profiling revealed additional significant changes in bile acids and 1-carbon metabolism pathways. Combined, our data affirm the physiologic importance of myonectin in regulating local and systemic lipid metabolism.-Little, H. C., Rodriguez, S., Lei, X., Tan, S. Y., Stewart, A. N., Sahagun, A., Sarver, D. C., Wong, G. W. Myonectin deletion promotes adipose fat storage and reduces liver steatosis.

11.
Mediciego ; 25(1)mar.2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-72264

RESUMO

Introducción: debido a la práctica de relaciones homosexuales en los establecimientos penitenciarios, la sífilis se convierte en un problema de salud en estas instituciones.Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de una intervención educativa para modificar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la sífilis en los internos del Establecimiento Penitenciario Provincial de Ciego de Ávila.Método: se realizó un estudio preexperimental de tipo antes y después, sin grupo control, entre enero y diciembre de 2017. El universo estuvo constituido por los 1 000 internos de la institución. De ellos, fueron seleccionados 39 mediante muestreo no probabilístico. En la primera etapa, según casos críticos, se eligieron 13 internos promotores de salud, uno de cada destacamento y estos, en una segunda etapa, en cascada, eligieron dos informantes clave. En el análisis de las variables sociodemográficas se utilizaron la media y la desviación estándar, y para medir la respuesta de la intervención, las pruebas estadísticas de McNemar y los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon.Resultados: más de la mitad de los internos tenían un nivel educacional medio superior (69,23 por ciento) con una media de edad de 38,40 años. El nivel de conocimientos global se incrementó desde 22,82 por ciento con un nivel adecuado antes de la intervención, hasta 66,67 por ciento luego de aplicada, con diferencias significativas. La totalidad de participantes manifestó que la intervención le resultó agradable e instructiva.Conclusiones: se demostró la utilidad de la intervención educativa al mejorar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la sífilis en los internos seleccionados(AU)


Introduction: due to the practice of homosexual relationships in penitentiary establishments, syphilis becomes a health problem in these institutions.Objective: to evaluate the usefulness of an educational intervention to modify the level of knowledge about syphilis in the inmates of the Provincial Penitentiary Establishment of Ciego de Ávila.Method: a pre-experimental study of the before and after type, without a control group, was carried out between January and December 2017. The universe consisted of the 1 000 inmates of the institution. Of these, 39 were selected by non-probabilistic sampling. In the first stage, according to critical cases, 13 internal health promoters were selected, one from each detachment and these, in a second stage, in cascade, chose two key informants. In the analysis of the sociodemographic variables, the mean and the standard deviation were used, and to measure the response of the intervention, the McNemar statistical tests and ranges with Wilcoxon sign.Results: more than half of the inmates had a higher educational level (69,23 percent) with an average age of 38,40 years. The level of global knowledge increased from 22,82 percent with an adequate level before the intervention, up to 66,67 percent after applied, with significant differences. All participants said that the intervention was pleasant and instructive.Conclusions: the usefulness of the educational intervention was demonstrated by improving the level of knowledge about syphilis in the selected inmates(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Promoção da Saúde , Prisões , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Epidemiologia Experimental
12.
J Clin Exp Dent ; 11(2): e185-e193, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805124

RESUMO

Background: The success of endodontic treatment derives from the complete elimination of microorganisms capable of causing an intraradicular or extraradicular infection. To achieve a more effective eradication of these microorganisms, endodontic instrumentation must always be implemented with abundant irrigation, which has to achieve chemical, mechanical and biological effects. The irrigators most used today are NaOCl, CHX and EDTA, released into the ducts through different techniques such as syringe, manual agitation, positive or negative apical pressure, sonic or ultrasonic activation, PIPS and PDT. The objective of this review is to update the different irrigating solutions and intracanal disinfection drugs, as well as to establish an irrigation protocol in the endodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Systematic search of scientific articles in the databases PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar, with the following keywords Endodontic, Infection, Failure, Irrigation, Retreatment and Irrigation protocol. The exclusion criteria were "case report" articles and articles with a publication date prior to 2000. Results: 48 articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Comparing the different articles it can be seen that the NaOCl is the "gold standard" in terms of immediate antimicrobial efficacy, followed by the CHX that has a long-term antibacterial effect. As an intra-conductive drug it is advisable to use the combination of Ca(OH)2 with CPMC. Conclusions: The most adequate irrigation protocol consists of using 2.5% NaOCl activated with ultrasound followed by a final wash with 7% MA or 0.2% CTR combined with 2% CHX. Key words:Endodontic failure, endodontic infection, enterococcus faecalis, endodontic retreatment, irrigation, sodium hipoclorite, irrigation protocol.

13.
Australas J Dermatol ; 60(3): e195-e200, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aetiology of frontal fibrosing alopecia is unknown, and its genetic aspect remains uncharacterised. The aim of this report is to elucidate if major histocompatibility complex is associated with familial frontal fibrosing alopecia. METHODS: A case-control study was performed of 13 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia belonging to six families. Their human leukocyte antigen profiles were compared to the data of 636 healthy controls without frontal fibrosing alopecia. Patients underwent high-resolution genomic typing for human leukocyte antigen class I and II loci by PCR-SSO for Luminex. In addition, CYP21A2 gene (major histocompatibility complex class III) mutations were detected by PCR-SSO on strips. RESULTS: 61.5% of patients shared CYP21A2 gene p.V281L linked to the F16A human leukocyte antigen class I haplotype (HLA-A*33:01; B*14:02; C*08:02; Pc < 0.000001). The patients F16A-negative shared other human leukocyte antigen class I haplotypes: Y16A (3/13) and S26 (2/13). CONCLUSION: CYP21A2 gene p.V281L mutation can be used as a genetic marker for susceptibility to familial frontal fibrosing alopecia. Both the linkage of the mutation to F16A and the fact that F16A-negative patients share other human leukocyte antigen class I haplotype, point to an antigen-driven mechanism in susceptible patients with these haplotypes.

14.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2019. 160 p. ilus, tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026447

RESUMO

Las consultas pediátricas por temas infectológicos son frecuentes y relevantes durante toda la infancia, desde la etapa neonatal hasta la adolescencia. En este nuevo volumen de las Series Garrahan: El ñino y las infecciones, se han seleccionado temas específicos, sobre la base de la actualización del conocimiento, los cambios epidemiológicos y de las conductas clínicas ocurridos en los últimos años y la necesidad del manejo adecuado de estas afecciones, ya sea ambulatorio o durante la internación. Entre sus aspectos sobresalientes se incluyen: El estudio de temas destacados como el abordaje del niño febril; las infecciones de piel y partes blandas, incluidas las asociadas con mordeduras; las infecciones en el recién nacido; las infecciones respiratorias bajas, incluida la tuberculosis; y las infecciones osteoarticulares, del sistema nervioso central e intraabdominales. La inclusión de un capítulo especial sobre la prevención de infecciones para ayudar a reducir su incidencia. El enfoque práctico, con discusión de casos clínicos y definición de conductas, y ubicando al pediatra en un papel central como coordinador de la atención interdisciplinaria. Aspectos clave y lecturas recomendadas en el cierre de cada capítulo. Una obra actualizada que aporta información científica y la experiencia de los profesionales del Hospital Garrahan, dedicada a todos los miembros del equipo de salud que atienden y cuidan niños dondequiera que trabajen al servicio de la salud infantil


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Osteomielite , Peritonite , Pneumonia , Febre Recorrente , Dermatopatias Infecciosas , Tuberculose , Mordeduras e Picadas , Artrite Infecciosa , Coqueluche , Vacinação , Meningites Bacterianas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Febre , Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Encefalite Infecciosa , Sepse Neonatal
15.
FASEB J ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908037

RESUMO

Local and systemic factors that influence renal structure and function in aging are not well understood. The secretory protein C1q/TNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1) regulates systemic metabolism and cardiovascular function. We provide evidence here that CTRP1 also modulates renal physiology in an age- and sex-dependent manner. In mice lacking CTRP1, we observed significantly increased kidney weight and glomerular hypertrophy in aged male but not female or young mice. Although glomerular filtration rate, plasma renin and aldosterone levels, and renal response to water restriction did not differ between genotypes, CTRP1-deficient male mice had elevated blood pressure. Echocardiogram and pulse wave velocity measurements indicated normal heart function and vascular stiffness in CTRP1-deficient animals, and increased blood pressure was not due to greater salt retention. Paradoxically, CTRP1-deficient mice had elevated urinary sodium and potassium excretion, partially resulting from reduced expression of genes involved in renal sodium and potassium reabsorption. Despite renal hypertrophy, markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were reduced in CTRP1-deficient mice. RNA sequencing revealed alterations and enrichments of genes in metabolic processes in CTRP1-deficient animals. These results highlight novel contributions of CTRP1 to aging-associated changes in renal physiology.

16.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2019. 184 p. tab, ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006088

RESUMO

Las consultas pediátricas por enfermedad renal o de las vías urinarias son frecuentes e incluyen una amplia variedad diagnóstica que desafía al pediatra en su abordaje, la detección de riesgos en el corto y largo plazo, la derivación oportuna al especialista y el seguimiento de las condiciones que generaron cronicidad. En este nuevo volumen de las Series de Pediatría Garrahan se han reunido prestigiosos pediatras y nefrólogos infantiles para actualizar y trasnmitir el manejo integral de algunas de las patologías de mayor prevalencia e impacto, muchas de las cuales causan morbilidad alejada y requieren equipos multidisciplinarios que aseguren una transición en el cuidado del niño, el adolescente y el adulto. Entre sus caracterísitcas se destacan: El estudio detallado de patologías clínicas como las infecciones urinarias, la lesión renal aguda, el síndrome nefrótico, la enfermedad renal progresiva, las terapias de reemplazo renal y la hypertensión arterial. El desarrollo de casos clínicos con las secuencias habituales en el transcurso habitual de las enfermedades que permite destacar las presentaciones clínicas, las alternativas diagnósticas y terapéuticas, así como las posibilidades evolutivas. El cierre de cada capítulo con un recordatorio de puntos clave y lecturas recomendadas y, además, el material complementario disponible en el sitio web. El objetivo es compartir la modalidad de trabajo del hospital, con base en el rol central del pediatra como coordinador de la atención interdisciplinaria en cada una de sus etapas. Una obra actualizada y práctica que aporta información científica y experiencia de los profesionales de una institución de prestigio, de granutilidad para todos aquellos miembros del equipo de salud que atienden y cuidan niños, dondequiera que trabajen al servivio de la salud infantil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções Urinárias , Diálise Renal , Diálise Peritoneal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Lesão Renal Aguda , Síndrome Nefrótica
17.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2019. 190 p. tab, ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006102

RESUMO

La infancia es una etapa vital clave, ya que en ella se forman los cimientos que luego determinarán el desarrollo físico y mental de las personas. Por eso, brindar las herramientas necesarias para satisfacer las necesidades y los derechos del niño es fundamental para garantizar la inclusión y la igualdad de oportunidades de todos. El desarrollo del niño conlleva cambios biológicos, psicológicos y emocionales que ocurren desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, a medida que el individuo pasa de la dependencia al aumento de la autonomía. La frecuencia de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo es importante y creciente y el pediatra desempeña un papel crucial en su detección oportuna, asesoría a las familias y estrategias de manejo o derivación para asegurar las mejores posibilidades de prevención y asistencia. Asimismo, la elevada morbilidad pediátrica asociada al concepto de enfermedad crónica requiere una actitud diagnóstica anticipatoria de la disfunción neurocognitiva y madurativa a la que están expuestos estos niños. En este nuevo volumen de las Series de Pediatría Garrahan destacados profesionales estudian la temática del desarrollo desde un abordaje interdisciplinario centrado en el rol del pediatra. Entre sus características se destacan: Presentación mediante casos y ejemplos de la práctica clínica de los trastornos más frecuentes del desarrollo infantil estructurados según las diferentes etapas de lactante, preescolar y escolar, así como el abordaje de la discapacidad intelectual, el impacto de la enfermedad crónica en el aprendizaje y los marcos normativos en educación. El cierre de cada capítulo con un recordatorio de puntos clave y lecturas recomendadas, además del material complementario disponible en el sitio web. Una obra sólida y práctica, que transmite la experiencia de los profesionales del Hospital de Pediatría Prof. Dr. Juan P Garrahan, dedicada a los pediatras, dondequiera que trabajen al servicio de la salud de los niños.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Ensino de Recuperação , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação Especial , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Testes Auditivos , Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtornos de Aprendizagem , Deficiência Intelectual , Doença Crônica
18.
Nanoscale ; 10(48): 22730-22736, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500037

RESUMO

Supported nanocrystals of original shapes are highly desirable for the development of optimized catalysts; however, conventional methods for the preparation of supported catalysts do not allow shape control. In this work, we have synthesized concave platinum nanocubes exposing {110} crystallographic facets at 20 °C. In the presence of a crystallographically oriented Pt(111) support in the reaction medium, the concave nanocubes grow epitaxially on the support, producing macroscopic nanostructured surfaces. Higher reaction temperature produces a mixture of different nanostructures in solution; however, only the nanostructures growing along the 111 direction are obtained on the Pt(111) support. Therefore, the oriented surface acts as a template for a selective immobilization of specific nanostructures out of a mixture, which can be regarded as an "epitaxial resolution" of an inhomogeneous mixture of nanocrystals. Thus, a judicious choice of the support crystallographic orientation may allow the isolation of original nanostructures that cannot be obtained in a pure form.

19.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 51(3): 1287-1300, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accelerated atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is preceded by endothelial dysfunction (ED), which exhibits a proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype and enhanced oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of several compounds with anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties on uremia-induced endothelial dysfunction has been evaluated in an in vitro model. METHODS: Endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to sera from uremic patients in the absence and presence of the flavonoids apigenin, genistein and quercetin, the antioxidant enzyme mimetics (AEM) ebselen (glutathione peroxidase mimetic), EUK-134 and EUK-118 (both superoxide dismutase mimetics), and the pharmacological drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We explored changes in the expression of adhesion receptors on the cell surface, by immunofluorescence, the production of radical oxygen species (ROS), by fluorescence detection, and the activation of signaling proteins related to inflammation, by both a phosphospecific antibody cell-based ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. RESULTS: Uremic media induced a significantly increased expression of ICAM-1, overproduction of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and Nuclear Factor kB (NFkB) in ECs. Quercetin, the AEM and NAC showed a significant inhibitory effect on both ICAM-1 expression and ROS generation (p<0.05). All the compounds reduced p38MAPK activation, but only the AEM, especially ebselen, and NAC, both potentiating the glutathione peroxidase pathway, also inhibited NFkB activation. These two compounds were capable of increasing endothelial glutathione levels, especially in response to uremia. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the potentiation of the antioxidant pathways can be an effective strategy to improve endothelial dysfunction in uremia and a potential target to reduce the cardiovascular risk in this population.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
20.
Mediciego ; 24(4)nov.2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71437

RESUMO

Introducción: la tuberculosis pulmonar es la enfermedad transmisible de mayor importancia en la historia de la humanidad. A pesar de los esfuerzos para su control y erradicación las cifras de enfermos y fallecidos son alarmantes.Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de un programa de intervención educativa para modificar el nivel de conocimientos sobre tuberculosis pulmonar en la población penal del Establecimiento Penitenciario Provincial de Ciego de Ávila.Método: se realizó un estudio preexperimental (antes-después) entre enero y diciembre de 2017. El universo estuvo constituido por los 1 000 internos de la institución. De ellos, fueron seleccionados 39 mediante muestreo no probabilístico. En la primera etapa, según casos críticos se eligieron 13 internos promotores de salud, uno de cada destacamento y éstos, en una segunda etapa, en cascada, eligieron dos informantes clave. En el análisis de las variables sociodemográficas se utilizaron la media y la desviación estándar, y para medir la respuesta de la intervención, las pruebas estadísticas de McNemar y los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon.Resultados: más de la mitad de los internos tenían nivel educacional medio superior (69,23 por ciento). La media de edad fue 37,70 años. El nivel de conocimiento global se incrementó 2,56 por ciento, con un nivel adecuado antes de la intervención y hasta 87,18 por ciento luego de aplicada, con diferencias significativas. La totalidad de participantes manifestó que la intervención le resultó agradable e instructiva.Conclusiones: se demostró la utilidad de la intervención educativa al mejorar el nivel de conocimiento sobre la tuberculosis pulmonar en los internos seleccionados(AU)


Introduction: pulmonary tuberculosis is the most important transmissible disease in the history of mankind. Despite efforts to control and eradicate it, the numbers of sick and deceased are alarming.Objective: to evaluate the utility of an educational intervention program to modify the level of knowledge about pulmonary tuberculosis in the penal population of the Provincial Penitentiary Establishment of Ciego de Ávila.Method: a pre-experimental study (before-after) was carried out between January and December 2017. The universe was constituted by the 1 000 inmates of the institution. From them, 39 were selected through non-probabilistic sampling. In the first stage, according to critical cases, 13 internal health promoters were selected, one from each detachment, and these, in a second stage, in cascade, elected two key informants. In the analysis of the socio-demographic variables were used the mean and the standard deviation, and to measure the response of the intervention, the statistical tests of McNemar and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.Results: more than half of the inmates had a higher average educational level (69,23 percent). The average age was 37,70 years. The level of global knowledge increased 2,56 percent with an adequate level before the intervention until 87,18 percent after being applied, with significant differences. All participants said that the intervention was pleasant and instructive.Conclusions: the usefulness of the educational intervention was demonstrated by improving the level of knowledge about pulmonary tuberculosis in the selected inmates(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois
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