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1.
FASEB J ; : fj201901279R, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689374

RESUMO

Interorgan communication mediated by secreted proteins plays a pivotal role in metabolic homeostasis, yet the function of many circulating secretory proteins remains unknown. Here, we describe the function of protease-associated domain-containing 1 (PRADC1), an enigmatic secretory protein widely expressed in humans and mice. In metabolically active tissues (liver, muscle, fat, heart, and kidney), we showed that Pradc1 expression is significantly suppressed by refeeding and reduced in kidney and brown fat in the context of obesity. PRADC1 is dispensable for whole-body metabolism when mice are fed a low-fat diet. However, in obesity induced by high-fat feeding, PRADC1-deficient female mice have reduced weight gain and adiposity despite similar caloric intake. Decreased fat mass is attributed, in part, to increased metabolic rate, physical activity, and energy expenditure in these animals. Reduced adiposity in PRADC1-deficient mice, however, does not improve systemic glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, liver steatosis, or adipose inflammation. Thus, in PRADC1-deficient animals, decreased fat mass and enhanced physical activity are insufficient to confer a healthy metabolic phenotype in the context of an obesogenic diet. Our results shed light on the physiologic function of PRADC1 and the complex regulation of metabolic health.-Rodriguez, S., Stewart, A. N., Lei, X., Cao, X., Little, H. C., Fong, V., Sarver, D. C., Wong, G. W. PRADC1: a novel metabolic-responsive secretory protein that modulates physical activity and adiposity.

2.
Psicothema ; 31(4): 422-428, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a person-centered approach, the aim ofthis study is to identify different profiles of students based on the time they spend on homew he differences between them in the amount of homework done and academic achievement. METHOD: With a sample of 968 students of Primary Education analysis of latent profiles (LPA) and ANOVA were carried out. Once the student profiles were identified, a MANOVA was conducted to analyze the differences between the motivational profiles in the amount of homework assignments done and in academic achievement. RESULTS: We differentiated four profiles of students that differentially combine the time they dedicate to their homework and the use they make of that time. CONCLUSIONS: Of the profiles identified, two can be considered more effective (those that manage time better), and two can be classified as less effective (those that manage time worse). The two profiles that best manage the time spent on homework are also those that do the most homework, and have higher academic achievement. Likewise, the two profiles of students who manage time worst are those who do the least homework, and who have lower academic achievement.

3.
Planta Med ; 85(17): 1351-1362, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559607

RESUMO

Atremorine is a novel bioproduct with neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons and a natural L-DOPA donor in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we show the effects of a single dose of Atremorine (5 g, p. o.) on plasma dopamine (DA) response and brain function in PD (n = 183) and the influence that pathogenic (LRRK2), metabolic (CYP2D5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, NAT2), transporter (ABCB1), pleiotropic (APOE), and detoxifying genes (CYP1B1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTM1, SOD2) involved in the pharmacogenetic network exerts on Atremorine-induced DA response. Over 90% of PD patients at diagnosis show plasma DA levels below 20 pg/mL. Atremorine induces DA synthesis causing a significant increase in plasma DA levels 1 h after administration in practically 100% of patients. Females tend to show lower basal DA levels than males and the response of DA to Atremorine is stronger in males than in females. Atremorine-induced DA response is pharmacogenotype-specific and lasts from 6 - 12 h depending upon the pharmacogenetic profile of each patient. Genetic variants in pathogenic genes, metabolic genes, and genes involved in the detoxification processes affect the response of DA to Atremorine in a genotype-specific manner. Atremorine or any of its bioactive components can cross the blood-brain barrier and improve brain function and motor function, as revealed by the reduction in slow wave activity in brain mapping and psychometric assessment, respectively. Atremorine is a selective neuroprotective agent for dopaminergic neurons with prophylactic and therapeutic potential in PD.

4.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2025-2033, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312929

RESUMO

Outcomes for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that proves refractory to treatment remain poor. Treatment of such patients is individualized and can include enrolment in a clinical trial of novel agents or use of one of a wide array of drug regimens. Initial treatment with anthracyclines such as doxorubicin limits options at later stages of treatment because of anthracycline-related cumulative cardiotoxicity. The aza-anthracenedione pixantrone was developed to reduce the likelihood of cardiotoxicity without compromising efficacy and is currently conditionally approved for use as monotherapy in patients with multiply-relapsed or refractory aggressive B cell NHL. The use of pixantrone in combination therapy, often to replace doxorubicin or mitoxantrone, has or is currently being investigated in numerous studies in patients with aggressive or indolent NHL and is the focus of this review. These include the R-CPOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, pixantrone, vincristine, prednisone) for aggressive NHL in the first-line setting, including a study in elderly patients with limited cardiac function, and for patients with relapsed NHL with prior anthracycline exposure; the PSHAP regimen (pixantrone, cytarabine, prednisone, cisplatin), also in the latter setting; the PREBen/PEBen regimen (pixantrone, bendamustine and etoposide with or without rituximab) as salvage therapy; and pixantrone in combination with fludarabine, dexamethasone, and rituximab (FPD-R) for relapsed indolent NHL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Mitoxantrona/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
5.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 25(2): 109-116, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2108

RESUMO

Es una práctica habitual asignar el mismo número y modalidad de deberes por igual a todos los alumnos del aula. Sin embargo, lo más probable es que no todo el alumnado se encuentre en igualdad de condiciones (conocimientos previos, capacidades, motivación, etc.) para el trabajo sobre esos deberes. El rendimiento previo podría ser una variable crucial en este sentido. Por ello, el principal propósito de este trabajo es analizar la relación entre el rendimiento académico previo (variable de presagio), el tipo de enfoque de trabajo que utiliza el alumnado al realizar los deberes escolares (variable de proceso) y su implicación conductual (cantidad de deberes realizados, tiempo dedicado a los deberes y aprovechamiento del tiempo). Participaron 516 estudiantes de los tres últimos cursos de Educación Primaria. Los resultados indican que a medida que los niveles de rendimiento académico son más altos hay un aumento progresivo en la cantidad de deberes realizados y en el aprovechamiento de ese tiempo y una menor utilización del enfoque superficial. Según van avanzando los estudiantes de curso, se produce un aumento progresivo del tiempo que dedican y, sin embargo, el aprovechamiento de ese tiempo va siendo cada vez menor. El tipo de enfoque que utilizan para afrontar los deberes a medida que avanza el alumnado de curso tiende a ser cada vez menos profundo


It is a common practice to prescribe the same type and amount of homework to all students in the classroom. However, it is very likely that not all students will be in equal conditions to work on homework (previous knowledge, skills, motivation, etc.). Previous academic achievement could be a crucial variable in this regard. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to analyze the relationship between previous academic achievement (presage variable), the type of work approach used by students when performing homework (process variable), and their behavioral engagement (amount of homework done, time dedicated, and use of time). The sample consists of 516 students of the last three years of Primary Education. The results indicate that as the levels of academic achievement are higher, there is a progressive increase in the amount of homework done and in the use of that time. They also indicate less use of the surface approach. As students progress, a progressive increase in time spent occurs. However, the use they make of that time is decreasing. The type of approach they use in homework as they increase in grade tends to be less deep

6.
J Neurophysiol ; 122(1): 350-357, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141442

RESUMO

The impact of rehabilitation on post-stroke motor recovery and its dependency on the patient's chronicity remain unclear. The field has widely accepted the notion of a proportional recovery rule with a "critical window for recovery" within the first 3-6 mo poststroke. This hypothesis justifies the general cessation of physical therapy at chronic stages. However, the limits of this critical window have, so far, been poorly defined. In this analysis, we address this question, and we further explore the temporal structure of motor recovery using individual patient data from a homogeneous sample of 219 individuals with mild to moderate upper-limb hemiparesis. We observed that improvement in body function and structure was possible even at late chronic stages. A bootstrapping analysis revealed a gradient of enhanced sensitivity to treatment that extended beyond 12 mo poststroke. Clinical guidelines for rehabilitation should be revised in the context of this temporal structure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies in humans suggest that there is a 3- to 6-mo "critical window" of heightened neuroplasticity poststroke. We analyze the temporal structure of recovery in patients with hemiparesis and uncover a precise gradient of enhanced sensitivity to treatment that expands far beyond the limits of the so-called critical window. These findings highlight the need for providing therapy to patients at the chronic and late chronic stages.

7.
FASEB J ; 33(7): 8666-8687, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002535

RESUMO

We recently described myonectin (also known as erythroferrone) as a novel skeletal muscle-derived myokine with metabolic functions. Here, we use a genetic mouse model to determine myonectin's requirement for metabolic homeostasis. Female myonectin-deficient mice had larger gonadal fat pads and developed mild insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and had reduced food intake during refeeding after an unfed period but were otherwise indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Male mice lacking myonectin, however, had reduced physical activity when fed ad libitum and in the postprandial state but not during the unfed period. When stressed with an HFD, myonectin-knockout male mice had significantly elevated VLDL-triglyceride (TG) and strikingly impaired lipid clearance from circulation following an oral lipid load. Fat distribution between adipose and liver was also altered in myonectin-deficient male mice fed an HFD. Greater fat storage resulted in significantly enlarged adipocytes and was associated with increased postprandial lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue. Parallel to this was a striking reduction in liver steatosis due to significantly reduced TG accumulation. Liver metabolite profiling revealed additional significant changes in bile acids and 1-carbon metabolism pathways. Combined, our data affirm the physiologic importance of myonectin in regulating local and systemic lipid metabolism.-Little, H. C., Rodriguez, S., Lei, X., Tan, S. Y., Stewart, A. N., Sahagun, A., Sarver, D. C., Wong, G. W. Myonectin deletion promotes adipose fat storage and reduces liver steatosis.

8.
Mediciego ; 25(1)mar.2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-72264

RESUMO

Introducción: debido a la práctica de relaciones homosexuales en los establecimientos penitenciarios, la sífilis se convierte en un problema de salud en estas instituciones.Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de una intervención educativa para modificar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la sífilis en los internos del Establecimiento Penitenciario Provincial de Ciego de Ávila.Método: se realizó un estudio preexperimental de tipo antes y después, sin grupo control, entre enero y diciembre de 2017. El universo estuvo constituido por los 1 000 internos de la institución. De ellos, fueron seleccionados 39 mediante muestreo no probabilístico. En la primera etapa, según casos críticos, se eligieron 13 internos promotores de salud, uno de cada destacamento y estos, en una segunda etapa, en cascada, eligieron dos informantes clave. En el análisis de las variables sociodemográficas se utilizaron la media y la desviación estándar, y para medir la respuesta de la intervención, las pruebas estadísticas de McNemar y los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon.Resultados: más de la mitad de los internos tenían un nivel educacional medio superior (69,23 por ciento) con una media de edad de 38,40 años. El nivel de conocimientos global se incrementó desde 22,82 por ciento con un nivel adecuado antes de la intervención, hasta 66,67 por ciento luego de aplicada, con diferencias significativas. La totalidad de participantes manifestó que la intervención le resultó agradable e instructiva.Conclusiones: se demostró la utilidad de la intervención educativa al mejorar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la sífilis en los internos seleccionados(AU)


Introduction: due to the practice of homosexual relationships in penitentiary establishments, syphilis becomes a health problem in these institutions.Objective: to evaluate the usefulness of an educational intervention to modify the level of knowledge about syphilis in the inmates of the Provincial Penitentiary Establishment of Ciego de Ávila.Method: a pre-experimental study of the before and after type, without a control group, was carried out between January and December 2017. The universe consisted of the 1 000 inmates of the institution. Of these, 39 were selected by non-probabilistic sampling. In the first stage, according to critical cases, 13 internal health promoters were selected, one from each detachment and these, in a second stage, in cascade, chose two key informants. In the analysis of the sociodemographic variables, the mean and the standard deviation were used, and to measure the response of the intervention, the McNemar statistical tests and ranges with Wilcoxon sign.Results: more than half of the inmates had a higher educational level (69,23 percent) with an average age of 38,40 years. The level of global knowledge increased from 22,82 percent with an adequate level before the intervention, up to 66,67 percent after applied, with significant differences. All participants said that the intervention was pleasant and instructive.Conclusions: the usefulness of the educational intervention was demonstrated by improving the level of knowledge about syphilis in the selected inmates(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Promoção da Saúde , Prisões , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Epidemiologia Experimental
9.
Australas J Dermatol ; 60(3): e195-e200, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aetiology of frontal fibrosing alopecia is unknown, and its genetic aspect remains uncharacterised. The aim of this report is to elucidate if major histocompatibility complex is associated with familial frontal fibrosing alopecia. METHODS: A case-control study was performed of 13 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia belonging to six families. Their human leukocyte antigen profiles were compared to the data of 636 healthy controls without frontal fibrosing alopecia. Patients underwent high-resolution genomic typing for human leukocyte antigen class I and II loci by PCR-SSO for Luminex. In addition, CYP21A2 gene (major histocompatibility complex class III) mutations were detected by PCR-SSO on strips. RESULTS: 61.5% of patients shared CYP21A2 gene p.V281L linked to the F16A human leukocyte antigen class I haplotype (HLA-A*33:01; B*14:02; C*08:02; Pc < 0.000001). The patients F16A-negative shared other human leukocyte antigen class I haplotypes: Y16A (3/13) and S26 (2/13). CONCLUSION: CYP21A2 gene p.V281L mutation can be used as a genetic marker for susceptibility to familial frontal fibrosing alopecia. Both the linkage of the mutation to F16A and the fact that F16A-negative patients share other human leukocyte antigen class I haplotype, point to an antigen-driven mechanism in susceptible patients with these haplotypes.

10.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2019. 190 p. tab, ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006102

RESUMO

La infancia es una etapa vital clave, ya que en ella se forman los cimientos que luego determinarán el desarrollo físico y mental de las personas. Por eso, brindar las herramientas necesarias para satisfacer las necesidades y los derechos del niño es fundamental para garantizar la inclusión y la igualdad de oportunidades de todos. El desarrollo del niño conlleva cambios biológicos, psicológicos y emocionales que ocurren desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, a medida que el individuo pasa de la dependencia al aumento de la autonomía. La frecuencia de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo es importante y creciente y el pediatra desempeña un papel crucial en su detección oportuna, asesoría a las familias y estrategias de manejo o derivación para asegurar las mejores posibilidades de prevención y asistencia. Asimismo, la elevada morbilidad pediátrica asociada al concepto de enfermedad crónica requiere una actitud diagnóstica anticipatoria de la disfunción neurocognitiva y madurativa a la que están expuestos estos niños. En este nuevo volumen de las Series de Pediatría Garrahan destacados profesionales estudian la temática del desarrollo desde un abordaje interdisciplinario centrado en el rol del pediatra. Entre sus características se destacan: Presentación mediante casos y ejemplos de la práctica clínica de los trastornos más frecuentes del desarrollo infantil estructurados según las diferentes etapas de lactante, preescolar y escolar, así como el abordaje de la discapacidad intelectual, el impacto de la enfermedad crónica en el aprendizaje y los marcos normativos en educación. El cierre de cada capítulo con un recordatorio de puntos clave y lecturas recomendadas, además del material complementario disponible en el sitio web. Una obra sólida y práctica, que transmite la experiencia de los profesionales del Hospital de Pediatría Prof. Dr. Juan P Garrahan, dedicada a los pediatras, dondequiera que trabajen al servicio de la salud de los niños.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Ensino de Recuperação , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação Especial , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Testes Auditivos , Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtornos de Aprendizagem , Deficiência Intelectual , Doença Crônica
11.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2019. 160 p. ilus, tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026447

RESUMO

Las consultas pediátricas por temas infectológicos son frecuentes y relevantes durante toda la infancia, desde la etapa neonatal hasta la adolescencia. En este nuevo volumen de las Series Garrahan: El ñino y las infecciones, se han seleccionado temas específicos, sobre la base de la actualización del conocimiento, los cambios epidemiológicos y de las conductas clínicas ocurridos en los últimos años y la necesidad del manejo adecuado de estas afecciones, ya sea ambulatorio o durante la internación. Entre sus aspectos sobresalientes se incluyen: El estudio de temas destacados como el abordaje del niño febril; las infecciones de piel y partes blandas, incluidas las asociadas con mordeduras; las infecciones en el recién nacido; las infecciones respiratorias bajas, incluida la tuberculosis; y las infecciones osteoarticulares, del sistema nervioso central e intraabdominales. La inclusión de un capítulo especial sobre la prevención de infecciones para ayudar a reducir su incidencia. El enfoque práctico, con discusión de casos clínicos y definición de conductas, y ubicando al pediatra en un papel central como coordinador de la atención interdisciplinaria. Aspectos clave y lecturas recomendadas en el cierre de cada capítulo. Una obra actualizada que aporta información científica y la experiencia de los profesionales del Hospital Garrahan, dedicada a todos los miembros del equipo de salud que atienden y cuidan niños dondequiera que trabajen al servicio de la salud infantil


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Osteomielite , Peritonite , Pneumonia , Febre Recorrente , Dermatopatias Infecciosas , Tuberculose , Mordeduras e Picadas , Artrite Infecciosa , Coqueluche , Vacinação , Meningites Bacterianas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Febre , Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Encefalite Infecciosa , Sepse Neonatal
12.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2019. 184 p. tab, ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006088

RESUMO

Las consultas pediátricas por enfermedad renal o de las vías urinarias son frecuentes e incluyen una amplia variedad diagnóstica que desafía al pediatra en su abordaje, la detección de riesgos en el corto y largo plazo, la derivación oportuna al especialista y el seguimiento de las condiciones que generaron cronicidad. En este nuevo volumen de las Series de Pediatría Garrahan se han reunido prestigiosos pediatras y nefrólogos infantiles para actualizar y trasnmitir el manejo integral de algunas de las patologías de mayor prevalencia e impacto, muchas de las cuales causan morbilidad alejada y requieren equipos multidisciplinarios que aseguren una transición en el cuidado del niño, el adolescente y el adulto. Entre sus caracterísitcas se destacan: El estudio detallado de patologías clínicas como las infecciones urinarias, la lesión renal aguda, el síndrome nefrótico, la enfermedad renal progresiva, las terapias de reemplazo renal y la hypertensión arterial. El desarrollo de casos clínicos con las secuencias habituales en el transcurso habitual de las enfermedades que permite destacar las presentaciones clínicas, las alternativas diagnósticas y terapéuticas, así como las posibilidades evolutivas. El cierre de cada capítulo con un recordatorio de puntos clave y lecturas recomendadas y, además, el material complementario disponible en el sitio web. El objetivo es compartir la modalidad de trabajo del hospital, con base en el rol central del pediatra como coordinador de la atención interdisciplinaria en cada una de sus etapas. Una obra actualizada y práctica que aporta información científica y experiencia de los profesionales de una institución de prestigio, de granutilidad para todos aquellos miembros del equipo de salud que atienden y cuidan niños, dondequiera que trabajen al servivio de la salud infantil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções Urinárias , Diálise Renal , Diálise Peritoneal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Lesão Renal Aguda , Síndrome Nefrótica
13.
Nanoscale ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500037

RESUMO

Supported nanocrystals of original shapes are highly desirable for the development of optimized catalysts; however, conventional methods for the preparation of supported catalysts do not allow shape control. In this work, we have synthesized concave platinum nanocubes exposing {110} crystallographic facets at 20 °C. In the presence of a crystallographically oriented Pt(111) support in the reaction medium, the concave nanocubes grow epitaxially on the support, producing macroscopic nanostructured surfaces. Higher reaction temperature produces a mixture of different nanostructures in solution; however, only the nanostructures growing along the 111 direction are obtained on the Pt(111) support. Therefore, the oriented surface acts as a template for a selective immobilization of specific nanostructures out of a mixture, which can be regarded as an "epitaxial resolution" of an inhomogeneous mixture of nanocrystals. Thus, a judicious choice of the support crystallographic orientation may allow the isolation of original nanostructures that cannot be obtained in a pure form.

14.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 51(3): 1287-1300, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accelerated atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is preceded by endothelial dysfunction (ED), which exhibits a proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype and enhanced oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of several compounds with anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties on uremia-induced endothelial dysfunction has been evaluated in an in vitro model. METHODS: Endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to sera from uremic patients in the absence and presence of the flavonoids apigenin, genistein and quercetin, the antioxidant enzyme mimetics (AEM) ebselen (glutathione peroxidase mimetic), EUK-134 and EUK-118 (both superoxide dismutase mimetics), and the pharmacological drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We explored changes in the expression of adhesion receptors on the cell surface, by immunofluorescence, the production of radical oxygen species (ROS), by fluorescence detection, and the activation of signaling proteins related to inflammation, by both a phosphospecific antibody cell-based ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. RESULTS: Uremic media induced a significantly increased expression of ICAM-1, overproduction of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and Nuclear Factor kB (NFkB) in ECs. Quercetin, the AEM and NAC showed a significant inhibitory effect on both ICAM-1 expression and ROS generation (p<0.05). All the compounds reduced p38MAPK activation, but only the AEM, especially ebselen, and NAC, both potentiating the glutathione peroxidase pathway, also inhibited NFkB activation. These two compounds were capable of increasing endothelial glutathione levels, especially in response to uremia. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the potentiation of the antioxidant pathways can be an effective strategy to improve endothelial dysfunction in uremia and a potential target to reduce the cardiovascular risk in this population.

15.
Mediciego ; 24(4)nov.2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71437

RESUMO

Introducción: la tuberculosis pulmonar es la enfermedad transmisible de mayor importancia en la historia de la humanidad. A pesar de los esfuerzos para su control y erradicación las cifras de enfermos y fallecidos son alarmantes.Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de un programa de intervención educativa para modificar el nivel de conocimientos sobre tuberculosis pulmonar en la población penal del Establecimiento Penitenciario Provincial de Ciego de Ávila.Método: se realizó un estudio preexperimental (antes-después) entre enero y diciembre de 2017. El universo estuvo constituido por los 1 000 internos de la institución. De ellos, fueron seleccionados 39 mediante muestreo no probabilístico. En la primera etapa, según casos críticos se eligieron 13 internos promotores de salud, uno de cada destacamento y éstos, en una segunda etapa, en cascada, eligieron dos informantes clave. En el análisis de las variables sociodemográficas se utilizaron la media y la desviación estándar, y para medir la respuesta de la intervención, las pruebas estadísticas de McNemar y los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon.Resultados: más de la mitad de los internos tenían nivel educacional medio superior (69,23 por ciento). La media de edad fue 37,70 años. El nivel de conocimiento global se incrementó 2,56 por ciento, con un nivel adecuado antes de la intervención y hasta 87,18 por ciento luego de aplicada, con diferencias significativas. La totalidad de participantes manifestó que la intervención le resultó agradable e instructiva.Conclusiones: se demostró la utilidad de la intervención educativa al mejorar el nivel de conocimiento sobre la tuberculosis pulmonar en los internos seleccionados(AU)


Introduction: pulmonary tuberculosis is the most important transmissible disease in the history of mankind. Despite efforts to control and eradicate it, the numbers of sick and deceased are alarming.Objective: to evaluate the utility of an educational intervention program to modify the level of knowledge about pulmonary tuberculosis in the penal population of the Provincial Penitentiary Establishment of Ciego de Ávila.Method: a pre-experimental study (before-after) was carried out between January and December 2017. The universe was constituted by the 1 000 inmates of the institution. From them, 39 were selected through non-probabilistic sampling. In the first stage, according to critical cases, 13 internal health promoters were selected, one from each detachment, and these, in a second stage, in cascade, elected two key informants. In the analysis of the socio-demographic variables were used the mean and the standard deviation, and to measure the response of the intervention, the statistical tests of McNemar and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.Results: more than half of the inmates had a higher average educational level (69,23 percent). The average age was 37,70 years. The level of global knowledge increased 2,56 percent with an adequate level before the intervention until 87,18 percent after being applied, with significant differences. All participants said that the intervention was pleasant and instructive.Conclusions: the usefulness of the educational intervention was demonstrated by improving the level of knowledge about pulmonary tuberculosis in the selected inmates(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois
16.
PLoS Biol ; 16(9): e2006519, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199530

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) has emerged as an important modifier of body lipid metabolism. However, how Cu contributes to the physiology of fat cells remains largely unknown. We found that adipocytes require Cu to establish a balance between main metabolic fuels. Differentiating adipocytes increase their Cu uptake along with the ATP7A-dependent transport of Cu into the secretory pathway to activate a highly up-regulated amino-oxidase copper-containing 3 (AOC3)/semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO); in vivo, the activity of SSAO depends on the organism's Cu status. Activated SSAO oppositely regulates uptake of glucose and long-chain fatty acids and remodels the cellular proteome to coordinate changes in fuel availability and related downstream processes, such as glycolysis, de novo lipogenesis, and sphingomyelin/ceramide synthesis. The loss of SSAO-dependent regulation due to Cu deficiency, limited Cu transport to the secretory pathway, or SSAO inactivation shifts metabolism towards lipid-dependent pathways and results in adipocyte hypertrophy and fat accumulation. The results establish a role for Cu homeostasis in adipocyte metabolism and identify SSAO as a regulator of energy utilization processes in adipocytes.

17.
Front Neurol ; 9: 508, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008694

RESUMO

Background: Rehabilitation therapy is the only available treatment for stroke survivors presenting neurological deficits; however, the underlying molecules and mechanisms associated with functional/motor improvement during rehabilitation are poorly understood. Objective: Our aim is to study the modulation of angiogenin and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) as repair-associated factors in a cohort of stroke patients and mouse models of rehabilitation after cerebral ischemia. Methods: The clinical study included 18 ischemic strokes admitted to an intensive rehabilitation therapy (IRT) unit, 18 non-ischemic controls and brain samples from three deceased patients. Angiogenin and EPCs were measured in blood obtained before and up to 6 months after IRT together with an extensive evaluation of the motor/functional status. In parallel, C57BL/6 mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the pasta matrix reaching-task or treadmill exercises were used as rehabilitation models. Angiogenin RNA expression was measured after 2 or 12 days of treatment together with cell counts from EPCs cultures. Results: Brain angiogenin was identified in both human and mouse tissue, whereas serum levels increased after 1 month of IRT in association with motor/functional improvement. EPC populations were increased after stroke and remained elevated during follow-up after IRT. The mouse model of rehabilitation by the task-specific pasta matrix exercise increased the number of EPCs at 2 days and increased angiogenin expression after 12 days of rehabilitation. Conclusions: Angiogenin and EPCs are modulated by rehabilitation after cerebral ischemia, suggesting that both angiogenin and EPCs could serve as biomarkers of improvement during rehabilitation or future therapeutic targets.

18.
Mediciego ; 24(2)jul.2018. tab, Fig
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71193

RESUMO

Introducción: la anemia es frecuente en la enfermedad renal crónica y es un predictor independiente de morbimortalidad cardíaca en estos enfermos.Objetivo: evaluar los beneficios del empleo de la eritropoyetina recombinante humana en el tratamiento de la anemia de causa renal en enfermos con insuficiencia renal crónica predialítica.Método: se realizó un preexperimento con pre y posprueba con un solo grupo en el universo de enfermos renales crónicos en etapa de prediálisis (estadíos 3-4) con anemia de causa renal, atendidos en el Hospital General Provincial Docente de Ciego de Ávila (67 enfermos). El estudio abarcó el período de octubre de 2014 a septiembre de 2015. Se limitó a los cuatro municipios del territorio sur de la provincia. Se utilizó la prueba de Friedman para buscar asociación entre variables de muestras relacionadas.Resultados: predominaron las mujeres, el grupo entre 60-79 años, y la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus como causas. El 91,0 por ciento elevó la hemoglobina en el rango 105-125 g/L y solamente 8,6 por ciento mantuvo valores superiores. La enfermedad renal crónica no progresó y 49,0 por ciento redujo el índice de masa del ventrículo izquierdo. La dosis media de EPOrHu administrada fue 4 377 UI/semana y no varió significativamente durante el ensayo.Conclusiones: ocurrió un incremento significativo de los valores medios de hemoglobina y hematocrito luego del tratamiento con eritropoyetina recombinante humana. No se produjeron cambios en la enfermedad, pero sí mejoría de la función ventricular izquierda, con respuesta hematológica adecuada con dosis promedio semanal inferior a 8 000 UI/kg(AU)


Introduction: anemia is common in chronic kidney disease and is an independent predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality in these patients.Objective: to evaluate the benefits of the use of recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of renal anemia in patients with chronic predialytic renal failure.Method: preexperiment was performed with pre and post test with a single group in the universe of chronic kidney patients in pre-dialysis stage (stages 3-4) with anemia of renal cause, attended at the General Provincial Teaching Hospital of Ciego de Ávila (67 patients). The study was carried out in the period from October 2014 to September 2015. It was limited to the four municipalities of the southern territory of the province. The Friedman test was used to search for association between variables of related samples.Results: women between 60-79 years, hypertension and diabetes mellitus as causes predominated. The 91,0 percent increased hemoglobin in the range 105-125 g/L and only 8,6 percent maintained higher values. Chronic kidney disease did not progress and 49,0 percent reduced the left ventricle mass index. The mean dose of EPOrHu administered was 4 377 IU/week and did not vary significantly during the trial.Conclusions: there was a significant increase in the mean values of hemoglobin and hematocrit after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin. There were no changes in the disease, but there was improvement in left ventricular function, with an adequate haematological response with a weekly average dose less than 8 000 IU/kg(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Anemia/terapia
19.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 17(8): 1546-1563, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735541

RESUMO

Exercise is known to confer major health benefits, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The systemic effects of exercise on multi-organ systems are thought to be partly because of myokines/cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle. The extent to which exercise alters cytokine expression and secretion in different muscle fiber types has not been systematically examined. Here, we assessed changes in 66 mouse cytokines in serum, and in glycolytic (plantaris) and oxidative (soleus) muscles, in response to sprint, endurance, or chronic wheel running. Both acute and short-term exercise significantly altered a large fraction of cytokines in both serum and muscle, twenty-three of which are considered novel exercise-regulated myokines. Most of the secreted cytokine receptors profiled were also altered by physical activity, suggesting an exercise-regulated mechanism that modulates the generation of soluble receptors found in circulation. A greater overlap in cytokine profile was seen between endurance and chronic wheel running. Between fiber types, both acute and chronic exercise induced significantly more cytokine changes in oxidative compared with glycolytic muscle. Further, changes in a subset of circulating cytokines were not matched by their changes in muscle, but instead reflected altered expression in liver and adipose tissues. Last, exercise-induced changes in cytokine mRNA and protein were only minimally correlated in soleus and plantaris. In sum, our results indicate that exercise regulates many cytokines whose pleiotropic actions may be linked to positive health outcomes. These data provide a framework to further understand potential crosstalk between skeletal muscle and other organ compartments.

20.
Int J Psychol ; 53(6): 449-457, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943288

RESUMO

This work examined whether combinations of academic and non-academic goals generated different motivational profiles in high school students. Besides, differences in homework behavioural engagement (i.e. amount of homework, time spent in homework, homework time management), homework emotional engagement (i.e. homework anxiety) and academic achievement were analysed. Participants were 714 high school students (43.4% boys and 56.6% girls). The study of potential motivational profiles was conducted by latent profile analysis, and the differences between the motivational profiles regarding homework variables and academic achievement were analysed using multivariate analysis. The results indicate the existence of five groups of motivational profiles: a group of students with multiple goals, a group of unmotivated students, two groups of students with a predominance of learning goals and, finally, a group comprising students with a high fear of failure. Both the group with multiple goals and the learning goals-oriented groups reported to do more homework, spending more time on homework, making better use of that time and having a higher academic achievement than counterparts. The avoidance-failure group and the group with multiple goals showed higher levels of homework anxiety. Globally, these results provide support for a person-centred approach.

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