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1.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(9): 562-570, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185932

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer la oferta de actividades preventivas propuestas por médicos residentes de medicina familiar en la consulta a demanda de Atención Primaria y su relación con las habilidades comunicacionales. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo multicéntrico mediante videograbación de la consulta médica. Emplazamiento: Ocho centros de salud de Jaén (Andalucía). Participantes: Setenta y tres médicos residentes de cuarto año. Mediciones principales: Se valora la oferta de actividades preventivas (según el Programa español de actividades preventivas y promoción de la salud -PAPPS-) y las características del médico, el paciente y la consulta. Valoración por pares de la comunicación médico-paciente mediante la escala CICAA. Análisis descriptivo, bivariable y de regresión logística. Resultados: Se valoran 260 entrevistas (duración 8,5 ± 4,0 min) de 73 residentes (50,7% mujeres, edad media 32,9 ± 7,7 años, 79% medio urbano). El paciente es más frecuentemente mujer (60%), que acude sola (72%) por procesos agudos (80%) y con 2,1 ± 1,0 motivos de consulta. Se ofertan actividades preventivas en un 47% (duración inferior al minuto) de tipo primario (70%) y secundario (59%) mediante consejo (72%) o cribado (52%), centradas en el área cardiovascular (52%) y estilos de vida (53%). Un 80% se relaciona con el motivo de consulta. Habilidades en comunicación: 41% mejorables, 26% adecuadas, 23% excelentes. La oferta de actividades preventivas se relaciona con la duración de la consulta (OR = 1,1; IC 95% 1,01; 1,16) y la puntuación del CICAA (OR = 1,03; IC 95% 1,01; 1,10). Conclusiones: Se realizan actividades preventivas en casi la mitad de las consultas, aunque centradas en consejo y cribado y ligadas a la demanda del paciente. El tiempo de consulta y las habilidades de comunicación favorecen una mayor oferta preventiva


Objective: To determine the offer of preventive activities by resident physicians of family medicine in the Primary Care consultations and the relation with their communication habilities. Design: A descriptive multicentre study assessing medical consultations video recording. Location: Eight Primary Healthcare centres in Jaen (Andalucia). Participants: Seventy-three resident physicians (4th year) filmed and observed with patients. Principal measurements: Offer of preventive activities (according to the Spanish Program of Preventive Activities and Health Promotion -PAPPS-). Doctor, patient and consultation characteristics. Peer-review of the communication between physicians and patients, using a CICAA scale. A descriptive, bivariate, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Two hundred and sixty interviews were evaluated (duration 8.5 ± 4.0 min) of 73 residents (50.7% women, mean age 32.9 ± 7.7 years, 79% urban environment). The patient is more frequently a woman (60%) who comes alone (72%) due to acute processes (80%) and with 2.1 ± 1.0 demands. Preventive activities are offered in 47% (duration less than one minute) of primary (70%) and secondary (59%) prevention, offered through advice (72%) or screening (52%) and focused on the cardiovascular area (52%) and lifestyles (53%). Eighty percent related to the patient's reason for consultation. Communication skills 41% improvable, 26% adequate, 23% excellent. The offer of preventive activities is related to the duration of the consultation (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.01; 1.16) and communication skills (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01; 1.10). Conclusions: Preventive activities are carried out in almost half of the consultations, although focused on advice and screening and linked to the patient's demand. Consultation time and communication skills favor a greater preventive offer


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Internato e Residência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Medicina Preventiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comunicação , Gravação em Vídeo , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas , Relações Médico-Paciente , Promoção da Saúde , Análise de Variância
2.
Aten Primaria ; 51(9): 562-570, 2019 11.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the offer of preventive activities by resident physicians of family medicine in the Primary Care consultations and the relation with their communication habilities. DESIGN: A descriptive multicentre study assessing medical consultations video recording. LOCATION: Eight Primary Healthcare centres in Jaen (Andalucia). PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-three resident physicians (4th year) filmed and observed with patients. PRINCIPAL MEASUREMENTS: Offer of preventive activities (according to the Spanish Program of Preventive Activities and Health Promotion -PAPPS-). Doctor, patient and consultation characteristics. Peer-review of the communication between physicians and patients, using a CICAA scale. A descriptive, bivariate, logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty interviews were evaluated (duration 8.5±4.0min) of 73 residents (50.7% women, mean age 32.9±7.7 years, 79% urban environment). The patient is more frequently a woman (60%) who comes alone (72%) due to acute processes (80%) and with 2.1±1.0 demands. Preventive activities are offered in 47% (duration less than one minute) of primary (70%) and secondary (59%) prevention, offered through advice (72%) or screening (52%) and focused on the cardiovascular area (52%) and lifestyles (53%). Eighty percent related to the patient's reason for consultation. Communication skills 41% improvable, 26% adequate, 23% excellent. The offer of preventive activities is related to the duration of the consultation (OR=1.1, 95% CI 1.01; 1.16) and communication skills (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01; 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Preventive activities are carried out in almost half of the consultations, although focused on advice and screening and linked to the patient's demand. Consultation time and communication skills favor a greater preventive offer.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217621, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The predictD intervention, a multicomponent intervention delivered by family physicians (FPs), reduced the incidence of major depression by 21% versus the control group and was cost-effective. A qualitative methodology was proposed to identify the mechanisms of action of these complex interventions. PURPOSE: To seek the opinions of these FPs on the potential successful components of the predictD intervention for the primary prevention of depression in primary care and to identify areas for improvement. METHOD: Qualitative study with FPs who delivered the predictD intervention at 35 urban primary care centres in seven Spanish cities. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews adopting a phenomenological approach. The data was triangulated by three investigators using thematic analysis and respondent validation was carried out. RESULTS: Sixty-seven FPs were interviewed and they indicated strategies used to perform the predictD intervention, including specific communication skills such as empathy and the activation of patient resources. They perceived barriers such as lack of time and facilitators such as prior acquaintance with patients. FPs recognized the positive consequences of the intervention for FPs, patients and the doctor-patient relationship. They also identified strategies for future versions and implementations of the predictD intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The FPs who carried out the predictD intervention identified factors potentially associated with successful prevention using this program and others that could be improved. Their opinions about the predictD intervention will enable development of a more effective and acceptable version and its implementation in different primary health care settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Emoções , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos de Família/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 28, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is viewed as a major and increasing public health issue, as it causes high distress in the people experiencing it and considerable financial costs to society. Efforts are being made to reduce this burden by preventing depression. A critical component of this strategy is the ability to assess the individual level and profile of risk for the development of major depression. This paper presents the cost-effectiveness of a personalized intervention based on the risk of developing depression carried out in primary care, compared with usual care. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analyses are nested within a multicentre, clustered, randomized controlled trial of a personalized intervention to prevent depression. The study was carried out in 70 primary care centres from seven cities in Spain. Two general practitioners (GPs) were randomly sampled from those prepared to participate in each centre (i.e. 140 GPs), and 3326 participants consented and were eligible to participate. The intervention included the GP communicating to the patient his/her individual risk for depression and personal risk factors and the construction by both GPs and patients of a psychosocial programme tailored to prevent depression. In addition, GPs carried out measures to activate and empower the patients, who also received a leaflet about preventing depression. GPs were trained in a 10- to 15-h workshop. Costs were measured from a societal and National Health care perspective. Qualityadjustedlife years were assessed using the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire. The time horizon was 18 months. RESULTS: With a willingness-to-pay threshold of €10,000 (£8568) the probability of cost-effectiveness oscillated from 83% (societal perspective) to 89% (health perspective). If the threshold was increased to €30,000 (£25,704), the probability of being considered cost-effective was 94% (societal perspective) and 96%, respectively (health perspective). The sensitivity analysis confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with usual care, an intervention based on personal predictors of risk of depression implemented by GPs is a cost-effective strategy to prevent depression. This type of personalized intervention in primary care should be further developed and evaluated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01151982. Registered on June 29, 2010.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/economia , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco
5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(10): 1021-1029, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877316

RESUMO

Importance: To our knowledge, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of preventive psychological and/or educational interventions for anxiety in varied populations. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of preventive psychological and/or educational interventions for anxiety in varied population types. Data Sources: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted based on literature searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, EMBASE, OpenGrey, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources from inception to March 7, 2017. Study Selection: A search was performed of randomized clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of preventive psychological and/or educational interventions for anxiety in varying populations free of anxiety at baseline as measured using validated instruments. There was no setting or language restriction. Eligibility criteria assessment was conducted by 2 of us. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias (Cochrane Collaboration's tool) were performed by 2 of us. Pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated using random-effect models. Heterogeneity was explored by random-effects meta-regression. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of new cases of anxiety disorders or reduction of anxiety symptoms as measured by validated instruments. Results: Of the 3273 abstracts reviewed, 131 were selected for full-text review, and 29 met the inclusion criteria, representing 10 430 patients from 11 countries on 4 continents. Meta-analysis calculations were based on 36 comparisons. The pooled SMD was -0.31 (95% CI, -0.40 to -0.21; P < .001) and heterogeneity was substantial (I2 = 61.1%; 95% CI, 44% to 73%). There was evidence of publication bias, but the effect size barely varied after adjustment (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.17; P < .001). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of effect size results. A meta-regression including 5 variables explained 99.6% of between-study variability, revealing an association between higher SMD, waiting list (comparator) (ß = -0.33 [95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11]; P = .005) and a lower sample size (lg) (ß = 0.15 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.23]; P = .001). No association was observed with risk of bias, family physician providing intervention, and use of standardized interviews as outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Psychological and/or educational interventions had a small but statistically significant benefit for anxiety prevention in all populations evaluated. Although more studies with larger samples and active comparators are needed, these findings suggest that anxiety prevention programs should be further developed and implemented.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Psicológicas , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Psiquiatria Preventiva/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Ann Fam Med ; 15(3): 262-271, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28483893

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although evidence exists for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions to prevent the onset of depression, little is known about its prevention in primary care. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to prevent depression in primary care. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of psychological and educational interventions to prevent depression in nondepressed primary care attendees. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, OpenGrey Repository, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources up to May 2016. At least 2 reviewers independently evaluated the eligibility criteria, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We calculated standardized mean differences (SMD) using random-effects models. RESULTS: We selected 14 studies (7,365 patients) that met the inclusion criteria, 13 of which were valid to perform a meta-analysis. Most of the interventions had a cognitive-behavioral orientation, and in only 4 RCTs were the intervention clinicians primary care staff. The pooled SMD was -0.163 (95%CI, -0.256 to -0.070; P = .001). The risk of bias and the heterogeneity (I2 = 20.6%) were low, and there was no evidence of publication bias. Meta-regression detected no association between SMD and follow-up times or SMD and risk of bias. Subgroup analysis suggested greater effectiveness when the RCTs used care as usual as the comparator compared with those using placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological and educational interventions to prevent depression had a modest though statistically significant preventive effect in primary care. Further RCTs using placebo or active comparators are needed.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 164(10): 656-65, 2016 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Not enough is known about universal prevention of depression in adults. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention to prevent major depression. DESIGN: Multicenter, cluster randomized trial with sites randomly assigned to usual care or an intervention. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01151982). SETTING: 10 primary care centers in each of 7 cities in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Two primary care physicians (PCPs) and 5236 nondepressed adult patients were randomly sampled from each center; 3326 patients consented and were eligible to participate. INTERVENTION: For each patient, PCPs communicated individual risk for depression and personal predictors of risk and developed a psychosocial program tailored to prevent depression. MEASUREMENTS: New cases of major depression, assessed every 6 months for 18 months. RESULTS: At 18 months, 7.39% of patients in the intervention group (95% CI, 5.85% to 8.95%) developed major depression compared with 9.40% in the control (usual care) group (CI, 7.89% to 10.92%) (absolute difference, -2.01 percentage points [CI, -4.18 to 0.16 percentage points]; P = 0.070). Depression incidence was lower in the intervention centers in 5 cities and similar between intervention and control centers in 2 cities. LIMITATION: Potential self-selection bias due to nonconsenting patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with usual care, an intervention based on personal predictors of risk for depression implemented by PCPs provided a modest but nonsignificant reduction in the incidence of major depression. Additional study of this approach may be warranted. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Institute of Health Carlos III.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e92008, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24646951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The predictD study developed and validated a risk algorithm for predicting the onset of major depression in primary care. We aimed to explore the opinion of patients about knowing their risk for depression and the values and criteria upon which these opinions are based. METHODS: A maximum variation sample of patients was taken, stratified by city, age, gender, immigrant status, socio-economic status and lifetime depression. The study participants were 52 patients belonging to 13 urban health centres in seven different cities around Spain. Seven Focus Groups (FGs) were given held with primary care patients, one for each of the seven participating cities. RESULTS: The results showed that patients generally welcomed knowing their risk for depression. Furthermore, in light of available evidence several patients proposed potential changes in their lifestyles to prevent depression. Patients generally preferred to ask their General Practitioners (GPs) for advice, though mental health specialists were also mentioned. They suggested that GPs undertake interventions tailored to each patient, from a "patient-centred" approach, with certain communication skills, and giving advice to help patients cope with the knowledge that they are at risk of becoming depressed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients are pleased to be informed about their risk for depression. We detected certain beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and behaviour among the patients that were potentially useful for future primary prevention programmes on depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 13: 171, 2013 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23782553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'predictD algorithm' provides an estimate of the level and profile of risk of the onset of major depression in primary care attendees. This gives us the opportunity to develop interventions to prevent depression in a personalized way. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a new intervention, personalized and implemented by family physicians (FPs), to prevent the onset of episodes of major depression. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT), with cluster assignment by health center and two parallel arms. Two interventions will be applied by FPs, usual care versus the new intervention predictD-CCRT. The latter has four components: a training workshop for FPs; communicating the level and profile of risk of depression; building up a tailored bio-psycho-family-social intervention by FPs to prevent depression; offering a booklet to prevent depression; and activating and empowering patients. We will recruit a systematic random sample of 3286 non-depressed adult patients (1643 in each trial arm), nested in 140 FPs and 70 health centers from 7 Spanish cities. All patients will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The level and profile of risk of depression will be communicated to patients by the FPs in the intervention practices at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of major depression (measured by CIDI each 6 months) over 18 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be health-related quality of life (SF-12 and EuroQol), and measurements of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The inferences will be made at patient level. We shall undertake an intention-to-treat effectiveness analysis and will handle missing data using multiple imputations. We will perform multi-level logistic regressions and will adjust for the probability of the onset of major depression at 12 months measured at baseline as well as for unbalanced variables if appropriate. The economic evaluation will be approached from two perspectives, societal and health system. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this will be the first RCT of universal primary prevention for depression in adults and the first to test a personalized intervention implemented by FPs. We discuss possible biases as well as other limitations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01151982.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/economia , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Risco , Espanha
10.
Compr Psychiatry ; 52(1): 26-32, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21220062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive disorder is one of the most common mental disorders in primary care. Depression is often a chronic disorder with recurrent episodes. Little is known about the differences in clinical profile between first and recurrent episodes. The aim of the study is to analyze the differences between clinical presentation of first and subsequent episodes of depressive disorders in primary care patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study in primary care centers in Spain was designed. A total of 10,257 primary care patients having a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depressive episode were analyzed. Clinical symptoms were measured using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Scale. Patient Health Questionnaire was used to assess somatic symptoms. RESULTS: There were 40.6% of patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for recurrent depression. Compared with those diagnosed of their first major depressive disorder, recurrent patients had greater rates and severity of depressive (t = -7.85, P < .001) and somatic symptoms (t = 5.64, P < .001). The severity of symptoms also increases with number of episodes (F = 40.2, P < .001, for depressive symptoms; F = 27.8, P < .001, for somatic symptoms). First-episode patients were more likely to experience reduced appetite (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2) and suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2). CONCLUSION: There are differences in the clinical profile of initial and recurrent episodes in primary care depressive patients. Each recurrent depressive episode seems to have a greater impact on symptoms and well-being. The identification of a specific depression symptom profile in first or recurrent episodes is needed to improve the long-term management of major depressive episode patients in primary care settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Br J Gen Pract ; 58(550): 324-30, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18482486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent attenders to GP clinics can place an unnecessary burden on primary care. Interventions to reduce frequent attendance have had mixed results. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of a GP intervention to reduce frequent-attender consultations. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial with frequent attenders divided into an intervention group and two control groups (one control group was seen by GPs also providing care to patients undergoing the intervention). SETTING: A health centre in southern Spain. METHOD: Six GPs and 209 randomly-selected frequent attenders participated. Three GPs were randomly allocated to perform the new intervention: of the 137 frequent attenders registered with these three GPs, 66 were randomly allocated to receive the intervention (IG) and 71 to a usual care control group (CG2). The other three GPs offered usual care to the other 72 frequent attenders (CG1). The main outcome measure was the total number of consultations 1 year post-intervention. Baseline measurements were recorded of sociodemographic characteristics, provider-user interface, chronic illnesses, and psychosocial variables. GPs allocated to the new intervention received 15 hours' training which incorporated biopsychosocial, organisational, and relational approaches. After 1 year of follow-up frequent attenders were contacted. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. RESULTS: A multilevel model was built with three factors: time, patient, and doctor. After adjusting for covariates, the mean number of visits at 1 year in IG was 13.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]=11.39 to 14.94); in the CG1 group was 19.37 (95% CI=17.31 to 21.55); and in the CG2 group this was 16.72 (95% CI=4.84 to 18.72). CONCLUSION: The new intervention with GPs resulted in a significant and relevant reduction in frequent-attender consultations. Although further trials are needed, this intervention is recommended to GPs interested in reducing consultations by their frequent attenders.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade/organização & administração , Mau Uso de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração da Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agendamento de Consultas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
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