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1.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205056

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the number of schoolchildren with chronic diseases is constantly increasing, teachers must be aware of this new reality and of the special needs of these children. However, there is very little information about the knowledge, skills, and concerns of teachers when faced with a possible urgent situation that could occur in a child with a chronic disease. For this reason, this study has been conducted. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire with simple questions about seizures, diabetes, anaphylaxis, and basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was completed by 244 primary and secondary school teachers. They subsequently participated in short workshops focused on the management of medical emergencies in relation to these conditions. RESULTS: The majority (60%) of the teachers had at least one child in their classroom with a chronic disease, with epilepsy being the most frequent. Their main concern was not knowing how to act in a potentially serious situation. As regards hypoglycaemic crises and anaphylaxis, teachers who had at-risk pupils were not sure if they would be able to use the recommended medication, although they knew how to use it. CONCLUSIONS: Teachers of the study were concerned about not knowing what to do in an emergency event in a schoolchild with chronic illness. Although some had received information about the medication to be administered, they were not sure if they would be able to do so. The training and self-confidence of teachers should be improved in order to cope with possible critical situations in schoolchildren with chronic diseases.

2.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound (US) guidance increases the success rate and decreases complications during central venous catheterisation (CVC). The benefits of US guidance in arterial catheterisation are less clear. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of US-guided arterial catheterisation with the traditional landmark (LM) technique in critically ill children. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study was carried out in 18 Paediatric Intensive Care units in Spain during a 6-months period. Ultrasound guided and landmark techniques were compared in terms of cannulation technical success and immediate mechanical complications. RESULTS: A total of 161 procedures were performed on 128 patients (78 procedures in the US group and 83 in the LM groups). The median (interquartile range) age and weight of the cohort was 11months (2-52), and 10kg (4-17), respectively. More than half (59.6%) were male. US was used mainly in big (number of beds 11 [8-16] vs 6 [4-10], p < 0,001) and high complexity intensive care units (cardiac surgery program 76.9% vs. 25.6%, P<.001) as well as in smaller children [weight 5.7kg (3.8-13) vs 11.5kg (4.9-22.7), P<.001]. Almost half (49.7%) of the procedures were performed by an inexperienced operator (paediatric resident, or staff with less than 5years of clinical experience in the PICU), and only 24.4% had performed more than 50 US-guided vascular access procedures before the study. There were no significant differences between US and LM techniques in terms of first-attempt success (35.8% vs 33.7%, P=.773), overall success (75.6% vs 71.1%, P=.514), number of puncture attempts [2 (1-4) vs 2 (1-3), P=.667] and complications (16.6% vs 25.6%, P=.243). Adjustment by potential confounders using multivariate regression models did not modify these results. Subgroup analyses showed that US outperformed LM technique in terms of overall success (83.7% vs 62.7%, P=.036) and complications (10,8% vs 32.5%, P=.020) only when procedures where performed by less-experienced operators. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective observational multicentre study, US did not improve arterial cannulation outcomes compared to the traditional LM technique in critically ill children. US-guided arterial cannulation may offer advantages when cannulation is performed by inexperienced operators.

4.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 53-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Bystander assistance is decisive to enhance the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Despite an increasing number of basic life support (BLS) training methods, the most effective formula remains undefined. To identify a gold standard, we performed a systematic review describing reported BLS training methods for laypeople and analyzed their effectiveness. METHODS: We reviewed the MEDLINE database from January 2006 to July 2018 using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, considering all studies training adult laypeople in BLS and performing practical skill assessment. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies using the MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument) scale. RESULTS: Of the 1263 studies identified, 27 were included. Most of them were nonrandomized controlled trials and the mean quality score was 13 out of 18, with substantial agreement between reviewers. The wide heterogeneity of contents, methods and assessment tools precluded pooling of data. Nevertheless, there was an apparent advantage of instructor-led methods, with feedback-supported hands-on practice, and retraining seemed to enhance retention. Training also improved attitudinal aspects. CONCLUSIONS: While there were insufficiently consistent data to establish a gold standard, instructor-led formulas, hands-on training with feedback devices and frequent retraining seemed to yield better results. Further research on adult BLS training may need to seek standardized quality criteria and validated evaluation instruments to ensure consistency.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos
6.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of first aid (FA) of primary and pre-school teachers and the parents of children in these education stages. METHODS: A questionnaire already used in previous publications was employed and consisted of 4 sections: 1) general information; 2) assessment of FA knowledge; 3) questions about FA, and 4) attitudes about FA. The questionnaire was sent by e-mail in Google Forms format to different education centres of the Autonomous Community of Galicia. The centres were asked to send them to the school staff and parents of the pupils so that they could be completed. RESULTS: A total of 470 questionnaires were analysed (177 teachers; 242 parents and 51 teachers with children). More than half (268, 57%) of the participants stated to have knowledge of FA. In the case of the teachers, a relationship was found between having this information and teaching these contained in the classroom (P=.008). Only 4 participants managed to arrange the basic life support sequence, and none of them correctly answered the questions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. More than 95% of the sample considered it necessary to include FA in the school curriculum and in the study plans of degrees destined for teacher training. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of teachers and parents had training in FA, although none of them responded correctly to the questions related to basic life support. The inclusion of these contents in school curricula would be recommendable, but it requires training the teaching staff beforehand. The inclusion of these contents in university study plans should be a measure to take into account.

8.
Emerg Med J ; 36(11): 653-659, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gamification is a non-evaluation and competition-based training methodology with high emotional involvement. The goal of this study was to evaluate gamification methodology as compared with other existing methodologies when teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to secondary school students. METHODS: 489 secondary school students from two high schools in Spain participated in this randomised-block quasi-experimental study in February 2018. The students were classified into different groups. Each group received CPR training with a different methodology: GAM (gamification-based training as a compulsory but non-tested academic activity to learn by playing in teams, with instructor and visual feedback); EVA (training based on subsequent evaluation as a motivational incentive, with instructor and visual feedback); VFC (visual feedback complementary, training based on a non-compulsory and non-tested academic activity, with instructor and visual feedback); TC (traditional complementary, training based on a non-compulsory and non-tested academic activity, with instructor feedback). After a week, each student performed a 2 min hands-only CPR test and quality of CPR was assessed. Visual feedback in training and CPR variables in test were provided by the QCPR Instructor App using a Little Anne manikin, both from Laerdal (Norway). RESULTS: GAM (89.56%; 95% CI 86.71 to 92.42) methodology resulted in significantly higher scores for CPR quality than VFC and TC (81.96%; 95% CI 78.04% to 85.88% and 64.11%; 95% CI 58.23 to 69.99). GAM (61.77%; 95% CI 56.09 to 67.45) methodology also resulted in significantly higher scores for correct rate than VFC and TC (48.41%; 95% CI 41.15% to 55.67% and 17.28%; 95% CI 10.94 to 23.62). 93.4% of GAM methodology participants obtained >50 mm of compression mean depth which was a significantly higher proportion than among students in VFC and TC (78.0% and 71.9%). No differences between GAM and EVA were found. A confidence level of 95% has been assigned to all values. CONCLUSIONS: GAM methodology resulted in higher CPR quality than non-tested methods of academic training with instructor feedback or visual feedback. Gamification should be considered as an alternative teaching method for Basic Life Support (BLS) in younger individuals.

9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(10): 1529-1535, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446464

RESUMO

Paediatric cardiorespiratory arrest is a rare event that requires a fast, quality intervention. High-quality chest compressions are an essential prognostic factor. The aim of this prospective, randomized and crossover study in infant manikin 2-min cardiorespiratory resuscitation scenario is to quantitatively compare the quality of the currently recommended method in infants (two-thumb-encircling hand techniques) with two new methods (the new two-thumb and the knocking-fingers techniques) using a 15:2 compression-to-ventilation ratio. Ten qualified health professionals were recruited. Variables analysed were mean rate and the ratio of compressions in the recommended rate range, mean depth and the ratio of compressions within the depth range recommendations, ratio of compressions with adequate chest release and ratio of compressions performed with the fingers in the correct position. Ratios of correct compressions for depth, rate, chest release and hand position were always above 70% regardless of the technique used. Reached mean depth and mean rate were similar to the 3 techniques. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the variables analysed.Conclusion: In an infant manikin, professionals are able to perform chest compressions with the new techniques with similar quality to that obtained with the standard method. What is Known: • Quality chest compressions are an essential prognostic factor in paediatric cardiorespiratory arrest. • It has been reported poor results when studied cardiorespiratory resuscitation quality in infants applying the recommended methods. What is New: • In a simulated scenario, quality of chest compressions performed with two new techniques (nTTT and KF) is similar to that obtained with the currently recommended method (TTHT).

11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0212080, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039154

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Decision-making in emergencies is a multifactorial process based on the rescuer, patient, setting and resources. The eye-tracking system is a proven method for assessing decision-making processes that have been used in different fields of science. Our aim was to evaluate the lifeguards' capacity to perform the ABCDE (Airway-Breathing-Circulation-Disability-Exposure) approach when facing a simulated critically ill-drowned victim. METHODS: A cross-sectional simulation study was designed to assess the skills and sequence of the ABCDE approach by 20 professional lifeguards. They had to assess a victim and act according to his/her clinical status by following the ABCDE primary assessment approach. The two kinds of variables were recorder: those related to the quality of each step of the ABCDE approach and the visual behaviour using a portable eye-movement system. The eye-tracking system was the Mobile Eye system (Bedford, USA). RESULTS: None of the study participants were able to complete correctly the ABCDE approach. Lifeguards spent more time in the Circulation step: Airway (15.5±11.1 s), Breathing (25.1±21.1 s), Circulation (44.6±29.5 s), Disability (38.5±0.7 s). Participants spent more time in viewpoints considered as important (65.5±17.4 s) compared with secondary ones (34.6±17.4 s, p = 0.008). This was also represented in the percentage of visual fixations (fixations in important viewpoints: 63.36±15.06; fixation in secondary viewpoints: 36.64±15.06; p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Professional lifeguards failed to fully perform the ABCDE sequence. Evaluation by experts with the help of eye-tracking technology detected the lifeguards' limitations in the assessment and treatment of an eventual critically ill victim. Such deficits should be considered in the design and implementation of lifeguards' training programmes.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Afogamento , Primeiros Socorros , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurogenetics ; 20(2): 73-82, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903322

RESUMO

Celia's encephalopathy (progressive encephalopathy with/without lipodystrophy (PELD)) is a childhood neurodegenerative disorder with a fatal prognosis before the age of 10, due to the variant c.985C>T in the BSCL2 gene that causes a cryptic splicing site leading to skipping of exon 7. For years, different authors have reported cases of congenital generalized lipodystrophy due to the variant c.974dupG in BSCL2 associated with neurological manifestations of variable severity, although some of them clearly superimposable to PELD. To identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for these neurological alterations in two patients with c.974dupG. Clinical characterization, biochemistry, and neuroimaging studies of two girls carrying this variant. In silico analysis, PCR amplification, and BSCL2 cDNA sequencing. BSCL2-201 transcript expression, which lacks exon 7, by qPCR in fibroblasts from the index case, from a healthy child as a control and from two patients with PELD, and in leukocytes from the index case and her parents. One with a severe encephalopathy including a picture of intellectual deficiency, severe language impairment, myoclonic epilepsy, and lipodystrophy as described in PELD, dying at 9 years and 9 months of age. The other 2-year-old patient showed incipient signs of neurological involvement. In silico and cDNA sequencing studies showed that variant c.974dupG gives rise to skipping of exon 7. The expression of BSCL2-201 in fibroblasts was significantly higher in the index case than in the healthy child, although less than in the case with homozygous PELD due to c.985C>T variant. The expression of this transcript was approximately half in the healthy carrier parents of this patient. The c.974dupG variant leads to the skipping of exon 7 of the BSCL2 gene and is responsible for a variant of Celia's encephalopathy, with variable phenotypic expression.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Complementar/genética , Éxons , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
J Pediatr ; 208: 81-88.e2, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess thoracic aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) as a marker of thoracic aortic remodeling in children born small for gestational age (SGA). STUDY DESIGN: We assessed thoracic aIMT, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 239 patients (117 SGA; 122 appropriate for gestational age controls) age 6-8 years. Each SGA participant was matched 1:1 based on sex, gestational age, and birth date. Thoracic aIMT was determined by 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: SGA children showed a significant increase in both aIMT (0.89 mm [0.12] vs 0.79 mm [0.11], P < .001) and cIMT (.50 mm [0.05] vs 0.49 mm [0.04], P < .001) compared with appropriate for gestational age controls, but the magnitude of the difference in aIMT was greater than that in cIMT (standardized difference of the means: +84% vs +27%). aIMT was linearly correlated with aortic arch PWV as measured by echocardiography (r = 0.211, P < .001) but not with carotid-femoral PWV (r = 0.113, P = .111). Born SGA was independently associated with increased aIMT after controlling for perinatal, anthropometric, and biochemical determinants in linear regression models. CONCLUSIONS: SGA children exhibit increased thoracic aIMT and aortic arch PWV in early childhood that may suggest the presence of structural changes in the thoracic aorta wall architecture. Measurement of ascending aIMT by transthoracic echocardiography is feasible and reproducible and may be a useful marker of vascular disease.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(8): 795-805, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training families of patients at risk for sudden cardiac death in basic life support (BLS) has been recommended, but remains challenging. This research aimed to determine the impact of embedding resuscitation training for patients in a cardiac rehabilitation programme on relatives' BLS skill retention at six months. DESIGN: Intervention community study. METHODS: Relatives of patients suffering acute coronary syndrome or revascularization enrolled on an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programme were included. BLS skills of relatives linked to patients in a resuscitation-retraining programme (G-CPR) were compared with those of relatives of patients in a standard programme (G-Stan) at baseline, following brief instruction and six months after. Differences in skill performance and deterioration and self-perceived preparation between groups over time were assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-nine relatives were included and complete data from 66 (G-Stan=33, G-CPR=33) was analysed. Baseline BLS skills were equally poor, improved irregularly following brief instruction and decayed afterwards. G-CPR displayed six-month better performance and lessened skill deterioration over time compared with G-Stan, including enhanced compliance with the BLS sequence ( p = 0.006 for group*time interaction) and global resuscitation quality ( p = 0.007 for group*time interaction). Self-perceived preparation was higher in G-CPR ( p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Relatives of patients suffering acute coronary syndrome or revascularization enrolled on a cardiac rehabilitation programme showed poor BLS skills. A resuscitation-retraining cardiac rehabilitation programme resulted in relatives' higher BLS awareness, skill retention and confidence at six months compared with the standard programme. This may suggest a significant impact of this formula on the family setting and support the active role of patients to enhance health education in their environment.

18.
Cardiol J ; 26(5): 536-542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess future schoolteachers' basic life support (BLS) knowledge and willingness to include this content in school lessons. The aim was also to determine the learning effect of a brief BLS hands-on training session, supported by real-time feedback. METHODS: A convenience sample of 98 University students of Educational Sciences and Sports were recruited. The training program consisted of brief theoretical and hands-on interactive sessions with a 2/10 instructor/participants ratio. Knowledge and willingness was assessed by means of a survey. Chest compressions (CC) and ventilation quality were registered in 47 cases during 1 min cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) tests. RESULTS: Fifty-eight percent of subjects declared to know how to perform CPR, 62% knew the correct chest compression/ventilation ratio but only one in four knew the CC quality standards. Eighty-eight percent knew what an automated external defibrillator (AED) was; willingness to use the device improved from 70% to 98% after training. Almost half of CCs were performed atan adequate rate. Men performed deeper compressions than women (56.1 ± 4.03 mm vs. 52.17 ± 5.51 mm, p = 0.007), but in both cases the mean value was within recommendations. Full chest recoil was better in women (72.2 ± 32.8% vs. 45.4 ± 32.9%, p = 0.009). All CCs were delivered with correct hand positions. CONCLUSIONS: Brief hands-on training supported by real-time feedback of CPR quality helps future schoolteachers improve their knowledge, self-confidence and CPR skills. BLS training should be implemented in University curricula for schoolteachers in order to promote their engagement in effective BLS training of schoolchildren.

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