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Ambio ; 49(1): 258-270, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859399


Impacts of the legal designation of protected areas (PAs) may have contrasting implications for different stakeholders, and at different spatial scales. In this study, we analysed the organisational perception on the socioeconomic effects of PA designation from all sectors of activity in Spain, accounting for PAs' legal stringency. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 68 organisations at national, regional (Andalusia) and local scales (two municipalities in the Almeria province, Andalusia) through an online survey. Local stakeholders and the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors were most concerned about the social and economic impacts of PAs designation on their organisations. By contrast, organisations at the national or regional scales together with public institutions, the quaternary sector and other miscellaneous stakeholders perceived predominantly positive effects. Only national organisations perceived an increase in local social and economic effects from the designation of legally stringent PAs with regard to multiple-use PAs.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
J Environ Manage ; 215: 345-357, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579727


Land use-land cover (LULC) changes towards artificial covers are one of the main global threats to biodiversity conservation. In this comprehensive study, we tested a number of methodological and research hypotheses, and a new covariate control technique in order to address common protected area (PA) assessment issues and accurately assess whether different PA networks have had an effect at preventing development of artificial LULCs in Spain, a highly biodiverse country that has experienced massive socioeconomic transformations in the past two decades. We used digital census data for four PA networks designated between 1990 and 2000: Nature Reserves (NRs), Nature Parks (NPs), Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs). We analysed the effect of explanatory variables on the ecological effectiveness of protected polygons (PPs): Legislation stringency, cummulative legal designations, management, size, age and bio-physical characteristics. A multiple Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) semi-experimental research design was used whereby artificial land cover increase (ALCI) and proportional artificial land cover increase (PALCI) results were compared inside and outside PAs, using 1 km and 5 km buffer areas surrounding PAs as controls. LULC data were retrieved from Corine Land Cover (CLC) 1990 and 2006 data. Results from three spatial-statistical models using progressively restrictive criteria to select control areas increasingly more accurate and similar to the assessed PPs were compared. PAs were a generally effective territorial policy to prevent land development in Spain. NRs were the most effective PA category, with no new artificial land covers in the assessed period, although exact causality could not be attributed due to legal overlaps. SPAs were the least effective category, with worse ALCI data than their control areas. Legal protection was effective against land development, which was influenced by most bio-physical variables. However, cumulative legal designations and PA management did not seem to influence land development. The spatial-statistical technique used to make cases and control environmentally similar did not produce consistent outcomes and should be refined.

Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espanha
Rev Invest Clin ; 62(5): 440-6, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21416732


OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have found cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its polymorphisms to be associated with sarcoidosis, being it significantly decreased in alveolar macrophages, with no information on the relationship between these polymorphisms and the rest of cells in bronchoalveolar layage (BAL). The present study aimed to investigate the potential association between COX-2 gene polymorphisms and the BAL cell profile including the CD4/CD8 ratio. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study involved six hospitals in Spain. Patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis with a BAL performed were included. The following variables were recorded: age, gender, initial diagnostic methods, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, pulmonary function tests, radiological stage, and the cellularity and CD4/CD8 ratio from BAL. Genotyping of four COX-2 polymorphisms (COX2.5909T>G, COX2.8473T>C, COX2.926G>C, and COX2.3050G>C) was undertaken on DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes using fluorescent hybridization probes. The relationship between the polymorphisms and the cellularity was done by means of a multiple linear regression, adjusting for gender. RESULTS: A total of 51 sarcoid patients (23 males, mean age: 45 +/- 15 years) were studied. CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher among homozygote allele C carriers of the polymorphism COX2.8473T>C (CC 11.2 +/- 5.5 vs. CT+TT 4.4 +/- 3.5; p = 0.022; beta = 7.43; 95% CI 1.38 - 13.48). Although several differences were observed in other cell groups, they did not reach the statistical significance level. CONCLUSIONS: In patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis, there seems to be a relationship between COX2.8473 polymorphism and CD4/CD8 ratio from BAL.

Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Relação CD4-CD8 , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcoidose/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/enzimologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/enzimologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucócitos/enzimologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/enzimologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoidose/patologia
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 18(2): 646-50, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19190155


BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) results from malignant transformation of mesothelial cells. Past asbestos exposure represents a major risk factor for MPM and other benign pleural disease. Soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP) have been regarded as a promising serum biomarker for MPM. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of SMRP in malignant and nonmalignant asbestos-related pleural disease. PATIENTS: Four groups of patients were investigated: group 1 composed of 48 healthy subjects, group 2 composed of 177 patients with previous asbestos exposure and no pleural disease, group 3 composed of 36 patients with MPM, and group 4 composed of 101 patients with previous asbestos exposure and benign pleural disease. Serum SMRP levels were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Serum SMRP levels were significantly higher among group 3 than the other three groups. There were no differences in SMRP concentrations between groups 2 and 4. Subjects exposed to asbestos had higher SMRP concentrations than normal control subjects regardless of the presence of pleural disease. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SMRP values was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.83). The SMRP level at 0.55 nmol/L/L was determined as the most optimal cutoff value with resulting sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 72% for the diagnosis of MPM. CONCLUSIONS: These data attest to good diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of SMRP for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. We have also shown that serum SMRP levels might serve as a marker of asbestos exposure.

Asbestose/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Mesotelioma/sangue , Neoplasias Pleurais/sangue , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Respir Med ; 103(3): 427-33, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19042116


BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene and susceptibility to sarcoidosis, as well as the relation between these SNPs and the evolution of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This multicenter investigation involved seven hospitals in Spain. We used a case-control design followed by a prospective follow-up study. Sarcoid patients were recruited from the participating institutions during outpatient routine visits. Age- and gender-matched control subjects were recruited mainly from among outpatients attending the participating hospitals. Four SNPs in the COX2 gene (COX2.5909 T > G, COX2.8473 T > C, COX2.926 G > C, and COX2.3050 G > C) were genotyped using fluorescent hybridization probes among 131 patients with sarcoidosis (63 males; mean age: 47 +/- 15 years) and 157 healthy controls (83 males; mean age: 50 +/- 16 years). We employed a binomial multiple logistic regression analysis to test the association between the selected SNPs and disease susceptibility. The clinical, functional and radiological prognosis of the sarcoidosis patients was determined after a mean follow-up of 37.4 +/- 30.4 months. RESULTS: Carriers of the homozygous CC genotype of the COX2.8473 T > C polymorphism had a higher risk of sarcoidosis compared with TT carriers (OR: 3.08; 95% CI: 1.2-7.7; p = 0.035). 84% of patients achieved improvement or complete remission at follow-up. No association between the investigated SNPs and prognosis was seen. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the homozygous CC genotype of the COX2.8473 T > C polymorphism may be associated with sarcoidosis susceptibility. No significant association with prognosis was detected.

Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Primers do DNA , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem