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1.
Neurologia ; 33(7): 449-458, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since its description five decades ago, the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus (iCAH) has been traditionally related to the effect that ventricular dilatation exerts on the structures surrounding the ventricular system. However, altered cerebral blood flow, especially a reduction in the CSF turnover rate, are starting to be considered the main pathophysiological elements of this disease. DEVELOPMENT: Compression of the pyramidal tract, the frontostriatal and frontoreticular circuits, and the paraventricular fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus have all been reported in iCAH. At the level of the corpus callosum, gliosis replaces a number of commissural tracts. Cerebral blood flow is also altered, showing a periventricular watershed region limited by the subependymal arteries and the perforating branches of the major arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation. The CSF turnover rate is decreased by 75%, leading to the reduced clearance of neurotoxins and the interruption of neuroendocrine and paracrine signalling in the CSF. CONCLUSIONS: iCAH presents as a complex nosological entity, in which the effects of subcortical microangiopathy and reduced CSF turnover play a key role. According to its pathophysiology, it is simpler to think of iCAH more as a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer disease or Binswanger disease than as the classical concept of hydrocephalus.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Ventrículos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Pressão do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico
2.
J Food Sci ; 73(8): C599-605, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19019103

RESUMO

Total phenol and flavonoid contents were analyzed by HPLC coupled with a diode array detector in 5 traditional onion cultivars from Tenerife (Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) and a commercial cultivar (Texas Early Grano 502). Five quercetin chemical species (isoquercetin, quercetin diglucoside, quercetin monoglucoside 1, quercetin monoglucoside 2, and free quercetin) and kaempferol were identified and quantified in the onion samples. Quercetin monoglucoside 1 and quercetin diglucoside were the major flavonoids accounting for 80% of the total quercetin content. The mean quercetin monoglucoside 1: quercetin diglucoside ratio (QMG/QDG) was 1: 2.2. There were differences between the onion cultivars in the cases of total phenol, quercetin diglucoside, isoquercetin, QMG/QDG ratio, and kaempferol. The Texas cultivar had a higher QMG/QDG ratio and a higher kaempferol content than the traditional cultivars. The correlation study showed significant correlations between the analyzed phenolic components.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Cebolas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Quempferóis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Quercetina/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie , Texas
3.
Food Addit Contam ; 21(8): 768-73, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15370827

RESUMO

The concentrations of manganese, selenium, nickel and cadmium were determined in 112 samples of molluscs belonging to mussels (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47) and limpets (Nacella deaurata, n = 65), which were collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait, Chile. Four (6.2%) samples of limpets exceeded the maximum limits for cadmium established in Europe. Limpets showed higher mean manganese, nickel and cadmium concentrations than mussels, whilst the mean selenium concentration in mussels was higher. The consumption of one serving (100 g) of molluscs represents a considerable contribution to the dietary daily intake of selenium, and limpets make a significant contribution to the manganese and cadmium intakes. The sampling zone influenced the trace element concentrations, and different uptakes were observed between the mollusc species.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manganês/análise , Moluscos/química , Níquel/análise , Selênio/análise , Adulto , Animais , Bivalves/química , Chile , Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 58(3): 449-55, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14985682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biochemical and haematological parameters of nutritional interest were determined in the serum of opiate addicts in order to compare them with those obtained in healthy subjects. Linear discriminant analysis was applied for the differentiation of the opiate addicts. SUBJECTS: Sera of 106 opiate addicts in detoxification treatment (n=19) or in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program (MMTP) (n=87) were studied. DESIGN: : The determination of classical biochemical and haematological parameters in blood samples was carried out using standardized methods. Determination of retinol and alpha-tocopherol was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector. Folic acid and vitamin B(12) were determined using competitive binding techniques. Minerals were determined by flame emission spectrometry (Na and K) and atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) or with hydride generation (Se). Phosphorous was determined using a colorimetric method with ammonium molibdate. All statistical analyses were performed by means of the SPSS version 10.0 software for Windows. RESULTS: Stepwise linear discriminant analysis simplified the system to the following variables: Na, K, Mg, number of leucocytes, triglycerides, GPT, glucose, albumin, retinol and folic acid; and 90.1% (86.4% after crossvalidation) of correct classification was obtained. Representing the first and second discriminant functions, the control groups were well separated from opiate addicts. CONCLUSIONS: Applying linear discriminant analysis on several biochemical and haematological parameters, the opiate addicts could clearly be differentiated from the control individuals, and a tendency to differentiate the opiate addicts in MMTP and in detoxification treatment was observed.


Assuntos
Testes Hematológicos , Minerais/sangue , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/análise , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina B 12/análise , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitaminas/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
5.
Nutr Hosp ; 18(6): 358-65, 2003.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14682184

RESUMO

Levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit, number of red cells and leukocytes, haematological index (MCV, MCH, MCHC, DEI, MPV), sedimentation rate, iron, parameter related to accumulation and transport of iron (transferrin, ferritin, iron binding capability, transferring saturation index) and platelets were determined in blood samples of opiate addicts and they were compared with these results obtained in a control group. For both sexes, the levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron and platelets were similar in the control groups and opiate addicts. Opiate addicts females presented a number of red cells and platelets higher and lower respectively than the correspond values of the control group. The haematological index in opiate addicts were higher than the values in the control groups for overall and considering males and females independently. The levels of ferritin in opiate addicts males were higher than these levels found in control groups, occurring the contrary in the females. Opiate addicts males and females included in the methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) presented similar values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, number of red cells and leukocytes than the corresponding opiate addicts non-included in MMTP, except opiate addicts males, who showed lower haematocrit values.


Assuntos
Testes Hematológicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações
6.
Anál. clín ; 28(3): 71-84, jul. 2003. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-28615

RESUMO

En este trabajo se determinan parámetros bioquímicos relacionados con el perfil lipídico, con el funcionalismo hepático y renal, y con el metabolismo proteico y de los glúcidos en sueros de opiaceodependientes en un programa de mantenimiento con metadona (PMM) y en tratamiento de desintoxicación con objeto de compararlos entre sí, así como con resultados obtenidos en una población control. Diseño experimental. La determinación de los niveles de colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL-colesterol, GOT, GPT, gammaGT, fosfatasa alcalina, bilirrubina total, LDH, creatinina urea, ácido único, glucosa, amilasa, proteínas y albúmina se realizó con un autoanalizador BM/Hitachi 911. Los análisis estadísticos han sido realizados usando el programa SPSS versión 10.0 para Windows. Pacientes. Se analizaron 106 muestras de suero de opiaceodependientes, que acudían al Centro de Atención al Toxicómano de Santa Cruz de Tenerife para tratamiento de su dependencia. Resultados. Las transaminasas y yGT se encontraron elevadas en casi la mitad de pacientes, destacando la fosfatasa alcalina que se presentó elevada en prácticamente la totalidad de individuos. Se detectaron mayores niveles de transaminas, fosfatasa alcalina, yGT, triglicéridos y glucosa, y menores niveles de albúmina y colesterol en opiaceodependientes respecto del grupo control. Se observó que los pacientes en el PMM presentaron valores de glucosa, colesterol y albúmina más cercanos a los valores del grupo control que los que estaban en desintoxicación, ocurriendo lo contrario con los triglicéridos. Conclusión. Se observan diferencias del perfil bioquímico entre opiaceodependientes en PMM, opiaceodependientes en desintoxicación y grupo control (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Dependência de Heroína/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dependência de Heroína/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Ureia/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Amilases/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue
7.
Anál. clín ; 28(3): 85-90, jul. 2003. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-28616

RESUMO

Objetivo. En este trabajo se ha evaluado la influencia del sexo, edad, peso y talla sobre distintas formas de expresión de la excreción urinaria de selenio (Se) correspondientes a un grupo de personas sanas. Diseño experimental. Se analizaron 97 muestras de orina de 24 h (46 hombres y 51 mujeres) pertenecientes a la población sana de la isla de Tenerife. La determinación de los niveles de Se se realizó por un método espectrof luorimétrico, y la creatinina (CT) por el método modificado de Jaffé. Los análisis estadísticos han sido realizados usando el programa SPSS versión 10.0 para Windows. Resultados. Se obtuvieron numerosas correlaciones significativas entre las variables analizadas, destacando la existente entre la concentración urinaria de Se y de creatinina. En cuanto al análisis factorial, se seleccionaron cuatro factores, los cuales presentaron autovalores mayores que 1. Estos factores explicaron el 83 por ciento de la varianza total del sistema. Se constata que el primer factor estaba relacionado con parámetros antropométricos; el segundo y el tercer factor estaban influenciados principalmente por parámetros relacionados con la excreción de Se y de creatinina; respectivamente; en el cuarto factor las variables más influyentes fueron las concentraciones de Se y de creatinina. Conclusiones. El estudio de correlación puso de manifiesto la relación existente entre la concentración urinaria de Se y de creatinina. Además, se comprobó que la concentración de Se expresada como microg Se/g CT representa mejor la excreción urinaria de Se que la concentración expresada como microg Se/l (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Humanos , Selênio/urina , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Urina/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Creatinina/urina , Análise Fatorial
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 52(4): 406-412, dic. 2002.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-356595

RESUMO

Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Adulto , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Leite Humano/química , Metais Alcalinos/análise , Metais Alcalinoterrosos/análise , Cálcio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Pós , Potássio/análise , Espanha , Sódio/análise
11.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 52(4): 406-12, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12868283

RESUMO

Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis/análise , Metais Alcalinos/análise , Metais Alcalinoterrosos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Cálcio/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Magnésio/análise , Potássio/análise , Pós , Sódio/análise , Espanha
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 51(5): 373-80, 2000 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11103302

RESUMO

Concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were determined in 56 samples of mature human milk from Canarian women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fall within the normal limits in each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Fe, Cu and Zn of powdered infant formula was significantly higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of the studied metals for the milks of considered mothers were observed. The Fe, Cu and Zn intakes of infants fed with human milk are lower than the requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had consumed an adequate intake of Fe and Cu. A progressive decrease of the metal concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. The human milk obtained in spring presented Fe and Zn concentrations lower than in autumn, which could be due to changes in nutritional habits of the mothers. Age of mother and number of previous children seem to influence the Zn and Cu concentrations of human milk.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis/análise , Leite Humano/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Cobre/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Espanha , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 47(4): 1520-4, 1999 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10564009

RESUMO

A statistical study of correlation, factorial, and discriminant analysis on the metal composition (Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of different types of milks (human, cow, goat, pasteurized, and powdered infant formula) was carried out to establish the relationships between the metal concentrations and, therefore, differentiate the samples according to the type of milk. A large number of significant intermetallic correlations were found in all samples, which could be due to biological relationships between the metals studied. After the factorial analysis, the dimension space was reduced from eight variables to two factors, accounting for approximately 71.4% of the total variance. After an orthogonal rotation, the first factor was positively correlated with Ca and the second factor with Fe. The representation of the scores makes it possible to separate not only human milk from powdered infant formula but also to separate both of these from the other milks. In the discriminant analysis, four discriminant functions were obtained, which are linear combinations of the quantitative variables that best explain the differences among the different milks analyzed. These functions make it possible to classify 98% of the samples analyzed within each type of milk correctly. Therefore, discriminant functions obtained here can be used to identify the origin of any milk sample.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis/análise , Leite Humano/química , Leite/química , Minerais/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cabras , Humanos , Oligoelementos/análise
14.
Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem ; 33(3): 127-33, 1995 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7605824

RESUMO

Urinary selenium (Se) concentrations (microgram/l of urine and microgram/g of creatinine) and urinary Se excretions (microgram/d and microgram/d.kg of body weight) have been determined in healthy Canarian people. Urinary Se status was relatively low and similar to those data published from European regions. Females excreted daily significantly (P = 0.005) higher amounts of Se per kg of body weight in urine than males. An increase of daily urinary Se excretion was observed up to 30 years of age. Children (< 10 years old) had daily urinary Se excretion per kg of body weight higher than persons with age > 10 years old. Both units of Se excretion, microgram/d and microgram/d.kg, increased or decreased respectively with weight and height of the individuals. Food habits such as consumption of rich protein or rich fibre food, and drinking alcohol or coffee as well as smoking do not seem to influence the urinary Se status. Depletion of daily urinary Se excretion was observed with the increase of physical exercise. Unit of concentration (microgram/g of creatinine) is a more adequate indicator of the urinary Se excretion than the unit microgram/l.


Assuntos
Selênio/urina , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Peso Corporal , Creatinina/urina , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar , Espanha
15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 231(1): 39-46, 1994 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7704947

RESUMO

Urinary selenium (Se) concentrations (micrograms Se/l and microgram Se/g creatinine) have been determined in heroin abusers and in healthy controls. Heroin abusers showed significantly (P < 0.050) lower urinary Se concentrations (microgram Se/l and microgram Se/g creatinine) than healthy controls. The decrease of the urinary Se concentration (microgram Se/g creatinine) observed with the increase in age of heroin abusers may be due to the higher exposure to heroin with increased age. No significant differences (P > 0.100) of urinary Se concentrations (both as microgram Se/l and microgram Se/g creatinine) are observed between heroin abusers during methadone treatment and heroin abusers who have stopped taking the drug, with respect to healthy controls.


Assuntos
Heroína , Selênio/urina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/urina , Urina , Adulto , Creatinina/urina , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Humanos , Metadona/farmacologia , Selênio/sangue
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