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Polymers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784622


The dielectric breakdown of solid polymeric materials is due to the inception and propagation of electrical trees inside them. The remaining useful life of the solid dielectrics could be determined using propagation simulations correlated with non-intrusive measurements such as partial discharges (PD). This paper presents a brief review of the different models for simulating electrical tree propagation in solid dielectrics. A novel improved physical-stochastic model is proposed, which allows quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing the electrical tree propagation process in polymeric dielectrics. Simulation results exhibit good agreement with measurements presented in the literature. It is concluded that the model allows adequately predicting the tree propagation behavior and additional experimental analyses are required in order to improve the model accuracy.

Sensors (Basel) ; 20(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936669


During the last two decades, on-line partial discharge (PD) measurements have been proven as a very efficient test to evaluate the insulation condition of high-voltage (HV) installations in service. Among the different PD-measuring techniques, the non-conventional electromagnetic methods are the most used due to their effectiveness and versatility. However, there are two main difficulties to overcome in on-line PD measurements when these methods are applied: the ambient electric noise and the simultaneous presence of various types of PD or pulse-shaped signals in the HV facility to be evaluated. A practical and effective method is presented to separate and identify PD sources acting simultaneously in HV systems under test. This method enables testers to carry out a first accurate diagnosis of the installation while performing the measurements in situ with non-invasive high-frequency current transformers (HFCT) used as sensors. The data acquisition in real-time reduces the time of postprocessing by an expert. This method was implemented in a Matlab application named PRPD-time tool, which consists of the analysis of the Phase-Resolved Partial Discharge (PRPD) pattern in combination with two types of interactive graphic representations. These graphical depictions are obtained including a feature parameter, effective time (teff), related to the duration of single measured pulses as a third axis incorporated in a classical PRPD representation, named the PRPD-teff pattern. The resulting interactive diagrams are complementary and allow the pulse source separation of pulses and clustering. The effectiveness of the proposed method and the developed Matlab application for separating PD sources is demonstrated with a practical laboratory experiment where various PD sources and pulse-type noise interferences were simultaneously measured.

Polymers (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906561


Epoxy resin is one of the most common polymers used as part of the insulation system in key electrical assets such as power transformers and hydrogenerators. Thus, it is necessary to know their main characteristics and to evaluate their condition when subjected to High Voltage (HV). A brief review of epoxy resins' applications as insulating materials is made, their main characteristics as insulating media are given, the improvements with nano-fillers are summarized and the main electric properties required for Partial Discharges (PD) modelling are listed. In addition, the theoretical background and state-of-the-art of the three-capacitance and analytical models for simulating PD in solid dielectrics, such as epoxy resins, are reviewed in detail. Besides, their main advantages and disadvantages are presented, some critical arguments to the modelling procedure and assumptions are made and some improvements are proposed, taking into account conclusions made from other authors using models related to the PD development process. Finally, a case study was simulated using a modified three-capacitance model and the analytical model. The PD rate, q-φ-n diagrams and the minimum, mean and maximum PD electric charge are compared with measurements reported in the literature. Simulation results are in reasonable agreement with measured values. Capacitance models can be implemented in general purpose electric circuit simulation packages; however, its simulation is computationally expensive. Additional to this, although the modified three-capacitance model is not as accurate as finite elements or analytical models, results are also in agreement with real data.