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1.
Zygote ; 28(6): 482-488, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782049

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of E. speciosa on some physiological and biochemical parameters of reproduction and the onset of puberty in pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-primed immature female rats. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify the phenolic compounds in the methanol/methylene chloride (1:1) extract, the ethanolic and ethyl acetate fractions and the aqueous residue of E. speciosa. E. speciosa (0, 8, 32 or 64 mg/kg) were administered for 15 days to 24 non-PMSG-primed and 24 primed rats with 0.01 IU of PMSG. At the end of the treatment period, animal were sacrificed and their body, ovarian, uterine weight, ovarian protein or cholesterol level, as well as data on puberty onset were recorded. Of the 16 polyphenolic compounds quantitatively revealed in the extracts and fractions of E. speciosa after HPLC analysis, quercetin, rutin, apigenin and eugenol were the most abundant. Non-primed rats showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the uterine relative weight at the dose of 8 mg/kg when compared with the other treatments. The uterine proteins and the ovarian cholesterol (P < 0.05), respectively, showed a reduction at doses of 64 mg/kg and 32 mg/kg in non-primed rats. However in PMSG-primed rats, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) was observed in ovarian cholesterol at 64 mg/kg. In conclusion, E. speciosa potentializes the PMSG-inducing effect on folliculogenesis in PMSG-primed rats.

2.
Reprod Biol ; 20(3): 371-378, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418820

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the structure, survival and development of isolated caprine (secondary-SEC and early antral-EANT) follicles, after vitrification in the presence of synthetic polymers and in vitro culture. Additionally, transzonal projections (TZPs) and p450 aromatase enzyme were evaluated. After isolation, SEC and EANT follicles were in vitro cultured for six days or vitrified. After one week, SEC and EANT follicles were warmed and also in vitro cultured for six days. Data revealed that the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was similar between fresh and vitrified follicles in both follicular categories and antrum formation rate was similar between fresh and vitrified SEC follicles. Fluorescence by calcein-AM did not show difference between fresh and vitrified (SEC and EANT) follicles, however, the trypan blue test showed low viability for vitrified follicles. The integrity of TZPs was not affected between fresh and vitrified SEC follicles, however, in vitrified EANT follicles, there were signs of TZPs loss. Regarding steroidogenic function, it was observed a positive staining for p450 aromatase enzyme in fresh and vitrified SEC and EANT follicles. It was concluded that SEC follicles seem to be more resistant to vitrification than EANT follicles, as shown by the trypan blue test and TZPs assay. Future studies may confirm this hypothesis, in order to consolidate the use of SEC and EANT follicles as an alternative to ovary cryopreservation.

3.
Cryobiology ; 94: 66-72, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339491

RESUMO

Type and concentration of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) are important factors which influence the likelihood of a successful ovarian tissue vitrification outcome. In an attempt to address this factor, the present study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of different synthetic polymers (Supercool X-1000, Supercool Z-1000 and PVP K-12) on vitrification of bovine ovarian tissue. From each ovarian pair, fragments were recovered and immediately fixed for analysis (fresh control) or submitted to vitrification, either or not followed by in vitro culture for one or five days. Vitrification was performed using the ovarian tissue cryosystem (OTC) system. The ovarian tissues were intended for histological and viability analysis [Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and degenerate cells assay (Ethidium homodimer-1)], as well as immunolocalization of AQP3 and AQP9 were measured. The results showed that during almost all the periods after warming, in treatment groups which contain polymer (X-1000, Z-1000 and PVP), the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was the highest in the X-1000 samples. Furthermore, post-thawed X-1000 group revealed stronger labeling for AQP9 in primordial and transitional follicles, when compared with others. However, morphology after cryopreservation did not correlate with follicle viability and function where the levels of degeneration and tissue damage of PVP K-12 group were lower in comparison with X-1000 group and only in PVP K-12 group, ROS level was similar to that of the fresh control group. We believe that in addition to permeating CPAs, the addition of one (Supercool X-1000) or maybe a combination (Supercool X-1000 and PVP K-12) of non-permeating polymers could be useful to improve the outcome for vitrified bovine ovarian tissue.

4.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 261-268, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837514

RESUMO

The culture of preantral follicles as an in vitro model to evaluate the toxicity of new anticancer drug has being established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quinoxaline derivative the 2 2- (XYZC 6H 3 -CH=N-NH)-quinoxaline, 1 (QX) on caprine preantral follicles. We evaluate the follicular morphology and activation, proliferation and apoptosis of granulosa cells and finally the protein (ABCB1) and genes expression (cyclin/Cdks), respectively involved in multidrug resistance and cell cycle progression. Ovarian fragments containing primordial and developing follicles were exposed (in vitro culture) to different concentrations of QX (QX1.5, QX3.0 or QX6.0 µM/mL) during 6 days. To evaluate the effect of QX, the ovarian tissue was exposed to Paclitaxel 0.1 µg/mL (PTX - negative control) or in culture media without QX (MEM). At the end of exposure time, we realized that the QX (all concentrations) increased (P < .05) the normal morphology of preantral follicles compared to control (not treated ovarian tissue) or MEM. However, QX6.0 showed a enhanced (P < .05) on follicular activation (burnout) and apoptosis than QX1.5 and QX3.0. Expression of ABCB1 was similar between QX1.5 and QX6.0 and both were lower than control, MEM and PTX. Interestingly, the apoptosis rate in QX3.0 was similar to control and MEM and lower then QX1.5; QX6.0 and PTX. We conclude that quinoxaline may be a promising chemotherapeutic agent, however, other concentrations within a defined range (2-5.5 µM) could be widely investigated.


Assuntos
Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabras , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/patologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Quinoxalinas/toxicidade
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717534

RESUMO

The impact of zearalenone (ZEN) on female reproduction remains an issue, since its effects may differ among exposed cell types. Besides the use of decontaminants in animal diet, other approaches should be considered to minimise ZEN effects after exposure. Since the first organ in contact with ZEN is the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesise that products of microbiota metabolism may play a role in ZEN detoxification. We aimed to evaluate the effect of 1 µmol/L ZEN and 1 µmol/L equol (a microbial metabolite), alone or in combination, on the survival and morphology of in vitro cultured ovarian preantral follicles. Ovaries from 12 sheep were collected at a local abattoir and fragmented, and the ovarian pieces were submitted to in vitro culture for three days in the presence or absence of the test compounds. The follicular morphology was impaired by ZEN, but equol could alleviate the observed degeneration rates. While ZEN decreased cell proliferation in primary and secondary follicles, as well as induced DNA double-strand breaks in primordial follicles, all these observations disappeared when equol was added to a culture medium containing ZEN. In the present culture conditions, equol was able to counteract the negative effects of ZEN on ovarian preantral follicles.


Assuntos
Equol/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/química , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovinos
6.
Cryobiology ; 91: 77-83, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639331

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate different vitrification methods using distinct cryoprotectants (CPAs) for the preservation of collared peccary ovarian preantral follicles (PFs). Ovarian pairs from six females were fragmented and three fragments (fresh control group) were immediately evaluated for morphology, viability, cell proliferation capacity (assessed by quantifying the number of argyrophilic nucleolus organizer regions - NORs), and apoptosis (by the identification of activated caspase-3 expression). The remaining 18 fragments were vitrified using the solid surface vitrification (SSV) method or the ovarian tissue cryosystem (OTC) with 3 M ethylene glycol (EG), 3 M dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or a combination of the two (1.5 M EG/1.5 M DMSO). After two weeks, samples were rewarmed and evaluated as described previously. The OTC with any of the CPAs provided a similar conservation of morphologically normal PFs as the fresh control group (75.6 ±â€¯8.6%); however, the SSV was only efficient with DMSO alone (63.9 ±â€¯7.6%). Regarding the viability or cell proliferation, all tested groups provided post rewarming values similar to those observed for the fresh control group, 84.0 ±â€¯2.9% viable cells with 2.0 ±â€¯0.2 NORs. Related to apoptosis analysis, only the OTC with EG (46.7%) and the SSV method with EG (43.4%) or the combination of EG and DMSO (33.4%) provided similar values to those found for the fresh control group (36.7%). Our findings indicate the utilization of a closed system, the OTC, with 3 M EG as the CPA for the vitrification of collared peccary ovarian tissue.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Etilenoglicol/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Criopreservação/métodos , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Vitrificação
7.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(8): 1121-1130, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145489

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether preantral follicles cultured in vitro for 7 days within ovine ovarian cortical strips could be isolated at the secondary follicles (SF) and grown until antral stage during an additional 6 days period of in vitro culture in the presence of aqueous extract of Justicia insularis. Fresh ovarian fragments from 16 adult sheep were fixed for histological analysis (Control 1) or in vitro cultured individually in α-MEM+ supplemented with 0.3 mg/ml J. insularis (Step 1) for 7 days. Part of the fragments then were fixed for histological analysis (in vitro culture group). Remaining fragments were exposed stepwise to increasing trehalose concentrations before immediate isolation of SF and viability assessment (Control 2) or after 6 days of culture in α-MEM++ supplemented with 0.3 mg/ml J. insularis (Step 2). In Step 1, percentage of follicular activation was 80%. In Step 2, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in follicular diameter and antrum formation within 6 days in vitro culture of isolated follicles was achieved. The total antioxidant capacity from both steps significantly increase (p < 0.05) from day 2 to day 6. Confocal analysis of oocytes showed 57.14% oocytes with homogeneous distribution and 42.86% with peri-cortical distribution. In conclusion, SF can be successfully isolated from sheep ovarian cortex after 7 days of culture and are capable of surviving and forming an antral cavity if cultured in vitro for an additional 6 days in the presence of 0.3 mg/ml J. insularis.


Assuntos
Adhatoda/química , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ovinos , Animais , Meios de Cultura/química , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Trealose/química , Trealose/farmacologia
8.
Zygote ; 27(2): 55-63, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871647

RESUMO

SummaryStudies have shown that daily exposure to different products, whether chemical or natural, can cause irreversible damage to women's reproductive health. Therefore it is necessary to use tests that evaluate the safety and efficacy of these products. Most reproductive toxicology tests are performed in vivo. However, in recent years, various cell culture methods, including embryonic stem cells and tissues have been developed with the aim of reducing the use of animals in toxicological tests. This is a major advance in the area of toxicology, as these systems have the potential to become a widely used tool compared with in vivo tests routinely used in reproductive biology and toxicology. The present review describes and highlights data on in vitro culture processes used to evaluate reproductive toxicity as an alternative to traditional methods using in vivo tests.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208760, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532263

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the effect of supplementing in vitro culture medium with J. insularis compared to FSH on isolated secondary follicles and in vitro maturation of oocytes from those follicles. Secondary follicles were isolated from sheep ovaries and individually cultured for 18 days in α-MEM+ (Control), α-MEM+ supplemented with 100 ng/mL recombinant bovine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or with 0.3, 1.25, or 2.5 mg/mL of J. insularis extract (JI0.3, JI1.25, and JI2.5, respectively). Culture medium collected every 2 days was used to measure ROS levels. At the end of the culture period, cumulus oocytes complex (COCs) were collected and matured in vitro. Follicular walls were used for mRNA quantitation. JI0.3 led to a higher (P < 0.05) percentages of intact follicles than other groups after 18 days of culture. While follicular diameter remained unchanged from Day 6 onwards with JI0.3 and FSH, percentages of antral cavity formation were higher (P < 0.05) with JI0.3 at Day 6 than in all other treatments. No differences were observed between controls and treatment groups regarding ROS levels and mRNA expression of genes. Viability of resulting oocytes was higher (P < 0.05) in JI0.3 compared to FSH. Interestingly, in control experiment, supplementation of maturation medium with JI0.3 led to higher (P < 0.05) percentages of metaphase II compared to controls. Although more validations will be needed, it seems that this natural extract could be used as a cheap and easily available alternative to commercial FSH.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Adhatoda , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Adhatoda/química , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oogênese/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ovinos
10.
Zygote ; 26(5): 350-358, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289102

RESUMO

SummaryThe objectives were to develop an effective protocol for transfection of ovine secondary follicles and to assess the effect of attenuating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) using a small interfering RNA (siRNA-AQP3) on antrum formation and follicular growth in vitro. Various combinations of Lipofectamine® volumes (0.5, 0.75 or 1.0 µl), fluorescent oligonucleotide (BLOCK-iT ™) concentrations (3.18, 27.12 or 36.16 nM) and exposure times (12, 14, 16, 18 or 20 h) were tested. The BLOCK-iT™ was replaced by siRNA-AQP3 in the transfection complex. Ovine secondary follicles were isolated and cultured in vitro for 6 days using standard protocols. Follicles were transfected on day 0 or 3 or on both days (0 and 3) and then cultured for an additional 3 or 6 days. As revealed by the fluorescence signal, the Lipofectamine®/BLOCK-iT™ complex (0.75 µl + 27.12 nM by 12 h of incubation) crossed the basement membrane and granulosa cell and reached the oocytes. In general, the rate of intact follicles was higher and the rate of antrum formation was lower in transfected follicles compared with control follicles. In conclusion, ovine secondary follicles can be successfully transfected during in vitro culture, and siRNA-mediated attenuation of AQP3 gene reduced antrum formation of secondary follicles.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 3/genética , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Lipídeos , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interferência de RNA , Ovinos
11.
Theriogenology ; 116: 83-88, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783047

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the follicular morphology and development (follicular activation, cell proliferation, and hormone production), as well as the distribution pattern of Connexins 37 and 43 and SDF-1α after vitrification and in vitro culture of goat ovarian tissue. The study involved four experimental groups: fresh control, vitrified control, fresh culture and vitrified culture. The ovarian fragments were vitrified by a solid surface technique using the Ovarian Tissue Cryosystem and subsequently in vitro cultured for 7 days. The percentage of normal preantral follicles was similar between vitrified control and vitrified culture. However, both vitrified control and vitrified culture treatments showed a significant reduction of morphologically normal follicles in comparison to fresh control. A higher percentage of developing follicles (transition, primary and secondary) was observed in both fresh culture and vitrified culture treatments. Progesterone and estradiol production decreased (P < 0.05) during in vitro culture. SDF-1α and Cx37 proteins were detected in oocytes and granulosa cells from all the treatments. However, in vitrified cultured tissue, only granulosa cells were labeled with Cx37. Connexin 43 was detected in the granulosa, theca cells and zona pellucida in all the treatments. In conclusion, in vitro culture of vitrified goat ovarian cortex was able to promote follicle survival and did not alter the expression of SDF-1α and 43. However, the expression of Cx 37 was modified after in vitro culture of vitrified tissue.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Conexinas/metabolismo , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Criopreservação/veterinária , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/veterinária , Vitrificação
12.
Cell Tissue Res ; 372(3): 611-620, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488001

RESUMO

The multidrug resistance proteins ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 are an energy-dependent efflux pump that functions in systemic detoxification processes. Physiologically expressed in a variety of tissues, most abundantly in the liver and intestinal epithelia, placenta, blood-brain barrier and various stem cells, until now, these pumps were not identified in goat ovarian tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze ABCB1, ABCC2, and ABCG2 mRNA and protein expression in goat preantral follicles. Fragments (3 × 3 × 1 mm) from five pairs of ovary (n = 10) obtained from five goat were collected and immediately submitted to qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assay for mRNA detection and identification and localization of the ABC transporters, respectively. mRNA for ABCB1, ABCC2, and ABCG2 and the presence of their proteins were observed on ovarian tissue samples. Positive marks were observed for the three transport proteins in all follicular categories studied. However, the marks were primarily localized in the oocyte of primordial, transition and primary follicle categories. In conclusion, goat ovarian tissue expresses mRNA for the ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 transporters and the expression of these proteins in the preantral follicles is a follicle-dependent stage.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras/genética , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem
13.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 15(4): 321-331, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394173

RESUMO

The vitrification of preantral follicles followed by in vitro growth (IVG) could be valuable to produce fertilizable oocytes. However, the meiotic resumption rates of oocytes cultured from vitrified secondary follicles (SF) have been reported as suboptimal. This study aimed to verify two base media (alpha modification of minimum essential medium, α-MEM, and tissue culture medium 199, TCM199) on vitrified SF regarding different requirements during IVG. Sheep ovarian fragments were divided in six groups: (1) Fresh groups (Control α-MEM and TCM199): SF without vitrification; (2) Follicle-Vitrified (Follicle-Vit α-MEM and TCM199): SF vitrified after isolation; and (3) Tissue-Vitrified (Tissue-Vit α-MEM and TCM199): SF vitrified enclosed in ovarian fragments and, subsequently, isolated. The isolated SF were submitted to IVG for 18 days. Thereafter, the recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) and evaluation of chromatin configuration. Follicular granulosa cells were analyzed for their gene expression of Bax, Bcl2, and Connexins (CX) 37 and 43. COCs from in vivo antral follicles were used as in vivo control. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey, and chi-square tests. Differences were considered significant if p-value is <0.05. Follicle-Vit groups had higher (p < 0.05) percentage of antrum formation compared with Tissue-Vit groups. Vitrification did not affect (p > 0.05) oocyte diameter postmaturation. Oocytes from Follicle-Vit in α-MEM reached metaphase II stage after IVM. Gene expression for CX37, CX43, and Bax was lower in Tissue-Vit groups. For Bcl2, the gene expression was the opposite. In conclusion, during IVG for 18 days, maximal oocyte meiotic resumption was not negatively impacted by vitrification and was greatest for isolated SF using α-MEM as a medium.


Assuntos
Oócitos/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Vitrificação , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metáfase , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Reprod. clim ; 32(2): 109-119, 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-883426

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are known as a prolific source of secondary metabolites which have important function both in vivo and in vitro during the ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in many animal species. Some secondary metabolites can act as antioxidants generally through their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) or can regulate ovarian hormonal production. In general, these properties are responsible for the medicinal functions to treat woman infertility disorder. Some plants are constituted of biological actives substances which have been used to treat reproductive dysfunction. However, until recently, little was known about the implication of plants and/or their secondary metabolites on in vitro folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. With the development of the technology, there is an increase implication of those substances in assisted reproductive technology (ART). The present review highlights some medicinal plants used in the treatment of woman disorders related to infertility. In addition, it provides an in vivo and in vitro overview of herbs and their active compounds with claims for improvement of ovarian activity thus showing their implication in female reproductive health care.(AU)


Sabe-se que as plantas medicinais são uma fonte abundante de metabólitos secundários que têm função importante tanto in vivo quanto in vitro durante a foliculogênese e a esteroidogênese ovarianas em muitas espécies animais. Alguns metabólitos secundários podem atuar como antioxidantes, geralmente através de sua capacidade de eliminar espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS) ou podem regular a produção hormonal ovariana. Em geral, essas propriedades são responsáveis pelas funções medicinais usadas para tratar distúrbios da infertilidade feminina. Algumas plantas contêm substâncias biológicas ativas que têm sido utilizadas para tratar a disfunção reprodutiva. No entanto, até recentemente, pouco se sabia sobre o efeito das plantas e/ou seus metabólitos secundários na foliculogênese e na esteroidogênese in vitro. Com o desenvolvimento da tecnologia, há uma implicação crescente dessas substâncias na tecnologia de reprodução assistida (TRA). A presente revisão destaca algumas plantas medicinais utilizadas no tratamento de distúrbios femininos relacionados à infertilidade. Além disso, fornece uma visão in vivo e in vitro de ervas e seus compostos ativos com alegações de melhora da atividade ovariana, mostrando assim seu envolvimento nos cuidados de saúde reprodutiva feminina.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Infertilidade Feminina , Folículo Ovariano , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantas Medicinais
15.
Forsch Komplementmed ; 23(5): 307-313, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auxemma oncocalyx and its main component oncocalyxone A (onco A) have a high level of antioxidant and antitumor activity, but there are no studies on the action of both of these drugs regarding folliculogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Caprine ovarian tissue fragments were fixed (non-cultured control) or cultured for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM+ alone (cultured control) or supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 20% v/v), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15; 100 ng/ml), doxorubicin (DXR; 0.3 g/ml), or different concentrations of A. oncocalyx (1.2, 12, or 34 g/ml) or onco A (1, 10, or 30 g/ml). We analyzed for follicular morphology and growth, apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay), and cell proliferation (silver staining of argyrophilic nucleolus organizer regions (AgNOR) and test for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)). RESULTS: A. oncocalyx and onco A (in a concentration-dependent manner) and DXR decreased (P < 0.05) the number of morphologically normal follicles, with no effect (P > 0.05) on follicular growth. A. oncocalyx reduced (P < 0.05) the percentage of normal follicles compared to onco A, whereas DXR, A. oncocalyx 1.2 g/ml, and onco A 1 g/ml increased (P < 0.05) the percentage of TUNEL-positive follicles. DXR decreased (P < 0.05) the number of nucleolus organizer regions. CONCLUSION: A. oncocalyx and onco A affected the in vitro caprine folliculogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Onco A (1 g/ml) has a less harmful effect than DXR on goat preantral follicle survival.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Cabras , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Técnicas In Vitro , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/análise
16.
Microsc Res Tech ; 79(8): 773-81, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311936

RESUMO

Despite the increase in the incidence of cancer, the number of women who survive cancer treatment is growing. However, one of the principal results of chemotherapy is premature ovarian failure (POF). The aim of this study was to use the in situ culture preantral follicles as an in vitro model to evaluate the toxicity of two anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DXR) and paclitaxel (PTX), on the integrity and development of ovarian follicles. Fragments of the ovarian cortex of goats were cultured in vitro for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM(+) supplemented with different concentrations of DXR (0.003, 0.03, or 0.3 µg/mL) and PTX (0.001, 0.01, or 0.1 µg/mL). Analyses were performed before and after culture to evaluate tissue integrity by classical histology, apoptosis by TUNEL assay, DNA laddering kit and the detection of activated caspase 3, and DNA damage by the immune detection of phosphorylated histone H2A.x (H2AXph139). Both DXR and PTX reduced the number of morphologically normal primordial and developing follicles. Positive staining for TUNEL and active caspase 3 was detected in all the samples (P < 0.05). Therefore, we propose the in situ culture of caprine preantral follicles as a useful experimental model for assessing the toxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents on ovarian folliculogenesis. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:773-781, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/química , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Feminino , Cabras , Histonas/química , Imuno-Histoquímica , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Modelos Biológicos , Paclitaxel/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
Reprod. clim ; 31(2): 93-104, Maio - Ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-834108

RESUMO

Durante a foliculogênese em mamíferos, ocorre um longo e complexo processo no qual o oócito adquire a competência necessária para a fecundação. Nesse processo ocorre uma comunicação metabólica bidirecional entre os oócitos e as células somáticas dentro do folículo que garante substratos para o oócito em desenvolvimento. Essa comunicação é mediada pelas junções celulares (junções comunicantes e junções aderentes) presentes nas projeções transzonais. As junções celulares e moléculas de adesão são responsáveis principalmente por promover a adesão entre as células foliculares; mas podem atuar em vias de sinalização celular e na regulação da transcrição gênica nas células somáticas e oócitos. Além disso, as junções comunicantes (junções gap) são canais intermembranares que intermediam a comunicação entre essas células através da passagem de pequenas moléculas. Essas junções comunicantes são compostas por proteínas denominadas conexinas; as conexinas 37 e 43 são as predominantes nos folículos ovarianos. Dessa forma, o conhecimento acerca das junções celulares é de extrema importância para o estudo da foliculogênese. A presente revisão teve como objetivo abordar os principais tipos de junções celulares existentes entre as células foliculares, com destaque para as junções gap e as principais proteínas de membranas (conexinas) presentes nos diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento folicular.


During the mammalian folliculogenesis, a long and complex process occurs, which the oocyte acquires the necessary competence for fecundation. In this process there is a metabolic bidirectional communication among the oocyte and somatic cells inside the follicle, which provides substrates for the oocyte developmental competence. This communication is mediated by cellular junctions (occlusions, adherens and gap junctions) localized in the transzonal projections. Cellular junctions and adhesion mollecules are responsable mainly for promoving the adhesion among follicular cells, however they can act in cellular signaling pathways and in regulation of genic transcription in the follicular cells and oocyte. Moreover, the communication junctions (gap junctions) are intermembrane channels that intermediate the communication among these cells through the passage of small molecules. These gap junctions are composed by connexins, of which the connexins 37 and 43 are the most frequently found in the ovarian follicle. Thus, knowledge of these cellular junctions are of great importance for studying the folliculogenesis process. The aim of this review was to report the main types of cellular junctions localized among the follicular cells, especially the gap junctions and the main membrane proteins (connexins) found in different stages of the follicular development.


Assuntos
Humanos , Junções Comunicantes , Junções Intercelulares , Folículo Ovariano , Ovário
18.
Reprod. clim ; 31(2): 112-119, Maio - Ago. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-834131

RESUMO

A homeopatia apresenta­se como uma excelente opção de baixo custo e toxicidade para uso na prática da reprodução tanto humana quanto animal. Entretanto, desperta um alto nível de ceticismo em relação a sua real eficácia, notadamente devido ao possível efeito placebo. O uso de modelos in vitro, como a tecnologia do ovário artificial, apresenta­se como uma ferramenta de grande precisão para dirimir tal controvérsia. Diante disso, esta revisão tem como objetivo fornecer algumas bases sobre a foliculogênese e sua regulação, relatar a importância do cultivo in vitro, com ênfase no hormônio folículo estimulante (FSH), na avaliação do papel dos medicamentos homeopáticos no tratamento de distúrbios reprodutivos ovarianos e no seu uso para melhorar as biotécnicas reprodutivas.


The homeopathy is a low­cost and toxicity alternative to using in the human and animal reproduction. However, the effect homeopathy awakens a skepticism about its effectiveness, because of the possible placebo effect. The in vitro models, as artificial ovary, is a excellent tool to resolve this controversy. Therefore, the aim of this review to provide some basis on folliculogenesis and its regulation, to report the importance of in vitro culture, with an emphasis on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in assessing the role of homeopathic medicines in treating ovarian reproductive disorders and its use to improve reproductive biotechnologies.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Folículo Ovariano
19.
Cell Tissue Res ; 362(1): 241-51, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948481

RESUMO

The risk of reintroducing malignant cells after ovarian graft into patients following post-cancer treatment is an obstacle for clinical applications (autotransplantation). In this context, in vitro follicle culture would be an alternative to transplantation in order to minimize such risks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the development of secondary follicles after vitrification in isolated form (without stroma) with vitrification in in situ form (within fragments of ovarian tissue). Follicles were first isolated from ovarian fragments from mixed-breed ewes and then vitrified; these comprised the Follicle-Vitrification group (Follicle-Vit), or fragments of ovarian tissue were first vitrified, followed by isolation of the follicles, resulting in the Tissue-Vitrification group (Tissue-Vit). Control and vitrified groups were submitted to in vitro culture (6 days) and follicular morphology, viability, antrum formation, follicle and oocyte diameter, growth rate, ultrastructural characteristics and cell proliferation were evaluated. The percentages of morphologically normal follicles and antrum formation were similar among groups. Follicular viability and oocyte diameter were similar between Follicle-Vit and Tissue-Vit. The follicular diameter and growth rate of Follicle-Vit were similar to the Control, while those of Tissue-Vit were significantly lower compared to the Control. Both vitrified groups had an augmented rate of granulosa cellular proliferation compared to Control. Secondary follicles can be successfully vitrified before or after isolation from the ovarian tissue without impairing their ability to survive and grow during in vitro culture.


Assuntos
Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitrificação , Animais , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Ovinos
20.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 19(4): 241-51, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203200

RESUMO

Emergency in vitro fertilization followed by embryo vitrification is one feasible fertility preservation option for cancer patients. However, its clinical application has several limitations. Hormonal stimulation delays the initiation of oncotherapy and it is contraindicated in hormone-sensitive cancers or for use in pre-pubertal females. Vitrification of ovarian cortical tissue prior to the start of cancer treatment could be utilized for autotransplantation or for in vitro maturation of follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. Nevertheless, the main concern associated with autotransplantation is the risk of malignant cell re-introduction to the patient, which is non-existent with the use of follicular in vitro culture. Since obtaining ovarian tissues from women for research is challenging and experimental studies are difficult to complete due to ethical issues, exploring the alternative usage of animal models for fertility preservation may provide beneficial insight into the prospects of follicular culture as an alternative for fertility restoration following ovarian tissue vitrification. Similarities between ewe and human ovary structures, as well as in ovarian follicular development dynamics, make the ewe a possible animal model for the study of female fertility preservation. As vitrification of ovarian tissue has the potential to cryopreserve preantral ovarian follicles, the present review will describe the progress of ovarian tissue vitrification studies completed in ewes.

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