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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The competitive coronary flow is influenced by the severity of the stenosis and may affect graft patency. Transit time flow measurement (TTFM) enables intraoperative graft evaluation and cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) allows for graft evaluation during follow-up. METHODS: Competitive flow and target vessel diameters were determined in 35 patients undergoing off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) and correlated to TTFM. Cardiac function, ischemia, and graft flow were evaluated using cardiac MRI during the follow-up period to determine the impact of above-mentioned parameters on graft patency. RESULTS: Competitive flow led to reduced mean graft flow (MGF) and increased pulsatility index (PI) in arterial grafts. This effect to was not observed in veins. Smaller target coronary arteries (<1.5 mm) were associated with reduced MGF, more pronounced in veins, which presented increased PI and shortened diastolic flow fraction (DF). No death and no re-hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome occurred. Borderline values of TTFM (mean MGF 13±4 ml/min; PI 3.8±1) in left internal mammary artery (LIMA) were mainly observed due to increased native anterior descending artery (LAD) flow. These LAD's collateralized occluded right coronaries (RCA). The corresponding LIMA to LAD grafts showed a bypass flow increase at cardiac MRI follow-up. Two graft occlusions occurred: one in LIMA-to-LAD bypass with borderline TTFM, which did not collateralize the RCA and one in a vein graft with borderline TTFM bypassed on a narrow vascular target. CONCLUSIONS: Competitive flow has an impact on arteries contrary to veins. Veins are at risk for occlusion when grafted to smaller targets. Borderline LIMA flow should be considered as potentially dangerous, if satisfactory explanations are missing, e.g. in the absence of a large coronary target without flow competition.

2.
J Sex Med ; 17(1): 26-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several theoretical models and intervention programs overlook the importance of individual motivations for the decision to have condomless sex. For instance, people focused on promotion (ie, eager to pursue pleasure) report less intentions to use condoms, because they perceive a lower risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections. AIM: We aimed at understanding to what extent individual motivations are predictive of condomless sex behavior among single individuals. METHODS: A sample of 415 Portuguese individuals (254 women) with ages ranging from 18-46 years (M = 23.30; SD = 5.28) were recruited to a cross-sectional study. All participants were neither dating nor in a romantic relationship at the time of the study. The link to an anonymous web survey was shared in social networking platforms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The survey included self-reported demographic variables (eg, age and sex), recent condomless sex behavior, and previously validated measures assessing regulatory focus in sexuality, ability in sexual restraint, perceived control over condom use, perceived safety with sex partners, and salience of the condom use norm. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of the sample had recently engaged in condomless sex. A logistic regression showed that condomless sex was more likely for participants predominantly focused on promotion in sexuality. It was also more likely among less educated participants, those with a lower ability to restrain their sexual behavior, those who perceive to have less control over condom use, those for whom the condom use norm was less salient, and those who perceived to be safer with their sex partners. No other results were significant. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our results can be informative to sexual health care professionals when planning strategies to increase condom use awareness, by considering the role of specific individual motivations. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: This is the first study showing that individual motivations uniquely contribute to the decision to have condomless sex. This study has 2 main limitations that constraint the generalizability of the findings: (a) cross-sectional data prevents us from establishing causality, and (b) individual data does not account for dyadic processes in sexuality (eg, condom use negotiation). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that condomless sex results from an individual focus on seeking pleasure, a lack of control in sexual behavior, and a perception of sex partners as more trustworthy. Overall, these findings are likely to help researchers and health care professionals improving theoretical models predicting condom use and preventing the spread of sexually transmitted infections. Rodrigues DL, Lopes D, Pereira M, et al. Predictors of Condomless Sex and Sexual Health Behaviors in a Sample of Portuguese Single Adults. J Sex Med 2020;17:26-36.

3.
Psychol Health ; 34(10): 1231-1249, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Consistent condom use is still not ideal. Research showed that perceived sexual self-control is associated with greater likelihood of using condoms. However, this association seems to vary according to age and relationship agreement (i.e. non-consensual non-monogamy, NCNM vs. consensual non-monogamy, CNM). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with 307 heterosexual users of a dating web site for romantically involved individuals (81.8% men; Mage = 42.24, SD = 9.65, range: 23-76 years). All individuals were in a romantic relationship (Mlength = 13.47 years, SD = 9.39). MEASURES: Demographic information, perceived sexual self-control, condom use frequency (casual sex partners; primary partner in the last 3 months) and relationship agreement. RESULTS: Independently of relationship agreement, perceived sexual self-control was positively associated with condom use frequency with casual sex partners among younger and middle age participants, but not older ones (>49 years). Regarding the primary partner, a similar pattern emerged for CNM participants. In contrast, no significant association between perceived sexual self-control and condom use frequency with the primary partner emerged for NCNM individuals, regardless of age. CONCLUSION: Our findings can inform evidence-based strategies to promote consistent condom use as an effective behaviour to prevent sexually transmitted infections, especially among older and NCNM individuals.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocontrole/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Sex Res ; : 1-10, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090451

RESUMO

Whereas sexually dimorphic evolutionary models argue for clear sex differences in responses to jealousy-evoking scenarios, social cognitive models emphasize the importance of other factors. This paper explores variables associated with responses to a commonly-used jealousy-evoking scenario in a population-representative sample. Data from 8,386 Australian men and women aged 16-69 were weighted to match the population. The results provided some support for evolutionary models among heterosexual respondents, but findings contrary to evolutionary models were found among non-heterosexual respondents. Support for social cognitive models was provided by the identification of six variables that had significant independent multivariate associations with jealousy: sex, age, education, lifetime number of partners, relationship status, and attitudes toward infidelity. The results suggest that although men and women may tend to respond differently to sexual or emotional infidelity scenarios, the anticipated experience of jealousy in each context is strongly influenced by biographical and cultural factors.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e023832, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948566

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Good patient outcomes correlate with the physicians' capacity for good clinical judgement. Multimorbidity is common and it increases uncertainty and complexity in the clinical encounter. However, healthcare systems and medical education are centred on individual diseases. In consequence, recognition of the patient as the centre of the decision-making process becomes even more difficult. Research in clinical reasoning and medical decision in a real-world context is needed. The aim of the present review is to identify and synthesise available qualitative evidence on primary care physicians' perspectives, views or experiences on decision-making with patients with multimorbidity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a systematic review of qualitative research where PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science will be searched, supplemented with manual searches of reference lists of included studies. Qualitative studies published in Portuguese, Spanish and English language will be included, with no date limit. Studies will be eligible when they evaluate family physicians' perspectives, opinions or perceptions on decision-making for patients with multimorbidity in primary care. The methodological quality of studies selected for retrieval will be assessed by two independent reviewers before inclusion in the review using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Thematic synthesis will be used to identify key categories and themes from the qualitative data. The Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research approach will be used to assess how much confidence to place in findings from the qualitative evidence synthesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will use published data. No ethical issues are foreseen. The findings will be disseminated to the medical community via journal publication and conference presentation(s). PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: ID 91978.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1316, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899008

RESUMO

The atmosphere's chaotic nature limits its short-term predictability. Furthermore, there is little knowledge on how the difficulty of forecasting weather may be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Here, we address this question by employing metrics issued from dynamical systems theory to describe the atmospheric circulation and infer the dynamical properties of the climate system. Specifically, we evaluate the changes in the sub-seasonal predictability of the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic for the historical period and under anthropogenic forcing, using centennial reanalyses and CMIP5 simulations. For the future period, most datasets point to an increase in the atmosphere's predictability. AMIP simulations with 4K warmer oceans and 4 × atmospheric CO2 concentrations highlight the prominent role of a warmer ocean in driving this increase. We term this the hammam effect. Such effect is linked to enhanced zonal atmospheric patterns, which are more predictable than meridional configurations.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800657

RESUMO

L-Asparaginase (ASNase) is used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, being produced and commercialized only from bacterial sources. Alternative Saccharomyces cerevisiae ASNase II coded by the ASP3 gene was biosynthesized by recombinant Pichia pastoris MUT s under the control of the AOX1 promoter, using different cultivation strategies. In particular, we applied multistage fed-batch cultivation divided in four distinct phases to produce ASNase II and determine the fermentation parameters, namely specific growth rate, biomass yield, and enzyme activity. Cultivation of recombinant P. pastoris under favorable conditions in a modified defined medium ensured a dry biomass concentration of 31 gdcw.L-1 during glycerol batch phase, corresponding to a biomass yield of 0.77 gdcw.g glycerol - 1 and a specific growth rate of 0.21 h-1. After 12 h of glycerol feeding under limiting conditions, cell concentration achieved 65 gdcw.L-1 while ethanol concentration was very low. During the phase of methanol induction, biomass concentration achieved 91 gdcw.L-1, periplasmic specific enzyme activity 37.1 U.g dcw - 1 , volumetric enzyme activity 3,315 U.L-1, overall enzyme volumetric productivity 31 U.L-1.h-1, while the specific growth rate fell to 0.039 h-1. Our results showed that the best strategy employed for the ASNase II production was using glycerol fed-batch phase with pseudo exponential feeding plus induction with continuous methanol feeding.

8.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(6): 1795-1809, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607714

RESUMO

Research has typically shown that unrestricted sociosexuality is negatively associated with relationship quality and that relationship quality is positively associated with quality of life (QoL). However, these findings may be restricted to individuals in monogamous relationships, especially those with prior extradyadic interactions (i.e., non-consensual non-monogamous; NCNM). Indeed, individuals in consensual non-monogamous (CNM) relationships have more unrestricted sociosexuality and are also more satisfied with and committed to their relationships. Still, little research has examined whether both relationship agreements are associated differently with attraction forces (wanting to be) and constraining forces (having to be) in the relationship and how they are related to QoL. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 373 heterosexuals (73.2% men, Mage = 41.15, SD = 10.18) registered on Second Love, a dating Web site for romantically involved individuals. Results showed differences in the hypothesized model, according to relationship agreement. For individuals in CNM relationships, unrestricted sociosexuality was associated with stronger attraction forces, which were then associated with greater QoL. The opposite pattern was found for those in NCNM relationships. Furthermore, and regardless of relationship agreement, unrestricted sociosexuality was associated with weaker constraining forces, which were associated with greater QoL. These results make a novel contribution to the literature on relationship agreements and how they relate to QoL.

9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(2): 557-575, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511148

RESUMO

Despite recurrent efforts to prevent sexually transmitted diseases through the use of condoms, HIV infections are still prevalent across Europe. Recent research framed by the regulatory focus theory has shown that prevention (vs. promotion)-focused individuals are more likely to adopt strategies to protect their health. Therefore, these individuals should also be more motivated to use condoms, because they are more likely to perceive greater health threats. In two cross-sectional preregistered studies (combined N = 520 Portuguese participants; databases available at https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/zzkc2 ), we developed the new Regulatory Focus in Sexuality scale (Study 1), and tested if the association between prevention focus and intentions to use condoms was mediated by the perception of health threat (Study 2). Results from Study 1 suggested that the scale is reliable and valid. Results from Study 2 showed, as expected, that a predominant focus on prevention was associated with more condom use intentions with casual and regular sexual partners, because individuals perceived greater threat to their health. Additional exploratory analyses further showed that this mediation occurred only for individuals without a romantic relationship and was independent of how salient the condom use norm was. In contrast, for romantically involved individuals, there was no evidence for the mediation by perceived health threat. Instead, a predominant focus on prevention was positively associated with condom use intentions with the regular partner, but only when the condom use norm was more salient. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of examining individual motivations for safe sex practices.

10.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 105(6): 1407-1420, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554411

RESUMO

It is now established that a drug's pharmacokinetics (PK) absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and drug-drug interaction (DDI) profile can be modulated by age, disease, and genotype. In order to facilitate subject phenotyping and clinical DDI assessment, therefore, various endogenous compounds (in plasma and urine) have been pursued as drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter biomarkers. Compared with biomarkers, however, the topic of circulating extracellular vesicles as "liquid biopsy" has received little attention within the ADME community; most organs secrete nanovesicles (e.g., exosomes) into the blood that contain luminal "cargo" derived from the originating organ (proteins, messenger RNA, and microRNA). As such, ADME profiling of plasma exosomes could be leveraged to better define genotype-phenotype relationships and the study of ontogeny, disease, and complex DDIs. If methods to support the isolation of tissue-derived plasma exosomes are successfully developed and validated, it is envisioned that they will be used jointly with genotyping, biomarkers, and modeling tools to greatly progress translational PK-ADME-DDI science.

11.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 1872593, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949423

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most widely used animal model for the study of MS. The Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 2 protein plays a critical role in regulating the immune responses. The role of SOCS2 during EAE has not been explored. EAE was induced in WT and SOCS2-/- mice using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide. Brain and spinal cord were examined during the peak (day 14) and recovery phase (day 28) of the disease. SOCS2 was upregulated in the brain of WT mice at the peak and recovery phase of EAE. The development of the acute phase was slower in onset in SOCS2-/- mice and was associated with reduced number of Th1 (CD3+CD4+IFN-γ +) cells in the spinal cord and brain. However, while in WT mice, maximal clinical EAE score was followed by a progressive recovery; the SOCS2-/- mice were unable to recover from locomotor impairment that occurred during the acute phase. There was a prolonged inflammatory response (increased Th1 and decreased Th2 and T regulatory cells) in the late phase of EAE in the CNS of SOCS2-/- mice. Transplantation of bone marrow cells from SOCS2-/- into irradiated WT mice resulted in higher lethality at the early phase of EAE. Altogether, these results suggest that SOCS2 plays a dual role in the immune response during EAE. It is necessary for damage during the acute phase damage but plays a beneficial role in the recovery stage of the disease.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209644, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589868

RESUMO

Access to validated stimuli depicting children's facial expressions is useful for different research domains (e.g., developmental, cognitive or social psychology). Yet, such databases are scarce in comparison to others portraying adult models, and validation procedures are typically restricted to emotional recognition accuracy. This work presents subjective ratings for a sub-set of 283 photographs selected from the Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE [1]). Extending beyond the original emotion recognition accuracy norms [2], our main goal was to validate this database across eight subjective dimensions related to the model (e.g., attractiveness, familiarity) or the specific facial expression (e.g., intensity, genuineness), using a sample from a different nationality (N = 450 Portuguese participants). We also assessed emotion recognition (forced-choice task with seven options: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise and neutral). Overall results show that most photographs were rated as highly clear, genuine and intense facial expressions. The models were rated as both moderately familiar and likely to belong to the in-group, obtaining high attractiveness and arousal ratings. Results also showed that, similarly to the original study, the facial expressions were accurately recognized. Normative and raw data are available as supplementary material at https://osf.io/mjqfx/.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Nível de Alerta , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 104(5): 836-864, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347454

RESUMO

Drug transporters can govern the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of substrate drugs and endogenous substances. Investigations to examine their potential impact to pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are an integral part of the risk assessment in drug development. To evaluate a new molecular entity as a potential perpetrator of transporters, use of well characterized and/or clinically relevant probe substrates with good selectivity and sensitivity are critical for robust clinical DDI assessment that could inform DDI management strategy in the product labeling. The availability of endogenous biomarkers to monitor transporter-mediated DDIs in early phases of clinical investigations would greatly benefit downstream clinical plans. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in transporter clinical probe drugs and emerging biomarkers, including current challenges and limitations, delineates methods and workflows to identify and validate novel endogenous biomarkers to support clinical DDI evaluations, and proposes how these probe drugs or biomarkers could be used in drug development.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Interações de Medicamentos , Moduladores de Transporte de Membrana/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Farmacocinética , Animais , Humanos , Moduladores de Transporte de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Técnicas de Sonda Molecular , Medição de Risco , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Implement Sci ; 13(1): 120, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Educational outreach visits are meant to improve the practice of health professionals by promoting face-to-face visits to deliver educational contents. They have been shown to change prescription behavior, but long-term effects are still uncertain. This trial aimed to determine if they improve family physician prescribing compared with passive guideline dissemination. METHODS: Parallel, open, superiority, and cluster-randomized trial. National Health Service primary care practices (clusters) were recruited in the Lisbon region-Portugal between March 2013 and January 2014. They could enter if they had at least four family physicians willing to participate and not planning to retire in the follow-up period. Three national guidelines were chosen for dissemination: acid secretion modifiers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antiplatelets. Physicians in the intervention group received one 15 to 20 min educational outreach visit at their workplace for each guideline. Physicians in the control group had access to guidelines through the Directorate-General for Health's website (passive dissemination). Primary outcomes were the proportion of COX-2 inhibitors prescribed within the NSAID class and the proportion of omeprazole within the PPI class at 18 months after the intervention. A cost-benefit analysis was performed. Practices were randomized by minimization. Data analyses were done at individual physician level using generalized mixed-effects regression models. Participants could not be blinded. RESULTS: Thirty-eight practices with 239 physicians were randomized (120 to intervention and 119 to control). Of 360 planned visits, 322 were delivered. No differences were found between physicians in the intervention and control groups regarding the proportion of omeprazole prescribed among PPIs 18 months after the visit (46.28 vs 47.15%, p = 0.971) or the proportion of COX-2 inhibitors among NSAIDs (12.07 vs 13.08%, p = 0.085). All secondary outcome comparisons showed no effect. There was no difference in cumulative drug costs at 18 months (3223.50€/1000 patients in the intervention group and 3143.92€/1000 patients in the control group, p = 0.848). CONCLUSIONS: Educational outreach visits were unsuccessful in improving compliance with guideline recommendations among Portuguese family physicians. No effects were observed at 1, 6, and 18 months after the intervention, and there were no associated cost savings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01984034 . Registered 7 November 2013.


Assuntos
Médicos de Família/educação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Portugal
15.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 27(9): 962-968, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Following safety concerns regarding trimetazidine, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended restrictions on its use. Our objective was to determine the impact of regulatory actions on trimetazidine utilization in Portugal. METHODS: Retrospective interrupted time-series analysis of monthly ambulatory pharmacy reimbursement records for the Portuguese National Health Service between January 2006 and December 2015. Regulatory actions were identified by searching the EMA, Portuguese Medicines Authority, and European Commission's websites. Concurrent factors in the same period were also identified. The main outcome was the dispensing of trimetazidine-containing products per month in Portugal. RESULTS: Two interruption periods were defined in the series: May 2011, when EMA announced it would review trimetazidine safety, and June 2012 to January 2013, when EMA announced it had reached a final opinion recommending restrictions; the European Commission approved EMA's recommendation; the Portuguese Medicines Authority issued safety alerts, changed the summary of product characteristics, and approved a direct health-care professional letter; and a regional bulletin was issued. Interruption 1 had no effect on trimetazidine use, but interruption 2 resulted in decreases in level and trend-from 8.3 million defined daily doses in 2010 to 2.8 million in 2015. After interruption 2, trimetazidine use tended towards a lower steady state. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in trimetazidine use in Portugal following a complex intervention that included safety alerts, changes to the summary of product characteristics, a direct health-care professional letter, and a regional drug bulletin. No effect was seen when EMA announced its review of trimetazidine safety.


Assuntos
Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Trimetazidina/efeitos adversos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Angina Pectoris/tratamento farmacológico , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , União Europeia/organização & administração , Humanos , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/prevenção & controle , Portugal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
18.
Anticancer Res ; 38(2): 779-786, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been extensively applied in the field of dermatology and aesthetics; however, the long-term consequences of its use are poorly unknown, and to the best of our knowledge there is no study on the effect of IPL in neoplastic lesions. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying IPL application in the skin, we used an animal model of carcinogenesis obtained by chemical induction with 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were administered DMBA and/or TPA and treated with IPL. Skin was evaluated by histopathology and 2DE-blot-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: Our data evidenced an inflammatory response and a metabolic remodeling of skin towards a glycolytic phenotype after chronic exposure to IPL, which was accomplished by increased oxidative stress and susceptibility to apoptosis. These alterations induced by IPL were more notorious in the DMBA sensitized skin. Keratins and metabolic proteins seem to be the more susceptible to oxidative modifications that might result in loss of function, contributing for the histological changes observed in treated skin. CONCLUSION: Data highlight the deleterious impact of IPL on skin phenotype, which justifies the need for more experimental studies in order to increase our understanding of the IPL long-term safety.


Assuntos
Terapia de Luz Pulsada Intensa/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , 9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Carcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicólise , Queratinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/administração & dosagem
19.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(1): 392-405, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364283

RESUMO

The use of emoticons and emoji is increasingly popular across a variety of new platforms of online communication. They have also become popular as stimulus materials in scientific research. However, the assumption that emoji/emoticon users' interpretations always correspond to the developers'/researchers' intended meanings might be misleading. This article presents subjective norms of emoji and emoticons provided by everyday users. The Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED) comprises 238 stimuli: 85 emoticons and 153 emoji (collected from iOS, Android, Facebook, and Emojipedia). The sample included 505 Portuguese participants recruited online. Each participant evaluated a random subset of 20 stimuli for seven dimensions: aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. Participants were additionally asked to attribute a meaning to each stimulus. The norms obtained include quantitative descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) and a meaning analysis for each stimulus. We also examined the correlations between the dimensions and tested for differences between emoticons and emoji, as well as between the two major operating systems-Android and iOS. The LEED constitutes a readily available normative database (available at www.osf.io/nua4x ) with potential applications to different research domains.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Nível de Alerta , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sorriso , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
Appetite ; 114: 175-186, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342799

RESUMO

The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables - self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns - was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés de Atenção , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Orgânicos/economia , Alimentos em Conserva/efeitos adversos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Alimentos em Conserva/economia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Cooperação do Paciente , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
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