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2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 225-232, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Methods: A parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of three regimens (bevacizumab every month, bevacizumab every 2 weeks, and ranibizumab every month), followed by as-needed retreatments, for 1 year, in previously untreated individuals with age-related macular degeneration. The primary outcome was change in visual acuity and in central macular thickness after 1 year of follow-up. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio, and investigators and examiners were blinded to the randomization results. Results: We included 15 patients in each group. After 1 year of follow-up, we found statistically significant improvements in visual acuity and central macular thickness reduction in all groups. However, we found no statistically significant differences between the three groups. Conclusions: The bi-weekly follow-up was effective and we found no significant differences in efficacy or safety between the treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar a eficácia e segurança dos tratamentos com ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe para a degeneração macular relacionada à idade exsudativa. Métodos: Ensaio clínico paralelo randomizado foi conduzido para comparar a eficácia e segurança de três regimes (bevacizumabe a cada mês, bevacizumabe a cada 2 semanas e ranibizumabe todos os meses), seguidos por retratamentos conforme necessidade, durante 1 ano, em indivíduos previamente não tratados com degeneração macular relacionada à idade. O desfecho primário foi alteração na acuidade visual e na espessura macular central após um ano de seguimento. Os indivíduos foram designados aleatoriamente para um dos 3 grupos em uma proporção de 1:1:1, e os investigadores e examinadores foram mascarados para os resultados da randomização. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 pacientes em cada grupo. Após um ano de seguimento, encontramos melhorias estatisticamente significativas na acuidade visual e na redução da espessura macular central em todos os grupos. No entanto, não encontramos diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os 3 grupos. Conclusões: O seguimento quinzenal foi eficaz e não encontramos diferenças significativas na eficácia ou segurança entre os tratamentos com bevacizumabe e ranibizumabe.

3.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 50(5): 288-294, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine factors causing inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case-control study included aflibercept-treated eyes with inflammation post-injection and aflibercept-treated control eyes. Medical records were analyzed to identify contributing factors. Biophysical tests were performed to characterize properties of particle aggregation. Institutional review board approval was obtained. RESULTS: Inflammation developed in six eyes; three patients had anterior uveitis, and five had vitreous cells. Oil droplets were seen in all cases. Saldanha Rodrigues (SR) syringes were used in all cases. Among controls, SR and Becton-Dickinson syringes were used in 10 and 17 eyes, respectively. Regression analysis showed an association between SR syringes and inflammation (odds ratio = 21.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-425.06; P = .043). Biophysical analyses primarily showed aggregation possibly from free oil droplets or protein-oil droplet aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: Post-injection inflammation was associated with SR syringes. Silicone oil droplets, especially after syringe agitation, might play a role in the inflammatory reaction. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019;50:288-294.].

4.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess silicone oil (SO) release by different brands of syringes used for intravitreal injection under different handling conditions. METHODS: Eight syringes were analysed: from the USA, Terumo 0.5 mL, Becton-Dickinson (BD) Tuberculin 1 mL, BD Luer-lok 1 mL, BD Ultra-Fine 0.3 mL and Exel Insulin 0.3 mL; from Germany, Braun Omnifix-F 1 mL and Braun Injekt-F 1 mL and from Spain, BD Plastipak 1 mL. The impact of air, priming the plunger, agitation by flicking and fluid temperature on SO release were assessed by light microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to identify the molecular compound in each syringe. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty syringes were analysed. Terumo 0.5 mL and BD Ultra-Fine 0.3 mL released more SO than all others. BD Luer-lok 1 mL, BD Plastipak and Braun Omnifix-F 1 mL released little SO; BD Tuberculin 1 mL, Exel 0.3 mL and Braun Injekt-F 1 mL released the least SO. Priming the syringe and different temperatures did not significantly affect SO release. Agitation by flicking caused a significantly higher proportion of samples to have SO droplets and an increased number of oil droplets. Air had an additive effect on the release of oil in the agitation groups. FTIR identified polysiloxane in all syringes but Injekt-F. CONCLUSION: Syringes commonly used for intravitreal injections frequently release SO droplets, especially when agitated by flicking. To avoid unnecessary ocular risks, syringes should not be agitated before intravitreal injection. It is desirable that syringes be manufactured specifically for ophthalmic use.

5.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 82(3): 225-232, 2019 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the efficacy and safety of treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: A parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of three regimens (bevacizumab every month, bevacizumab every 2 weeks, and ranibizumab every month), followed by as-needed retreatments, for 1 year, in previously untreated individuals with age-related macular degeneration. The primary outcome was change in visual acuity and in central macular thickness after 1 year of follow-up. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio, and investigators and examiners were blinded to the randomization results. RESULTS: We included 15 patients in each group. After 1 year of follow-up, we found statistically significant improvements in visual acuity and central macular thickness reduction in all groups. However, we found no statistically significant differences between the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The bi-weekly follow-up was effective and we found no significant differences in efficacy or safety between the treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab.

6.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyse the pooled safety data of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept (IVZ) therapy for various retinal conditions. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study which included patients from 14 participating centres who received IVZ. The medical records of patients who received IVZ from March 2015 through October 2017 were evaluated. Patient demographics and ocular details were compiled. Ocular and systemic adverse events that occurred within 1 month of IVZ injections were recorded and defined as either procedure-related or drug-related. RESULTS: A total of 1704 eyes of 1562 patients received 5914 IVZ injections (mean±SD: 3.73±3.94) during a period of 2.5 years. The age of patients was 60.6±12.8 years (mean±SD) and included diverse chorioretinal pathologies. Both ocular (one case of endophthalmitis, three cases of intraocular inflammation, and one case each of conjunctival thinning/necrosis and scleral nodule) and systemic adverse events (two cases of myocardial infarction, one case of stroke and two deaths) were infrequent. CONCLUSION: This constitutes the largest pooled safety report on IVZ use and includes patients from 14 centres distributed across the globe. It shows that IVZ has an acceptable ocular and systemic safety profile with incidences of adverse events similar to those of other vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitory drugs. The analysis supports the continued use of IVZ in various retinal disorders.

7.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 49(4): 245-250, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (IVI-ZA) (Zaltrap; Sanofi-Aventis and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY) during a period of 48 weeks in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven consecutive patients with DME were enrolled and submitted to 12 consecutive IVI-ZA with a 4-week interval. The safety parameters included changes in full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and systemic or ocular complications, and the efficacy parameters were the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT). RESULTS: No significant differences were found in any ERG component after IVI-ZA, and no systemic or ocular complication was observed. The improvement of BCVA was most significant after the first IVI-ZA and remained until week 48 (P < .05). The CRT significantly decreased during the course of 48 weeks. CONCLUSION: The 48-week results are consistent with our previous 24-week findings, supporting IVI-ZA as a safe, efficient, and well-tolerated therapy for patients with DME. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:245-250.].

8.
Retin Cases Brief Rep ; 12(2): 93-96, 2018 Spring.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the visual, tomographic, and electroretinographic findings in a patient with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion who was submitted to three consecutive intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept. METHODS: The patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, as well as optical coherence tomography and full-field electroretinography at baseline and 90 days after the first injection. RESULTS: The best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/400 to 20/40, and the central retinal thickness decreased from 791 µm to 198 µm after three consecutive intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept. Full-field electroretinography showed an increase in cone amplitude and decrease in rod amplitude. No adverse side effects were observed after injections. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept showed both effectiveness and safety in the treatment of a patient with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. The observed anatomic (by ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography) and functional (best-corrected visual acuity, full-field electroretinography) improvements and lack of serious adverse side effects demonstrates the potential of intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/complicações , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cornea ; 37(2): 194-198, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of different concentrations of topical lidocaine gel with standard subconjunctival anesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized controlled pilot study with 3 different groups. Group SC received subconjunctival lidocaine and proparacaine drops as needed during surgery. Group L2 received 2% lidocaine gel and group L5 received 5% lidocaine gel. Both lidocaine gel groups could receive another gel dose as needed during the procedure. The primary outcome was pain, which was experienced during and after surgery. The assessment was done using a 10-point linear analog scale at predetermined stages of surgery (1-first incision, 2-pterygium body excision, 3-conjunctival suturing, 4-immediate postoperative period after patching, and 5-assessment by a trained nurse in the absence of a surgeon after operation). RESULTS: We enrolled 45 consecutive patients who underwent primary pterygium surgery. Statistical significance between groups was found in mean pain at administration (2.2 vs. 0.4 vs. 0.0 in SC, L2, and L5 groups, respectively, with P < 0.05). The number of reapplications of anesthetic drops did not differ between the groups. We found a correlation between reapplication of the anesthetic and pain at administration and duration of the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the use of lidocaine gel at concentrations of 2% and 5% in pterygium surgery was as effective as subconjunctival injection of lidocaine in reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain, producing significantly less pain during initial administration of the anesthetic.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pterígio/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Injeções Intraoculares/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravitreal injection (IVI) is a very common vitreoretinal procedure, and multiple injections are often required per patient. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various local anesthetic techniques in reducing pain during injection. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted based on searches of Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the gray literature (Google Scholar). The end search date was February 19, 2016, across all databases. We classified pain by converting visual analog scale (VAS) scores (0-100 mm) into Jensen's classification levels: 0-4, no pain; 5-44, mild pain; 45-74, moderate pain; and 75-100, severe pain. An intervention was considered clinically significant when pain score change was >12 mm on a 100-mm scale. RESULTS: Eight studies out of 23 met the eligibility criteria. The total number of patients was 847. Most studies (5/8 [62.5%]) were at unclear risk of bias because of unclear randomization, thus providing only moderate evidence to this review. The anesthetic techniques included eye drops with proparacaine, tetracaine or cocaine, a lidocaine pledget or gel, and subconjunctival injection of 2% lidocaine or 0.75% levobupivacaine. No study comprised all of the techniques. Pain was mild (VAS scores, 5-44 mm) regardless of anesthetic technique. A clinically significant intervention (pain score change >12 mm) was found for only one study comparing proparacaine drops, lidocaine gel, and subconjunctival lidocaine; in that study, a subconjunctival injection of 2% lidocaine provided the greatest pain reduction. A meta-analysis was not possible due to study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Patient pain during IVI under topical anesthesia is mild regardless of anesthetic technique. A subconjunctival injection of 2% lidocaine could be an option for highly sensitive patients. However, with moderate level of evidence, no single anesthetic technique could be defined as the best option for IVI.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28163928

RESUMO

Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease, however no specific treatment or vaccine is available for them. In addition, ocular manifestations of these diseases have become more prevalent over the past few years. This review highlights the current understanding on the pathogenesis, systemic changes and ocular findings, emphasizing the retinal manifestations related to dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses.

12.
Retina ; 37(8): 1499-1507, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27798520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the 6-month safety and efficacy of ziv-aflibercept intravitreal injections for treating exudative age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: Fifteen patients with unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration were enrolled. The best-corrected visual acuity was measured and spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed at baseline and monthly. Full-field electroretinography and multifocal electroretinography were obtained at baseline and 4, 13, and 26 weeks after the first injection. All patients received three monthly intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg) followed by as-needed treatment. RESULTS: Between baseline and 26 weeks, the mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity improved (P = 0.00408) from 0.93 ± 0.4 (20/200) to 0.82 ± 0.5 (20/160) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, respectively; the central retinal thickness decreased significantly (P = 0.0007) from 490.3 ± 155.1 microns to 327.9 ± 101.5 microns; the mean total macular volume decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 9.51 ± 1.36 mm to 8.08 ± 1.34 mm, and the a-wave implicit time increased, with no differences in the other full-field electroretinography parameters. The average multifocal electroretinography macular responses within the first central 15° showed significantly (P < 0.05) increased P1 amplitudes at 26 weeks. No systemic or ocular complications developed. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal ziv-aflibercept significantly improved the best-corrected visual acuity, multifocal electroretinography amplitudes, central retinal thickness, and total macular volume from baseline to 26 weeks. No retinal toxicity on full-field electroretinography or adverse events occurred during the follow-up period.


Assuntos
Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Retina/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/fisiopatologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27847621

RESUMO

In the last few years, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of retinal neovascular diseases. More recently, a different class of drugs, fusion proteins, has provided an alternative treatment strategy with pharmacological differences. In addition to commercially available aflibercept, two other drugs, ziv-aflibercept and conbercept, have been studied in antiangiogenic treatment of ocular diseases. In this scenario, a critical review of the currently available data regarding fusion proteins in ophthalmic diseases may be a timely and important contribution. Aflibercept, previously known as VEGF Trap Eye, is a fusion protein of VEGF receptors 1 and 2 and a treatment for several retinal diseases related to angiogenesis. It has firmly joined ranibizumab and bevacizumab as an important therapeutic option in the management of neovascular AMD-, DME- and RVO-associated macular edema. Ziv-aflibercept, a systemic chemotherapeutic agent approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, has recently drawn attention because of its potential for intravitreal administration, since it was not associated with ERG-related signs of toxicity in an experimental study and in human case reports. Conbercept is a soluble receptor decoy that blocks all isoforms of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, and PlGF, which has a high binding affinity for VEGF and a long half-life in vitreous. It has been studied in a phase three clinical trial and has shown efficacy and safety. This review discusses three fusion proteins that have been studied in ophthalmology, aflibercept, ziv-aflibercept and conbercept, with emphasis on their clinical application for the treatment of retinal diseases.

14.
Retina ; 36(9): 1640-5, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetic macular edema is the leading cause of blindness in young adults in developed countries. Beyond metabolic control, several therapies have been studied such as laser treatment and intravitreal injections of corticosteroids or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs. In terms of public health the long-term treatment with the current available drugs is very expensive and new therapies with the same or better effect should be investigated. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. METHODS: Seven consecutive patients with diabetic macular edema were enrolled. A complete examination, including full-field electroretinography, visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and evaluation of systemic and ocular complications, was performed before and at 24 weeks after intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept. The seven patients were submitted to six consecutive intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept with a 4-week interval. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the amplitude or implicit time of any electroretinography component after intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept, and no systemic or ocular complication was observed. The improvement of visual acuity was significant at 24 weeks (P < 0.05). The central retinal thickness significantly decreased during the course of 24 weeks. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept seem to be a safe and effective treatment option for diabetic macular edema.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Retina/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
15.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 32(4): 192-5, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare same-day pain control and safety of 2 different anesthetic gels utilizing 5% and 2% lidocaine gel. Main outcome is to determine whether 5% lidocaine gel is more effective in decreasing pain during conjunctival clamping compared to 2% lidocaine gel 5 and 10 min after gel application. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized double-blind clinical trial. Patients were randomized to receive 2% or 5% lidocaine gel in each eye. Discomfort during the gel instillation and pain during conjunctival clamping 5 and 10 min after gel application were compared. Extent of corneal conjunctival staining was graded according to the Oxford scale. RESULTS: Eighty eyes of 40 patients were enrolled. The groups were similar in gender, with a mean age of 48 ± 16.26 years. The 5% lidocaine gel resulted in higher discomfort during initial instillation (P = 0.092), however, the pain during conjunctival clamping was lower in the 5% lidocaine gel eyes (P = 0.564) in both 5 and 10 min later (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (80%) had no corneal conjunctival dye staining. The tear break-up time was not statistically different after lidocaine gel 2% (20.35 ± 7.37 s) and lidocaine 5% (19.75 ± 7.00 s). CONCLUSION: Five percent and 2% lidocaine gel have similar efficacy controlling pain 5 min after instillation, however, 5% lidocaine gel appears to be more effective with a longer duration of action, without corneal toxicity. There was no corneal toxicity noted with either concentration.


Assuntos
Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Géis/administração & dosagem , Géis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Dev Ophthalmol ; 55: 365-75, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26502062

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. It is well known that indocyanine green is toxic to the retina and consequently not the ideal dye for chromovitrectomy. Different vital dyes has been tested for chromovitrectomy including trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein and brilliant blue. Brilliant blue seems to be the ideal dye for internal limiting membrane due to its afinity, lower toxic profile and to reduce the appearance of apoptosis. Besides the dye itself, the injection technique is crucial to avoid additional toxicity, slow injection, far from the retina and protection of the macular hole are some tips. More recently the use of dyes has been applied to stain perfluorcarbon liquids that may enhance its visualization during vitrectomy.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal/patologia , Corantes/administração & dosagem , Membrana Epirretiniana/diagnóstico , Vitrectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Vitreorretiniana/métodos , Corantes/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Membrana Epirretiniana/cirurgia , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
17.
Dev Ophthalmol ; 55: 212-20, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26502088

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are an important class of drugs in medicine and ophthalmology. Several NSAIDs have been commercially available for many years: diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, ketorolac and suprofen. The purpose of this chapter is to review the clinical use of earlier and newer pharmacologic agents of the NSAID class. NSAIDs may have a modulating effect on ocular inflammation and pain through the prevention of prostaglandin synthesis via cyclooxygenase inhibition. Newer-generation NSAIDs have emerged in recent years for the treatment of ocular pain and inflammation. Nepafenac ophthalmic suspension 0.1% is a new topical NSAID prodrug that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pain and inflammation after cataract surgery. Preliminary data suggest nepafenac may also provide unique efficacy in the posterior segment, since its corneal permeability characteristics are superior to those of other NSAIDs. Nevanac, diclofenac, ketorolac and bromfenac are some notable NSAID candidates which should be investigated intravitreally or topically for retinal pharmacotherapy. In addition, for intraocular surgery, NSAIDs can help to prevent intraoperative miosis, reduce ocular pain, decrease postoperative inflammation and prevent cystoid macular edema. Retinal, choroidal and vitreous diseases may be the target of future nepafenac studies, either as monotherapy or as combination treatments.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Benzenoacetamidas/uso terapêutico , Benzofenonas/uso terapêutico , Bromobenzenos/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cetorolaco/uso terapêutico , Fenilacetatos/uso terapêutico
18.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 46(9): 920-4, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26469231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between the choroidal thickness (CT) measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and retrobulbar blood flow measured by color Doppler flowmetry (CD) in normal subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects underwent enhanced-depth imaging SD-OCT and CD using a linear 6 MHz to 18 MHz transducer. The maximal peak systolic velocity and resistance index (RI) were obtained for the ophthalmic artery (OA), short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA), and central retinal artery (CRA) and correlated with the subfoveal CT measured by SD-OCT. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 healthy patients were enrolled (mean age: 40.6 ± 12.4 years; range: 27-68 years). An inverse proportional relationship (P = .0496) was identified between the RI of the SPCA (mean, 0.6117 ± 0.07911) and the subfoveal CT (319.9 µm ± 83.79 µm) but not between the RI and the OA (mean: 0.7019 µm ± 0.07317 µm) or the CRA (mean: 0.68843 µm ± 0.08994 µm). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested there is an inverse proportional relationship between the RI of the SPCA and the subfoveal CT. The data also suggested a correlation between a decrease in the CT and increased RI in the retrobulbar arteries. Therefore, lower choroidal blood flow may explain the thinner CT in normal subjects.


Assuntos
Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Artérias Ciliares/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Oftálmica/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Artéria Retiniana/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
19.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 78(1): 32-5, 2015 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25714535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate and describe the precautions involved in the technique of intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic drugs adopted by the ophthalmologists who are members of the Brazilian Society of Retina and Vitreous (SBRV). METHODS: A questionnaire containing 22 questions related to precautions taken before, during, and after intravitreal injection was sent electronically to 920 members of SBRV between November 15, 2013 and April 31, 2014. RESULTS: 352 responses (38%) were obtained. There was a predominance of men (76%) from the southwest region of Brazil (51%). The professional experience varied between 6 and 15 years after medical specialization (50%). Most professionals (76%) performed an average of 1 to 10 intravitreal injections a week, and 88% of the procedures were performed in the operating room using povidone iodine (99%), sterile gloves, and blepharostat (94%). For inducing topical anesthesia, usage of anesthetic eye drops was the most used technique (65%). Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) was the most common drug (55%), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was the most treated disease (57%). Regarding the complications treated, 6% of the ophthalmologists had treated at least one case of retinal detachment, 20% had treated cases of endophthalmitis, 9% had treated cases of vitreous hemorrhage, and 12% had encountered cases of crystalline lens touch. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection is a procedure routinely performed by retina specialists and has a low incidence of complications. Performing the procedure in the operating room using an aseptic technique was preferred by most of the respondents. Ranibizumab was the most used drug, and AMD was the most treated disease.


Assuntos
Injeções Intravítreas/métodos , Oftalmologia , Sociedades Médicas , Anestesia Local/métodos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Brasil , Endoftalmite/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas/efeitos adversos , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Povidona-Iodo , Ranibizumab , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Centros Cirúrgicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 32-35, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741161

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate and describe the precautions involved in the technique of intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic drugs adopted by the ophthalmologists who are members of the Brazilian Society of Retina and Vitreous (SBRV). Methods: A questionnaire containing 22 questions related to precautions taken before, during, and after intravitreal injection was sent electronically to 920 members of SBRV between November 15, 2013 and April 31, 2014. Results: 352 responses (38%) were obtained. There was a predominance of men (76%) from the southwest region of Brazil (51%). The professional experience varied between 6 and 15 years after medical specialization (50%). Most professionals (76%) performed an average of 1 to 10 intravitreal injections a week, and 88% of the procedures were performed in the operating room using povidone iodine (99%), sterile gloves, and blepharostat (94%). For inducing topical anesthesia, usage of anesthetic eye drops was the most used technique (65%). Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) was the most common drug (55%), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was the most treated disease (57%). Regarding the complications treated, 6% of the ophthalmologists had treated at least one case of retinal detachment, 20% had treated cases of endophthalmitis, 9% had treated cases of vitreous hemorrhage, and 12% had encountered cases of crystalline lens touch. Conclusion: Intravitreal injection is a procedure routinely performed by retina specialists and has a low incidence of complications. Performing the procedure in the operating room using an aseptic technique was preferred by most of the respondents. Ranibizumab was the most used drug, and AMD was the most treated disease. .


Objetivo: Avaliar e descrever os cuidados envolvidos durante o procedimento de injeção intravítrea de drogas antiangiogênicas realizado pelos oftalmologistas membros da Sociedade Brasileira de Retina e Vítreo (SBRV). Métodos: Foi enviado um questionário aos 920 membros da SBRV, por meio de correio eletrônico, entre o período de 15/11/2013 a 31/04/2014, contendo 22 questões, relacionado aos cuidados pré, intra e pós-operatório da injeção intravítrea. Resultados: Foram obtidas 352 respostas (38% dos sócios). Houve um predomínio do sexo masculino (76%), procedentes da região Sudeste (51%). O tempo de experiência profissional se concentrou entre 6 a 15 anos após o término da especialização (50%). A maioria dos participantes tem média semanal de 1 a 10 (76%), sendo 88% das vezes realizado dentro do centro cirúrgico, utilizando iodopovidona (99%), luvas e blefarostato estéreis (94%). A anestesia tópica com colírio anestésico foi a técnica mais utilizada (65%). Entre os participantes, ranibizumabe (Lucentis®) é a droga mais utilizada (55%) e a degeneração macular relacionada a idade (DMRI) é a doença mais tratada (57%). Das complicações citadas pelos oftalmologistas, 6% já vivenciaram pelo menos um caso de descolamento de retina, 20% endoftalmite, 9% hemorragia vítrea e 12% toque cristaliniano. Conclusão: A injeção intravítrea é um procedimento realizado rotineiramente por retinólogos, com baixo índice de complicações. A realização do procedimento no centro cirúrgico com técnica asséptica é preferida pelos pesquisados. A droga mais utilizada foi o ranibizumabe e a doença mais tratada foi a DMRI. .


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Injeções Intravítreas/métodos , Oftalmologia , Sociedades Médicas , Anestesia Local/métodos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Brasil , Endoftalmite/induzido quimicamente , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Injeções Intravítreas/efeitos adversos , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Povidona-Iodo , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Centros Cirúrgicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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