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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(1): 225-236, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280166

RESUMO

The concerns regarding the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants have increased in the last decades. Gatifloxacin (GAT), the fourth generation of fluoroquinolones, has been widely used to treat both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and has a limited metabolization. The present study aimed to evaluate ozonation as a technique to degrade GAT. An exchange A UHPLC-MS/MS by an UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantify the residual of GAT and to assess its degradation products. The removal efficiency was higher under alkaline conditions (pH = 10), reaching up to 99% of GAT after 4 min. It was also observed that the first ozone attack on the GAT molecule was through the carboxylic group. In contrast, under acid conditions (pH = 3), the ozone attack was first to the piperazinyl ring. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis as test organisms, and it was observed that the residual activity reduced most under alkaline conditions. In contrast, the best condition to remove the residual toxicity evaluated for the marine bacteria V. fischeri was the acidic one. Due to this, ozonation seemed to be an exciting process to remove GAT in aqueous media.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos , Gatifloxacina , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 202: 114132, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000519

RESUMO

N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) is a carcinogenic contaminant of concern in the cosmetics industry. Contaminated raw material, degradation, reactions of ingredients of the formulation, or migration of packaging material can be responsible for the presence of NDELA in the final product. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry is the most widely accepted technique for the quantitation of NDELA in cosmetic products. Still, there is no consensus regarding the sample preparation procedure. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of NDELA in shampoo. In the first dimension an Oasis HLB SPE-column was used and in the second dimension a CSH C18 column. NDELA-d8 was used as an internal standard. The 2D-LC parameters were optimized by a central composite multivariate design. However, before quantitation, a sample preparation step using solid-phase extraction was necessary to eliminate compounds present in the formulation, especially surfactants that were not compatible with the chromatographic columns. Moreover, the complex matrices and singular compositions of shampoo from different manufacturers required adjustments of the sample preparation procedure for each sample. The limit of quantitation of the method for the determination of NDELA in shampoo was in the range of 5-10 ng g-1. The accuracy of the method at the LOQ (10 ng g-1) was 114 % and the inter-day precision of 15.3 % (n = 9). One sample out of 12 presented an NDELA concentration of 54 ng g-1.


Assuntos
Dietilnitrosamina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dietilnitrosamina/análogos & derivados , Extração em Fase Sólida
3.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112561, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865021

RESUMO

The consumption of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) such as acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), saccharin (SAC), cyclamate (CYC), aspartame (ASP), neotame (NEO), and stevioside (STV) is increasing worldwide to meet the demand for reduced-calorie foods and beverages. However, there are no consumption data available in Brazil, as well as their concentration in sewage and removal on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In the present study, ACE, SUC, SAC, CYC, ASP, NEO, and STV were assessed at five WWTPs located in the metropolitan region of Campinas (São Paulo State, Brazil), in operation with different treatment processes. Surface water was also analyzed. Analyses were carried out by on-line solid-phase extraction ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The major points are the following: LCS concentrations in the influents ranged from 0.25 to 189 µg L-1 and followed the order CYC > ACE > SAC > SUC. NEO, ASP, and STV were not detected at any sampling site. Sweetener concentrations in the WWTP outputs differed mainly due to the different treatment setups employed. CYC and SAC were completely removed by biodegradation-based processes, while ACE removal was favored by the anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic process. SUC presented the highest concentration in the treated sewage, even at the WWTP operating with ultrafiltration membranes and therefore could be a marker compound for evaluation of the efficiency of removal of contaminants in WWTPs. Risk quotient estimation, using the PNEC and MEC values, indicated that the levels of the LCS reported here were harmless to the biota. The consumption of ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC was estimated to be 2634 t year-1.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Brasil , Esgotos , Edulcorantes/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Toxicol Rep ; 8: 429-435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717995

RESUMO

Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is an antimicrobial "pseudo-persistent" in aquatic ecosystems. Once dispersed in the water compartments, it can also affect the microalgae. Thus, the evaluation of its long-term ecotoxicological effects is necessary. CIP interactions with other pharmaceuticals are not well known. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of CIP alone and combined with caffeine (CAF), using the modified Gompertz model parameters and the chlorophyll-a production of the microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata as endpoints, throughout a 16-day exposure assay. The exposure to CIP alone led to significant reductions of the growth rate and the cell density of the microalgae compared to control groups. The combination with CAF lowered the adverse effects of CIP to R. subcapitata. However, as the toxicity is dynamic, our results indicated that the toxic effects in respect to the studied endpoints changed throughout the exposure period, reinforcing the need for longer-term ecotoxicity assessments.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(19): 24034-24045, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417129

RESUMO

Photoperoxidation (UV/H2O2) was used to degrade three of the worldwide most consumed antidepressant pharmaceuticals-bupropion, escitalopram, and fluoxetine-in ultrapure water, drinking tap water, surface water, and reclaimed water. The study was performed with antidepressants in concentration levels in which these compounds usually occur in the water matrices. Online solid-phase extraction coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS was used to quantify the analytes during degradation studies. The UV/H2O2 process was able to degrade bupropion and fluoxetine in ultrapure water, using 0.042 mmol L-1 of H2O2 and 1.9 kJ of UV-C irradiation. Nevertheless, escitalopram, which had the most recalcitrant character among the studied antidepressants, needed a tenfold more oxidant and UV-C irradiation. The primary metabolites of the antidepressants were identified as the major by-products generated by the UV/H2O2 process, and they persisted in the solution even when the parent compound was degraded. The residual toxicity of the solution was evaluated for two different trophic levels. The UV/H2O2 process reduced the toxicity of the solution to Raphidocelis. subcapitata microalgae after 30 min of reaction. On the other hand, the toxicity of the residual solution increased over the reaction time to the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (reaching up to 48.3% of bioluminescence inhibition after 60 min of reaction). Thus, our results evidenced that the toxicity against different trophic levels and the monitoring of the by-products formed are important aspects to be considered regarding the safety of the treated solution and the optimization of the treatment process.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Antidepressivos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Raios Ultravioleta , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(19): 23742-23752, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099741

RESUMO

Benzimidazoles (BZ) are among the most used drugs to treat parasitic diseases in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, solutions fortified with albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ), and thiabendazole (TBZ) were subjected to photoperoxidation (UV/H2O2). The hydroxyl radicals generated by the process removed up to 99% of ABZ, and FBZ, in the highest dosage of H2O2 (i.e., 1.125 mmol L-1; 4.8 kJ L-1). In contrast, 20% of initial TBZ concentration remained in the residual solution. In the first 5 min of reaction (i.e., up to 0.750 mmol L-1 of H2O2), formation of the primary metabolites of ABZ-ricobendazole (RBZ), albendazole sulfone (ABZ-SO2), and oxfendazole (OFZ)-was observed. However, these reaction products were converted after the reaction time was doubled. The residual ecotoxicity was investigated using the Raphidocelis subcapitata microalgae and the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The results for both microorganisms evidence that the residual solutions are less harmful to these microorganisms. However, after 30 min of reaction, the treated solution still presents a toxic effect for V. fischeri, meaning that longer reaction times are required to achieve an innocuous effluent.


Assuntos
Aliivibrio fischeri , Microalgas , Benzimidazóis , Fenbendazol , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(3): 603-614, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960803

RESUMO

This study presents a comparison of three methods for TiO2-N synthesis that were applied in the photocatalytic oxidation of the fluoroquinolones (FQs) ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and lomefloxacin in aqueous solution. The TiO2-N bandgap is small enough to allow the use of solar energy in the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactions. The TiO2 doped by a sol-gel method with titanium butoxide (TiO2-N-BUT) and titanium isopropoxide (TiO2-N-PROP) as the precursor were effective as the TiO2 (P25) impregnation with urea (TiO2-N-P25) to degrade the FQs. The FQ degradation was higher by 74, 65, and 91%, respectively for TiO2-N-BUT, TiO2-N-PROP, and TiO2-N (load 50 mg L-1, 20 min of reaction under 28 W UV-ASolar). The TiO2-P25 with urea showed the best performance in FQ degradation. The reaction intermediates might present modifications in their acceptor groups by PCO and, because of that the antimicrobial activity dropped as the reaction time increased. Reactions with TiO2-N-P25 (100 mg L-1) and TiO2-N-BUT (100 mg L-1) achieved ≥ 80% of antimicrobial activity removal from the mixed FQ solution (Cciprofloxacin = 100 µg L-1; Cofloxacin = 100 µg L-1; Clomefloxacin = 100 µg L-1) after 40 min of reaction, for both for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Titânio , Catálise , Fluoroquinolonas
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138661, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334225

RESUMO

According to the World Health Organization, >360 million people worldwide suffer from mental diseases such as depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, for which psychotropic drugs are frequently prescribed. Despite being highly metabolized in the human organism, non-metabolized portions of these drugs are excreted, subsequently reaching wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where they may be incompletely removed during treatment, leading to the contamination of surface waters. In this work, ten psychotropic drugs widely consumed in Brazil (alprazolam, amitriptyline, bupropion, carbamazepine, clonazepam, escitalopram, fluoxetine, nortriptyline, sertraline, and trazadone) were monitored at five WWTPs located in the metropolitan region of Campinas (São Paulo State, Brazil). The drugs were determined in the influents, at different stages of the treatments, and in the effluents. Surface waters from the Atibaia River and the Anhumas Creek were also monitored. Quantitation of the pharmaceuticals was carried out by online solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated and presented a limit of quantitation of 50 ng L-1 for all the drugs assessed. Six of the substances monitored were quantified in the samples collected from the different treatment processes employed at the WWTPs. These technologies were unable to act as barriers for these psychotropics drugs. The concentrations ranged from 50 to 3000 ng L-1 in the WWTP effluents, while the main contaminants were found in surface waters at concentrations from 25 to 3530 ng L-1. The levels of the psychotropic detected in this work did not appear to present risks to the aquatic biota.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Psicotrópicos , Rios , Extração em Fase Sólida , Águas Residuárias/análise
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 181: 113097, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931446

RESUMO

The screening of compounds is the initial step in research for the development of new drugs. For this reason, the availability of fast and reliable tools for the screening of a large number of compounds becomes essential. Among the therapeutic targets, the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) is of great interest for its importance as a biological source of superoxide radicals, which contribute to the oxidative stress on organisms and are involved in many pathological processes. In the present study, we validated a new method using an immobilized capillary enzyme reactor in an LC system directly coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to screen for XO ligands. The use of mass spectrometry provided selectivity and speed to the system, eliminating the analytical separation step. The Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) value determined for the immobilized enzyme was 14.5 ±â€¯0.4 µmol L-1, which is consistent with the value previously reported for the XO-ICER with UV detection in a 2D LC method. The on-line approach was successfully applied to assay the XO inhibitory activities of thirty isolated compounds from different classes of natural products and provided greater productivity (288 analysis/day) than 2D LC method (84 analysis/day) of screened samples.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Piranos/farmacologia , Succinatos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Environ Manage ; 232: 729-737, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529415

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical residues are constantly released into natural waters, mainly from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) whose processes are unable to completely eliminate them. Among these drugs, the occurrence of benzimidazoles, a class of antiparasitics for human and veterinary use, has been reported in WWTP effluents and surface waters. In this study, an SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and optimized for extraction and quantitation of benzimidazoles in influents and effluents of a local WWTP and in hospital wastewater. The extraction procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (Box-Behnken design) and the optimal parameters were as follows: 2.0 mL of loading solvent consisting of a mixture of water:methanol (95:5, v/v) and temperature at 43 °C. In hospital wastewater, albendazole (ABZ) and its principal metabolite ricobendazole (RBZ) were the main benzimidazole-related contaminants and were found at concentrations of up to 3810 and 3894 ng L-1, respectively. The WWTP system was able to remove from 46% to 95% of the ABZ quantified in the influent, discharging an effluent with 16-441 ng L-1 of ABZ. The concentrations of other benzimidazoles and metabolites in the WWTP effluents remained below 350 ng L-1. WWTP effluents fortified with 50 µg L-1 of ABZ required 26.7 mgO3 L-1 to remove ABZ and RBZ. After ozonation, the COD and BOD5 of the effluents were reduced by 27%. Photolysis by UVA radiation was not effective to remove ABZ and FBZ from the effluent samples.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Benzimidazóis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Fotólise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 78(8): 1668-1678, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500791

RESUMO

In this study, a solution containing the fluoroquinolones (FQs) ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and ofloxacin (antimicrobial agents) was subjected to photocatalytic oxidation under UVA irradiation, employing the commercial titanium dioxide as catalyst. On-line solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to pre-concentrate and quantify the analytes. The process provided an almost 95% degradation efficiency for all the FQs. The TiO2 PC500 (100% anatase) was more efficient than TiO2 P25 (80% anatase) for FQs degradation. The matrix effect on the efficiency of the process was evaluated by ultrapure water - UW, simulated water - SW, bottled water -BW, and public drinking tap water - TW. Simulated water showed lower interference, compared to drinking water and bottled mineral water, due to the lower concentrations of hydroxyl radical scavengers. The assessment of the residual antimicrobial activity in the solution, when using 50 mg L-1 PC500 or 100 mg L-1 P25, showed reductions of biological activity (after 120 min of reaction) of 92.4% and 95.4% for Escherichia coli, and 78.1% and 84.2% for Bacillus subtilis, respectively. It shows that the photocatalytic oxidation process was able to not only degrade the FQs but also deactivate its biological activity in the resultant solution.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Titânio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Catálise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Processos Fotoquímicos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(28): 27796-27807, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696544

RESUMO

In the present work, a facile method to prepare translucent anatase thin films on cellulose acetate monolithic (CAM) structures was developed. A simple sol-gel method was applied to synthesize photoactive TiO2 anatase nanoparticles using tetra-n-butyl titanium as precursor. The immobilization of the photocatalyst on CAM structures was performed by a simple dip-coating method. The translucent anatase thin films allow the UV light penetration through the CAM internal walls. The photocatalytic activity was tested on the degradation of n-decane (model volatile organic compound-VOC) in gas phase, using a tubular lab-scale (irradiated by simulated solar light) and pilot-scale (irradiated by natural solar light or UVA light) reactors packed with TiO2-CAM structures, both equipped with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The efficiency of the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process in the degradation of n-decane molecules was studied at different operating conditions at lab-scale, such as catalytic bed size (40-160 cm), TiO2 film thickness (0.435-0.869 µm), feed flow rate (75-300 cm3 min-1), n-decane feed concentration (44-194 ppm), humidity (3 and 40%), oxygen concentration (0 and 21%), and incident UV irradiance (18.9, 29.1, and 38.4 WUV m-2). The decontamination of a bioaerosol stream was also evaluated by the PCO process, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) as model bacteria. A pilot-scale unit was operated day and night, using natural sunlight and artificial UV light, to show its performance in the mineralization of n-decane air streams under real outdoor conditions. Graphical abstract Normally graphics abstract are not presented with captions/legend. The diagram is a collection of images that resume the work.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alcanos/análise , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Nanopartículas/química , Titânio/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aerossóis , Alcanos/efeitos da radiação , Catálise , Celulose/química , Modelos Teóricos , Oxirredução , Projetos Piloto , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos da radiação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Propriedades de Superfície , Raios Ultravioleta , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos da radiação
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(7): 6252-6260, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063087

RESUMO

Lomefloxacin (LOM) is a synthetic antimicrobial from the fluoroquinolone family (FQ) used as a veterinary and human drug. Once in the environment, LOM may pose a risk to aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms due to its antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the effect of ozonation of LOM (500 µg L-1), the residual antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and acute toxicity against Vibrio fischeri. In addition, degradation products were investigated by UHPLC-MS/MS and proposed. Ozonation was carried out varying the applied ozone dose from 0 to 54.0 mg L-1 O3 and pH values of 3, 7, and 11. Ozonation was most efficient at pH 11 and led to 92.8% abatement of LOM in a 9-min reaction time (54.0 mg L-1 O3 applied ozone dose). Ozonation at pH 3 was able to degrade 80.4% of LOM. At pH 7, 74.3% of LOM was degraded. Although the LOM concentration and the antimicrobial activity of the solution dropped as ozone dose increased (antimicrobial activity reduction of 95% at pH 11), toxicity to V. fischeri increased for pH 7 and 11 (i.e., 65% at pH 7 and 75% at pH 11). The reduction in antimicrobial activity may be related to the oxidation of piperazinyl and the quinolone moiety. The formation of intermediates depended on the oxidant (hydroxyl radicals or/and molecular O3) that acted the most in the process.


Assuntos
Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/toxicidade , Ozônio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Radical Hidroxila/química , Oxirredução , Soluções , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(7): 6372-6381, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357708

RESUMO

In the last decade, environmental risks associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become a concern in the scientific community due to the absence of specific legislation governing the occupational exposure limits (OEL) for microorganisms present in indoor air. Thus, it is necessary to develop techniques to effectively inactivate microorganisms present in the air of WWTPs facilities. In the present work, ultraviolet light A radiation was used as inactivation tool. The microbial population was not visibly reduced in the bioaerosol by ultraviolet light A (UVA) photolysis. The UVA photocatalytic process for the inactivation of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, ATCC strains and isolates from indoor air samples of a WWTP) using titanium dioxide (TiO2 P25) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was tested in both liquid-phase and airborne conditions. In the slurry conditions at liquid phase, P25 showed a better performance in inactivation. For this reason, gas-phase assays were performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolithic structures coated with P25. The survival rate of microorganisms under study decreased with the catalyst load and the UVA exposure time. Inactivation of fungi was slower than resistant bacteria, followed by Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Graphical abstract Inactivation of fungi and bacteria in gas phase by photocatalitic process performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolith structures coated with TiO2.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Raios Ultravioleta , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Catálise , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Celulose/química , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Fotólise , Titânio/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água , Óxido de Zinco/química
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(7): 6288-6298, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376368

RESUMO

Gatifloxacin, an antimicrobial drug belonging to the fluoroquinolone family, is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and is extensively used for the control of infections in humans. The presence of the drug in environmental matrices has already been reported. This study investigated the degradation of gatifloxacin in water by hydroxyl radicals generated by the UV254 nm/H2O2 process ([Formula: see text] 0.4-2.4 mmol L-1) and evaluated the capacity of the radicals to reduce the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Acute toxicity assays were performed with Vibrio fischeri, and the degradation products were proposed. The hydroxyl radicals formed in the processes were able to degrade the fluoroquinolone and remove the antimicrobial activity from the aqueous solution. Approximately 97 % gatifloxacin degradation was observed after applying 2.4 mmol L-1 of initial H2O2 concentration and 20 min of UVC254nm irradiation (130 J s-1). The acute toxicity assays showed that the toxicity of the treated solution for V. fischeri increased as the gatifloxacin concentration in the solution decreased.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Radical Hidroxila/química , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Fluoroquinolonas/toxicidade , Gatifloxacina , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1471: 118-125, 2016 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27745927

RESUMO

Avermectins and milbemycin are widely used as veterinary drugs and as agricultural pesticides, and their residues have been detected in soil. This study reports a simple and high-throughput method for determining ivermectin (IVER), abamectin (ABA), doramectin (DORA), eprinomectin (EPRI), and moxidectin (MOXI) residues in soils, employing an on-line solid-phase extraction technique coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated and applied for the determination of ABA in soils from an orange plantation treated with this pesticide. The sample preparation procedure consisted of extraction of the compounds from soil using methanol (with recoveries of 73-85%), and subsequent on-line SPE cleanup and concentration using a C8 sorbent coupled to the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The optimal conditions were: water:methanol (40:60, v/v) sample solvent; water:methanol (96:4, v/v) loading solvent; 2×250µL sample volume; and elution of the analytes retained on the SPE column in back flush with 5mmolL-1 ammonium acetate:acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) chromatographic mobile phase. The method produced linear results in the ranges 0.1-10ngg-1 (IVER, ABA, DORA, and MOXI) and 0.5-10ngg-1 (EPRI), with linearity greater than 0.99. The precision of the method was better than 19% and accuracy was in the range 74-89%. The limits of quantitation were 0.2ngg-1 for EPRI and 0.1ngg-1 for the other compounds. The SPE column could be reused in more than 2000 analyses without loss of efficiency. The ABA concentration in the soil varied between 1.7 and 18ngg-1, and no dissipation was observed during five consecutive days after application of the pesticide to the orange plantation.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Macrolídeos/análise , Solo/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Acetonitrilas/química , Ivermectina/análise , Metanol/química , Praguicidas/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Água/química
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1452: 89-97, 2016 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234844

RESUMO

Sulfonamides are antimicrobials used widely as veterinary drugs, and their residues have been detected in environmental matrices. An analytical method for determining sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline residues in soils employing a solid phase extraction on-line technique coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated in this study. SPE and chromatographic separation were performed using an Oasis HLB column and an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 analytical column, respectively, at 40°C. Samples were prepared by extracting sulfonamides from soil using a solid-liquid extraction method with water:acetonitrile, 1:1v/v (recovery of 70.2-99.9%). The following parameters were evaluated to optimize the on-line SPE process: sorbent type (Oasis and C8), sample volume (100-400µL), loading solvent (water and different proportions of water:methanol) and washing volume (0.19-0.66mL). The method produced linear results for all sulfonamides from 0.5 to 12.5ngg(-1) with a linearity greater than 0.99. The precision of the method was less than 15%, and the matrix effect was -27% to -87%. The accuracy was in the range of 77-112% for all sulfonamides. The limit of quantitation in the two soils (clay and sand) was 0.5ngg(-1). The SPE column allowed for the analysis of many (more than 2000) samples without decreasing the efficiency.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Solo/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfonamidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Acetonitrilas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Drogas Veterinárias/química , Água
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(2): 820-32, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24809494

RESUMO

Cellulose acetate monoliths (CAM) were used as the substrate for the deposition of TiO2 films to produce honeycombed photoactive structures to fill a tubular photoreactor equipped with a compound parabolic collector. By using such a setup, an efficient single-pass gas-phase conversion was achieved in the degradation of n-decane, a model volatile organic compound. The CAM three-dimensional, gas-permeable transparent structure with a rugged surface enables a good adhesion of the catalytic coating. It also provides a rigid structure for packing the tubular photoreactor, and maximizing the illuminated catalyst surface. The efficiency of the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process on n-decane degradation was evaluated under different operating conditions, such as feeding concentration (73 and 146 ppm), gas stream flow rate (73, 150, and 300 mL min(-1)), relative humidity (3 and 25 %), and UV irradiance (18.9, 29.1, and 38.4 WUV m(-2)). The results show that n-decane degradation by neat photolysis is negligible, but mineralization efficiencies of 86 and 82 % were achieved with P25-CAM and SG-CAM, respectively, for parent pollutant conversions above 95 %, under steady-state conditions. A mass transfer model, considering the mass balance to the plug-flow packed photoreactor, and PCO reaction given by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood bimolecular non-competitive two types of sites equation, was able to predict well the PCO kinetics under steady-state conditions, considering all the operational parameters tested. Overall, the performance of P25-CAM was superior taking into account mineralization efficiency, cost of preparation, surface roughness, and robustness of the deposited film.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Alcanos/química , Fotólise , Titânio/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Catálise , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Cinética , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 445-446: 337-46, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23354374

RESUMO

Flumequine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent of the quinolone class, and it is widely used as a veterinary drug in food-producing animals. The presence of flumequine in the environment may contribute to the development of drug resistant bacterial strains. In this study, water samples fortified with flumequine (500 µg L(-1)) were degraded using the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The maximum degradation efficiency for flumequine by the Fenton process was approximately 40% (0.5 mmol L(-1) Fe(II), 2.0 mmol L(-1) H(2)O(2) and 15 min). By applying UV radiation (photo-Fenton process), the efficiency reached more than 94% in 60 min when 0.25 mmol L(-1) Fe(II) and 10.0 mmol L(-1) H(2)O(2) were used. Under these conditions, the Fenton process was able to reduce the biological activity, whereas the photo-Fenton process eliminated almost all of the antimicrobial activity because it was not detected. Four byproducts with an m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified by mass spectrometry, and a degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed. The byproducts were derived from decarboxylation and defluorination reactions and from modifications in the alkylamino chain of the fluoroquinolone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ferro/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Exposição Ambiental , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Testes de Toxicidade , Raios Ultravioleta
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