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1.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5308-5315, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142446

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals are not only nutritionally beneficial for animals but also their use as feed supplements may reduce environmental contamination. The effect of fermented defatted "alperujo," an olive oil by-product, supplementation on the intestinal health of broiler chickens was assessed by analyzing the intestinal mucosal morphology of the duodenum and the cecum. The microbiota of the cecum was also characterized by analyzing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Supplemented broilers from 14 to 35 D of age showed an increase in villus height in the duodenum. This increase likely improved digestibility and absorption capacity during growth, leading to the observed increase in BW at day 35 of life. A progressive increase in crypt depth in both the duodenum and the cecum was also observed. This modification likely enhanced epithelial renewal, thus safeguarding the turnover capacity of the intestinal mucosa. Our molecular analysis of cecal microbiota suggests that this dietary supplement may favor the growth of certain bacteria and may control the spread of pathogenic bacteria by means of competitive exclusion.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096645

RESUMO

Salmonella spp. contaminates egg and poultry meat leading to foodborne infections in humans. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains has limited the use of antimicrobials. We aimed to determine the effects of the food supplement, fermented defatted 'alperujo' (FDA), a modified olive oil by-product, on Salmonella Typhimurium colonisation in broilers. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broilers were divided into four experimental groups-two control groups and two treated groups, and challenged with S. Typhimurium at day 7 or 21. On days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 of life, duodenum and cecum tissue samples were collected for histopathological and histomorphometric studies. Additionally, cecum content was collected for Salmonella spp. detection by culture and qPCR, and for metagenomic analysis. Our results showed a significant reduction of Salmonella spp. in the cecum of 42-day-old broilers, suggesting that fermented defatted 'alperujo' limits Salmonella Typhimurium colonization in that cecum and may contribute to diminishing the risk of carcass contamination at the time of slaughter. The improvement of the mucosal integrity, observed histologically and morphometrically, may contribute to enhancing intestinal health and to limiting Salmonella spp. colonisation in the host, mitigating production losses. These results could provide evidence that FDA would contribute to prophylactic and therapeutic measures to reduce salmonellosis prevalence in poultry farms.

3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 316: 110522, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038828

RESUMO

Companion animal abuse is an issue that concerns not only veterinarians and law enforcement agencies but also society in general. Animals that die under suspicious or violent circumstances should be submitted to reference laboratories for a postmortem examination by veterinary forensic pathologists trained to recognize animal abuse. Nevertheless, the low notification rate of such cases in Spain may explain the country's lag in the development of veterinary forensics and the limited information available on animal abuse epidemiology in comparison with other countries. By sharing information among the entities involved in recognizing animal abuse, we can better address these issues, thus improving veterinary forensics in Spain (and elsewhere). In this study, we analysed the cause and manner of death of 96 dog and cat carcasses suspected of animal abuse. These cases were submitted to our diagnostic laboratory for forensic postmortem examination by public agencies and animal protection centres. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the postmortem analysis of forensic cases of suspected dog and cat abuse in Spain. On the basis of gross and histopathological findings, we distinguished between natural and non-natural abuse-related deaths, classifying the latter. We confirmed that most of the dog deaths were related with abuse, though the suspected abuse and the cause of death did not always coincide. In contrast, cause of death was determined to be natural in many of the cat suspected abuse cases. The most frequent non-natural abuse-related cause of death in dogs was blunt force trauma (n=24, 43.64%), followed by firearm injuries (n=10, 18.18%), asphyxia (n=5, 9.09%), heatstroke (n=3, 5.45%), starvation (n=2, 3.64%), bite injury (n=1, 1.82%), and sharp force trauma (n=1, 1.82%). In cats, the most common cause of death was blunt force trauma (n=9, 21.95%), followed by firearm injuries (n=3, 7.32%) and bite injury (n=2, 4.88%). The main goal of our study is to share our results with the scientific community to advance the field of veterinary forensics in Spain, which will lead to more successful prosecutions by law enforcement agencies. Finally, we highlight that veterinarians who can accurately recognize signs of animal abuse may be able to better respond to cases of companion animal cruelty, which in turn, may prevent possible escalation to interpersonal violence.

4.
Pathogens ; 9(9)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842614

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable disease that in recent years has spread remarkably in Europe and Asia. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) plays a key role in the maintenance and spread of the pathogen. Here we examined gross pathology of infection in wild boar with a highly virulent, hemadsorbing genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) strain. To this end, six wild boars were intramuscularly inoculated with the 10 HAD50 Arm07 ASFV strain, and 11 wild boars were allowed to come into direct contact with the inoculated animals. No animals survived the infection. Clinical course, gross pathological findings and viral genome quantification by PCR in tissues did not differ between intramuscularly inoculated or contact-infected animals. Postmortem analysis showed enlargement of liver and spleen; serosanguinous effusion in body cavities; and multiple hemorrhages in lungs, endocardium, brain, kidneys, urinary bladder, pancreas, and alimentary system. These results provide detailed insights into the gross pathology of wild boar infected with a highly virulent genotype II ASFV strain. From a didactic point of view, this detailed clinical course and macroscopic description may be essential for early postmortem detection of outbreaks in wild boar in the field and contribute to disease surveillance and prevention efforts.

5.
Pathogens ; 9(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121082

RESUMO

: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease of domestic and wild suids for which there is currently no vaccine or treatment available. The recent spread of ASF virus (ASFV) through Europe and Asia is causing enormous economic and animal losses. Unfortunately, the measures taken so far are insufficient and an effective vaccine against ASFV needs to be urgently developed. We hypothesized that immunization with a cocktail of thirty-five rationally selected antigens would improve the protective efficacy of subunit vaccine prototypes given that the combination of fewer immunogenic antigens (between 2 and 22) has failed to elicit protective efficacy. To this end, immunogenicity and efficacy of thirty-five adenovirus-vectored ASFV antigens were evaluated in wild boar. The treated animals were divided into different groups to test the use of BioMize adjuvant and different inoculation strategies. Forty-eight days after priming, the nine treated and two control wild boar were challenged with the virulent ASFV Arm07 isolate. All animals showed clinical signs and pathological findings consistent with ASF. This lack of protection is in line with other studies with subunit vaccine prototypes, demonstrating that there is still much room for improvement to obtain an effective subunit ASFV vaccine.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703400

RESUMO

This study aimed to complete the scientific basis for the validation of a coffee silverskin extract (CSE) as a novel food ingredient according to European legislation. Nutritional value, safety, effects on biochemical biomarkers and excretion of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in vivo of CSE were assessed. Proteins, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, fiber, simple sugars and micronutrients were analyzed. For the first time, toxicological and physiological effects were evaluated in vivo by a repeated-dose study in healthy Wistar rats. Hormone secretion, antioxidant (enzymatic and no-enzymatic) and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and dietary fiber fermentability of CSE (analysis of SCFAs in feces) were studied in biological samples. This unique research confirms the feasibility of CSE as a human dietary supplement with several nutrition claims: "source of proteins (16%), potassium, magnesium, calcium and vitamin C, low in fat (0.44%) and high in fiber (22%)". This is the first report demonstrating that its oral administration (1 g/kg) for 28 days is innocuous. Hormone secretion, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory biomarkers were not affected in heathy animals. Total SCFAs derived from CSE fiber fermentation were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in male treated rats compared to male control rats. All the new information pinpoints CSE as a natural, sustainable and safe food ingredient containing fermentable fiber able to produce SCFAs with beneficial effects on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Café , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717572

RESUMO

The olive oil sector is currently adapting its traditional function to also become a supplier of high-value by-products that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the fermented defatted alperujo (FDA) on the intestinal health of laying hens. The morphology of the duodenal and cecal mucosa, the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the productivity of a batch of laying hens were evaluated after FDA supplementation. At early life stages, significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed in duodenal villi height and in crypt depth of both the duodenum and the cecum in the FDA-supplemented group, indicating improved intestinal health in this group. Microbiota composition in the hatchery group supplemented with FDA had a higher abundance of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and higher bacterial diversity. During the production period, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the number of broken eggs from the supplemented group. We conclude that FDA supplementation improves the absorption capacity of the intestinal mucosa and modifies the intestinal microbiota to favor a greater immune response, leading to an increase in egg production.

8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(6): 2474-2481, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339665

RESUMO

In this study, we describe the pathology of Leishmania infantum infection in naturally infected wild Leporidae and compare diagnosis of infection using histopathology, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Tissues were analysed from 52 European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and 7 Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) from the Community of Madrid (Spain). Our results show that L. infantum infection is associated with only minimal histopathological lesions and that L. infantum amastigotes can be detected by DFA assay in all tissues types tested, including skin. These results were confirmed by qPCR on fresh frozen tissues in 13% of rabbits and 100% of hares. However, L. infantum DNA could not be detected by qPCR on paraffin-embedded tissue obtained by laser capture microdissection. Using the DFA assay to diagnose L. infantum, infection may provide further insights into this disease in wild animals and may allow the precise tissue localization of L. infantum, thereby guiding follow-up tests with more accurate qPCR.


Assuntos
Lebres/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Coração/parasitologia , Rim/parasitologia , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Leishmania infantum/genética , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Meninges/parasitologia , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Pâncreas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Pele/parasitologia , Espanha , Baço/parasitologia
9.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 32, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046823

RESUMO

Lactococcus garvieae is a significant pathogen in aquaculture with a potential zoonotic risk. To begin to characterize the late immune response of trout to lactococcosis, we selected infected individuals showing clinical signs of lactococcosis. At the time lactococcosis clinical signs appeared, infection by L. garvieae induced a robust inflammatory response in the spleen of rainbow trout, which correlated with abundant granulomatous lesions. The response in kidney goes in parallel with that of spleen, and most of the gene regulations are similar in both organs. A correlation existed between the early inflammatory granulomas in spleen (containing macrophages with internalized L. garvieae) and up-regulated gene sets, which defined the presence of macrophages and neutrophils. This is the first analysis of the immune transcriptome of rainbow trout following L. garvieae infection during the initiation of adaptive immune mechanisms and shows a transcriptome induction of antibody response by both IgM (+) and IgT (+) spleen B cells to respond to systemic infection. These results increase our understanding of lactococcosis and pave the way for future research to improve control measures of lactococcosis on fish farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Granuloma/veterinária , Rim/metabolismo , Lactococcus , Baço/metabolismo , Esplenopatias/veterinária , Truta/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Granuloma/metabolismo , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Rim/patologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Baço/patologia , Esplenopatias/metabolismo , Esplenopatias/microbiologia , Esplenopatias/patologia , Transcriptoma , Truta/metabolismo
10.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106218

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF), the most significant threat to the pig industry worldwide, has spread to more than 55 countries on three continents, and it affects more than 77% of the world swine population. In the European Union, wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the most severely affected host. The main reasons for the unprecedented and constant spread of ASF in Europe are the trade activities, the continuous movement of infected-wild boar populations among regions and the lack of vaccine to prevent ASF infection. In this study, we demonstrate that oral immunization of wild boar with a non-hemadsorbing, attenuated ASF virus of genotype II isolated in Latvia in 2017 (Lv17/WB/Rie1) conferred 92% protection against challenge with a virulent ASF virus isolate (Arm07). This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a promising vaccine against ASF virus in wild boar by oral administration. Further studies should assess the safety of repeated administration and overdose, characterize long-term shedding and verify the genetic stability of the vaccine virus to confirm if Lv17/WB/Rie1 could be used for free-ranging wild boar in ASF control programs.

11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1765-1770, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927558

RESUMO

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide and is also a relevant fish pathogen for the aquaculture industry. In addition to infections in aquatic livestock, V. vulnificus also represents a risk to aquarium animals. For the first time, this work describes an important mortality outbreak in Trachinotus goodei in a zoo aquarium, with the isolation of Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) from the internal organs of the diseased fish. The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, serotyped and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Although the isolates from great pompanos did not belong to pathovar piscis (formerly biotype 2) or to any of the fish-related serovars, they all had identical phenotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and PFGE patterns, which together with their isolation in pure culture from internal organs is strongly indicative of their clinical significance. Moreover, Vv isolates harboured important genetic markers of human virulence potential: they had the clinical variant of the vcg gene, gave the 338 bp DNA amplification product of the pilF gene and resisted the bactericidal activity of human serum. All these results strongly suggest that these Vv isolates should be considered potentially virulent for humans. These results extend the range of fish species affected by V. vulnificus, confirm the threat that this pathogen represents to aquatic animals and highlight the risk that this bacterial pathogen poses to human health.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Perciformes , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio vulnificus/fisiologia , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/virologia , Virulência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396427

RESUMO

Caprine TB causes chronic disease with severe economic and health consequences. We assessed the effect of intramuscularly administered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) on 20 kid goats (10 vaccinated, 10 controls), naturally exposed to M. caprae through close contact with infected goats. At necropsy, visible TB-compatible lesions were recorded in all animals with the exception of 1 control and 2 vaccinated goats. The median of the total lesion score was 9 (IQR 3-13.5) and 5 (IQR 3-6.75) in control and vaccinated goats, respectively (median lesion reduction 44.4%, p = 0.224). The lung lesions of the vaccinated goats were restricted to the caudal lobes, while 6 controls had additional lung lobes affected (p = 0.01). The median lung lesion score reduction in vaccinated goats was 100%; however, this reduction was not significant (p = 0.124), possibly due to the low sample size. Regarding the abdomen, only one vaccinated goat presented visible lesions compared to three goats in the control group. The results provide further evidence of the potential of heat-inactivated M. bovis for controlling TB in different host species, including ruminants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Temperatura Alta , Injeções Intramusculares , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/administração & dosagem
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 243: 92-99, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807318

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) validated for the detection of Leishmania infantum in dogs with a nested PCR but in wild Leporidae. Additionally, L. infantum results from indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and in vitro culture were also compared with qPCR. Different samples (spleen, skin and hair) recovered from 224 European rabbits and 70 Iberian hares from two green areas of Madrid Council were analysed for the detection of L. infantum. The presence of Leishmania kDNA was detected by qPCR in 58 out of 221 (26.24%), 162 out of 203 (79.8%) and 22 out of 33 (66.67%) analysed rabbits on spleen, skin and hair samples, respectively; and in 7 out of 69 (10.14%), 39 out of 70 (55.71%) and 17 out of 32 (53.13%) test hares on spleen, skin and hair samples, respectively. The qPCR in all test samples resulted to be more sensitive than nested PCR, with a limit of detection of 1.43 fg/reaction (0.039 parasites) for L. infantum genomic DNA. Additionally, the percentage of positive animals detected by qPCR in at least two out of three samples (n=221 rabbits and 70 hares) tested was higher than those detected by IFAT (n=190 rabbits and 61 hares) and isolation (n=75 rabbits and 20 hares). The highest level of agreement was obtained by nested PCR on spleen/skin (89%/83%) samples and qPCR on spleen samples (81%), followed by IFAT (48%) and qPCR on skin (32%) samples. Our results demonstrate this qPCR is a suitable method for detecting L. infantum DNA in different samples suggesting hair could be considered an adequate sample for direct, reliable and non-invasive diagnosis of L. infantum in wild animals.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Lagomorpha/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Pelo Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/parasitologia , Baço/parasitologia
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 110: 34-39, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159234

RESUMO

Cellular immune response was evaluated in lymph nodes and lung with different granulomatous lesions from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. For this purpose, we assessed pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by immunohistochemical assays. Immunoreaction was observed for all the cytokines analyzed. Fourteen animals displayed advanced stage IV granulomas, with intense immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and TGF-ß in areas of caseous necrosis, macrophages and lymphocytes. Seven animals showed stage III granuloma, with high immunoreactivity to IFN-γ (average of 44.5% immunoreactive cells) and moderate to TNF-α and to the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß, in relation to the proliferation of fibroblasts in granuloma periphery We found satellite stage I granulomas in 4 bovines and stage II granulomas in 2 bovines, which exhibited low immunostaining response (-13%). Cytokine expression in stage III and IV granulomas was significant, with predominance of immunoreactivity to IFN-γ, thus suggesting a strong, longstanding local immune response mediated by macrophages and epithelioid cells. In addition, these two stages displayed lower reactivity to IL-10; which suggests a deficit of anti-inflammatory cytokines, suppressed immunity and persistence of the infection. High expression of TGF-ß could indicate a chronic process with greater tissue damage and fibrosis. Numerous bacilli observed in necrotic areas in stage III and IV granulomas with low expression of IL-1ß suggest failure in the immune response with bacterial multiplication. In this study, evidence of in situ presence of cytokines demonstrates these cytokines are involved in the development and evolution of bovine tuberculosis granulomas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Granuloma/veterinária , Imunidade Celular , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/microbiologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 109: 52-55, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27892873

RESUMO

The infection caused by the zoonotic opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) was reported for the first time in a pet ferret. Both owners were HIV-positive. Euthanasia of the pet was recommended due to medical reasons and as a preventive action. Disseminated and open tuberculosis lesions were observed in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems of the ferret. Ecographic and radiographic surveys showed a severe generalized lymphadenopathy, strong thickening of the gastric wall and peritoneum layer. The histopathological findings revealed a disseminated, granulomatous, chronic inflammation affecting the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, lymphoid tissues (spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes) and liver. Ziehl-Neelsen staining displayed the presence of positive acid-fast bacilli within these granulomas. Bacteriology and sequencing of the isolates yielded Mah sequevar code 3. Ferrets can act as reservoirs of mycobacteria exposing their owners to the infection, which is of major concern in immunodeficient individuals, as those HIV-infected.


Assuntos
Furões/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 12: 49, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26965834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic enteropathy of unknown etiology, although microbiome dysbiosis, genetic susceptibility, and dietary and/or environmental factors are hypothesized to be involved in its pathogenesis. Since some of the current therapies are associated with severe side effects, novel therapeutic modalities are needed. A new oral supplement for long-term management of canine IBD containing chondroitin sulfate (CS) and prebiotics (resistant starch, ß-glucans and mannaoligosaccharides) was developed to target intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress, and restore normobiosis, without exhibiting any side effects. This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in dogs with IBD aims to evaluate the effects of 180 days administration of this supplement together with a hydrolyzed diet on clinical signs, intestinal histology, gut microbiota, and serum biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. RESULTS: Twenty-seven client-owned biopsy-confirmed IBD dogs were included in the study, switched to the same hydrolyzed diet and classified into one of two groups: supplement and placebo. Initially, there were no significant differences between groups (p > 0.05) for any of the studied parameters. Final data analysis (supplement: n = 9; placebo: n = 10) showed a significant decrease in canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI) score in both groups after treatment (p < 0.001). After treatment, a significant decrease (1.53-fold; p < 0.01) in histologic score was seen only in the supplement group. When groups were compared, the supplement group showed significantly higher serum cholesterol (p < 0.05) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) levels after 60 days of treatment (p < 0.01), and the placebo group showed significantly reduced serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels after 120 days (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between groups at any time point for CIBDAI, WSAVA histologic score and fecal microbiota evaluated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). No side effects were reported in any group. CONCLUSIONS: The combined administration of the supplement with hydrolyzed diet over 180 days was safe and induced improvements in selected serum biomarkers, possibly suggesting a reduction in disease activity. This study was likely underpowered, therefore larger studies are warranted in order to demonstrate a supplemental effect to dietary treatment of this supplement on intestinal histology and CIBDAI.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Prebióticos , Animais , Sulfatos de Condroitina/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Masculino , Microbiota , Prebióticos/efeitos adversos
17.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 9: 7-11, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26155462

RESUMO

Subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus Saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. To date, Fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological and molecular analyses. Some of the animals died as a result of systemic coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

18.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 51(4): 267-71, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26083441

RESUMO

This report describes a disorder of the sexual development in a beagle dog resulting in an intersex condition. A 6 mo old beagle was presented for evaluation of a protruding structure from the vulva consistent with an enlarged clitoris. Ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of both gonadal and uterine structures. Retrograde cystourethrovaginogram showed the presence of an os clitoris and severe vaginal stenosis. Histological studies revealed the presence of bilateral ovotestes and uterus. The gonad had interstitial cells within seminiferous-like tubules lined only with Sertoli cells and abundant interstitial cells among primordial, primary, and secondary follicles. Hormone assays completed before and after gonadohysterectomy showed an elevation in the levels of progesterone and dihydrotestosterone that returned to baseline 3 mo after surgery. Testosterone levels that were within the male reference ranges before surgery decreased to basal levels postsurgically. 17-ß-Estradiol levels showed little variation and values were always within the reference ranges for a male. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal female karyotype (2n = 78, XX) and polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the absence of the sex-determining region Y gene. In summary, the dog presented bilateral ovotestes and a 2n = 78, XX chromosomal complement lacking the sex determining region Y gene, consistent with a diagnosis of true hermaphroditism.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Gônadas/anormalidades , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/análise , Animais , DNA/genética , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Progesterona/sangue , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 318254, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24724079

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Incidência , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Espanha
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 171(1-2): 248-54, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24768002

RESUMO

Zebrafish has been used for studying infections and host-pathogen interactions in different bacterial fish pathogens. In the present study we evaluated the ability of Lactococcus garvieae to infect zebrafish when inoculated intraperitoneally with 2 × 10(7)UFC of this pathogen. L. garvieae can colonize and invade zebrafish at multiple anatomical sites causing a lethal acute septicemic infection with clinical signs and lesions consistent with those observed in lactococcosis outbreaks. Immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of L. garvieae into macrophages as well as into non-phagocytic zebrafish cells of liver (hepatocytes). The internalization capacity showed by L. garvieae in zebrafish cells was confirmed in the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2. Our results provide the first evidence that L. garvieae is able to invade non-phagocytic host cells.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Lactococcus/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patologia , Hepatócitos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Fagócitos/microbiologia
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