Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 31
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5039, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193395

RESUMO

With >70,000 yearly publications using mouse data, mouse models represent the best engrained research system to address numerous biological questions across all fields of science. Concerns of poor study and microbiome reproducibility also abound in the literature. Despite the well-known, negative-effects of data clustering on interpretation and study power, it is unclear why scientists often house >4 mice/cage during experiments, instead of ≤2. We hypothesized that this high animal-cage-density  practice abounds in published literature because more mice/cage could be perceived as a strategy to reduce housing costs. Among other sources of 'artificial' confounding, including cyclical oscillations of the 'dirty-cage/excrement microbiome', we ranked by priority the heterogeneity of modern husbandry practices/perceptions across three professional organizations that we surveyed in the USA. Data integration (scoping-reviews, professional-surveys, expert-opinion, and 'implementability-score-statistics') identified Six-Actionable Recommendation Themes (SART) as a framework to re-launch emerging protocols and intuitive statistical strategies to use/increase study power. 'Cost-vs-science' discordance was a major aspect explaining heterogeneity, and scientists' reluctance to change. With a 'housing-density cost-calculator-simulator' and fully-annotated statistical examples/code, this themed-framework streamlines the rapid analysis of cage-clustered-data and promotes the use of 'study-power-statistics' to self-monitor the success/reproducibility of basic and translational research. Examples are provided to help scientists document analysis for study power-based sample size estimations using preclinical mouse data to support translational clinical trials, as requested in NIH/similar grants or publications.

2.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(3): 347-359, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong digestive disease characterized by periods of severe inflammation and remission. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a variable effect on ileitis severity from human gut microbiota isolated from IBD donors in remission and that of healthy controls in a mouse model of IBD. METHODS: We conducted a series of single-donor intensive and nonintensive fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments using feces from IBD patients in remission and healthy non-IBD controls (N = 9 donors) in a mouse model of Crohn's disease (CD)-like ileitis that develops ileitis in germ-free (GF) conditions (SAMP1/YitFC; N = 96 mice). RESULTS: Engraftment studies demonstrated that the microbiome of IBD in remission could have variable effects on the ileum of CD-prone mice (pro-inflammatory, nonmodulatory, or anti-inflammatory), depending on the human donor. Fecal microbiota transplantation achieved a 95% ± 0.03 genus-level engraftment of human gut taxa in mice, as confirmed at the operational taxonomic unit level. In most donors, microbiome colonization abundance patterns remained consistent over 60 days. Microbiome-based metabolic predictions of GF mice with Crohn's or ileitic-mouse donor microbiota indicate that chronic amino/fatty acid (valine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine; linoleic; P < 1e-15) alterations (and not bacterial virulence markers; P > 0.37) precede severe ileitis in mice, supporting their potential use as predictors/biomarkers in human CD. CONCLUSION: The gut microbiome of IBD remission patients is not necessarily innocuous. Characterizing the inflammatory potential of each microbiota in IBD patients using mice may help identify the patients' best anti-inflammatory fecal sample for future use as an anti-inflammatory microbial autograft during disease flare-ups.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843928

RESUMO

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic and progressive inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that are attributed to dysregulated interactions between the gut microbiome and the intestinal mucosa-associated immune system. There are limited studies investigating the role of either IL-1α or IL-1ß in mouse models of colitis, and no clinical trials blocking either IL-1 have yet to be performed. In the present study, we show that neutralization of IL-1α by a specific monoclonal antibody against murine IL-1α was highly effective in reducing inflammation and damage in SAMP mice, mice that spontaneously develop a Crohn's-like ileitis. Anti-mouse IL-1α significantly ameliorated the established, chronic ileitis and also protected mice from developing acute DSS-induced colitis. Both were associated with taxonomic divergence of the fecal gut microbiome, which was treatment-specific and not dependent on inflammation. Anti-IL-1α administration led to a decreased ratio of Proteobacteria to Bacteroidetes, decreased presence of Helicobacter species, and elevated representation of Mucispirillum schaedleri and Lactobacillus salivarius Such modification in flora was functionally linked to the antiinflammatory effects of IL-1α neutralization, as blockade of IL-1α was not effective in germfree SAMP mice. Furthermore, preemptive dexamethasone treatment of DSS-challenged SAMP mice led to changes in flora composition without preventing the development of colitis. Thus, neutralization of IL-1α changes specific bacterial species of the intestinal microbiome, which is linked to its antiinflammatory effects. These functional findings may be of significant value for patients with IBD, who may benefit from targeted IL-1α-based therapies.

4.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(36)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488526

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of the digestive tract in humans. There is evidence that Parabacteroides distasonis could contribute to IBD. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a strain designated CavFT-hAR46, which was isolated from a gut intramural cavernous fistulous tract (CavFT) microlesion in a CD patient.

5.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 244(6): 459-470, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038368

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: Institutional protocols designed for the oral administration of live microbial communities, either complex or microscopic (microcosmic), to mice do not exist. However, this approach is increasingly employed by investigators focusing on the gut microbiome in experimental research. Herein, we propose two analytically Kappa-based consensus protocols to promote reproducibility and standardization in research practices and describe biologically relevant factors in achieving optimal microbial engraftment of communities in germ-free mice.

9.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 24(5): 1005-1020, 2018 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554272

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of artificial sweeteners doubles the risk for Crohn's disease (CD). Herein, we experimentally quantified the impact of 6-week supplementation with a commercial sweetener (Splenda; ingredients sucralose maltodextrin, 1:99, w/w) on both the severity of CD-like ileitis and the intestinal microbiome alterations using SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice. Methods: Metagenomic shotgun DNA sequencing was first used to characterize the microbiome of ileitis-prone SAMP mice. Then, 16S rRNA microbiome sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), bacterial culture, stereomicroscopy, histology, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity analyses were then implemented to compare the microbiome and ileitis phenotype in SAMP with that of control ileitis-free AKR/J mice after Splenda supplementation. Results: Metagenomics indicated that SAMP mice have a gut microbial phenotype rich in Bacteroidetes, and experiments showed that Helicobacteraceae did not have an exacerbating effect on ileitis. Splenda did not increase the severity of (stereomicroscopic/histological) ileitis; however, biochemically, ileal MPO activity was increased in SAMP treated with Splenda compared with nonsupplemented mice (P < 0.022) and healthy AKR mice. Splenda promoted dysbiosis with expansion of Proteobacteria in all mice, and E. coli overgrowth with increased bacterial infiltration into the ileal lamina propria of SAMP mice. FISH showed increase malX gene-carrying bacterial clusters in the ilea of supplemented SAMP (but not AKR) mice. Conclusions: Splenda promoted gut Proteobacteria, dysbiosis, and biochemical MPO reactivity in a spontaneous model of (Bacteroidetes-rich) ileal CD. Our results indicate that although Splenda may promote parallel microbiome alterations in CD-prone and healthy hosts, this did not result in elevated MPO levels in healthy mice, only CD-prone mice. The consumption of sucralose/maltodextrin-containing foods might exacerbate MPO intestinal reactivity only in individuals with a pro-inflammatory predisposition, such as CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/patologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Ileíte/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/genética , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Ileíte/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos AKR , Microbiota , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sacarose/efeitos adversos
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3801, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491439

RESUMO

Germ-Free (GF) research has required highly technical pressurized HEPA-ventilation anchored systems for decades. Herein, we validated a GF system that can be easily implemented and portable using Nested Isolation (NesTiso). GF-standards can be achieved housing mice in non-HEPA-static cages, which only need to be nested 'one-cage-inside-another' resembling 'Russian dolls'. After 2 years of monitoring ~100,000 GF-mouse-days, NesTiso showed mice can be maintained GF for life (>1.3 years), with low animal daily-contamination-probability risk (1 every 867 days), allowing the expansion of GF research with unprecedented freedom and mobility. At the cage level, with 23,360 GF cage-days, the probability of having a cage contamination in NesTiso cages opened in biosafety hoods was statistically identical to that of opening cages inside (the 'gold standard') multi-cage pressurized GF isolators. When validating the benefits of using NesTiso in mouse microbiome research, our experiments unexpectedly revealed that the mouse fecal microbiota composition within the 'bedding material' of conventional SPF-cages suffers cyclical selection bias as moist/feces/diet/organic content ('soiledness') increases over time (e.g., favoring microbiome abundances of Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales; and cultivable Enterococcus faecalis over Lactobacillus murinus and Escherichia coli), which in turn cyclically influences the gut microbiome dynamics of caged mice. Culture 'co-streaking' assays showed that cohoused mice exhibiting different fecal microbiota/hemolytic profiles in clean bedding (high-within-cage individual diversity) 'cyclically and transiently appear identical' (less diverse) as bedding soiledness increases, and recurs. Strategies are proposed to minimize this novel functional form of cyclical bedding-dependent microbiome selection bias.


Assuntos
Vida Livre de Germes , Abrigo para Animais , Microbiota , Animais , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Análise de Sobrevida , Termografia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(1): 19-32, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28560286

RESUMO

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, together known as inflammatory bowel disease, are debilitating chronic disorders of unknown cause and cure. Our evolving understanding of these pathologies is enhanced greatly by the use of animal models of intestinal inflammation that allow in vivo mechanistic studies, preclinical evaluation of new therapies, and investigation into the causative factors that underlie disease pathogenesis. Several animal models, most commonly generated in mice, exist for the study of colitis. The appropriateness of their use often can be determined by their mode of generation (ie, chemical induction, T-cell transfer, targeted genetic manipulation, spontaneously occurring, and so forth), the type of investigation (mechanistic studies, pathogenic experiments, preclinical evaluations, and so forth), and the type of inflammation that occurs in the model (acute vs chronic colitis, tissue injury/repair, and so forth). Although most murine models of inflammatory bowel disease develop inflammation in the colon, Crohn's disease most commonly occurs in the terminal ileum, where a very limited number of mouse models manifest disease. This review discusses appropriate experimental applications for different mouse models of colitis, and highlights the particular utility of 2 highly relevant models of Crohn's-like ileitis-the spontaneous SAMP1/YitFc inbred mouse strain and the genetically engineered TnfΔAU-rich element/+ mouse model of tumor necrosis factor overexpression, both of which bear strong resemblance to the human condition. Similar to patients with Crohn's disease, SAMP1/YitFc ileitis develops spontaneously, without chemical, genetic, or immunologic manipulation, making this model particularly relevant for studies aimed at identifying the primary defect underlying the occurrence of Crohn's ileitis, as well as preclinical testing of novel treatment modalities.

12.
Int J Microbiol ; 2017: 2439025, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28596790

RESUMO

To elucidate the ecological effect of high oral doses of halotolerant (resistant to table salt) indigenous-gut bacteria on other commensals early in life, we conducted a culture-based study to quantify the effect of intestinal Lactobacillus plantarum strain of bovine origin (with remarkable aerobic growth capabilities and inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and F5) on clinical health and gut lactobacilli/coliforms in newborn calves. In a double-blind placebo-randomized trial twelve colostrum-fed calves, consecutively born at a farm, were fed L. plantarum within 12 hours from birth at low (107-8 CFU/day) or high concentrations (1010-11) or placebo (q24 h, 5 d; 10 d follow-up). We developed a 2.5% NaCl-selective culture strategy to facilitate the enumeration of L. plantarum-strain-B80, and tested 384 samples (>1,152 cultures). L. plantarum-B80-like colonies were detected in a large proportion of calves (58%) even before their first 24 hours of life indicating endemic presence of the strain in the farm. In contrast to studies where human-derived Lactobacillus LGG or rhamnosus had notoriously high, but short-lived, colonization, we found that L. plantarum colonized stably with fecal shedding of 6 ± 1 log10·g-1 (irrespective of dose, P > 0.2). High doses significantly reduced other fecal lactic acid bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli, P < 0.01) and slightly reduced body weight gain in calves after treatment. For the first time, a halotolerant strain of L. plantarum with inhibitory activity against a human pathogen has the ability to inhibit other lactobacilli in vivo without changing its species abundance, causing transintestinal translocation, or inducing clinical disease. The future selection of probiotics based on halotolerance may expand therapeutic product applicability.

14.
J Pathog ; 2016: 5748745, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27630775

RESUMO

We report and investigated a case of inadvertent contamination of 125 mice (housed in two germ-free positive-pressurized isolators) with emerging human and coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii. The infected mice correspond to genetic line SAMP1/YitFc, which have 100% immune predisposition to develop Crohn's disease-like spontaneous pathologies, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pathogen update based on a scoping review of the literature and our clinical observations and experimentation are discussed. The unwanted infection of germ-free mice (immunologically prone to suffer chronic inflammation) with human pathogen A. sydowii resulted in no overt signs of clinical disease over 3-week exposure period, or during DSS-induced colitis experiments. Results and observations suggest that A. sydowii alone has limited clinical effect in immunocompromised germ-free mice or that other commensal microbial flora is required for Aspergillus-associated disease to occur.

15.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2016: 1462405, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27375748

RESUMO

Emerging enteric pathogens could have not only more antibiotic resistance or virulence traits; they could also have increased resistance to heat. We quantified the effects of minimum recommended cooking and higher temperatures, individually on a collection of C. difficile isolates and on the survival probability of a mixture of emerging C. difficile strains. While minimum recommended cooking time/temperature combinations (63-71°C) allowed concurrently tested strains to survive, higher subboiling temperatures reproducibly favored the selection of newly emerging C. difficile PCR ribotype 078. Survival ratios for "ribotypes 078" : "other ribotypes" (n = 49 : 45 isolates) from the mid-2000s increased from 1 : 1 and 0.7 : 1 at 85°C (for 5 and 10 minutes, resp.) to 2.3 : 1 and 3 : 1 with heating at 96°C (for 5 and 10 minutes, resp.) indicating an interaction effect between the heating temperature and survival of C. difficile genotypes. In multistrain heating experiments, with PCR ribotypes 027 and 078 from 2004 and reference type strain ATCC 9689 banked in the 1970s, multinomial logistic regression (P < 0.01) revealed PCR ribotype 078 was the most resistant to increasing lethal heat treatments. Thermal processes (during cooking or disinfection) may contribute to the selection of emergent specific virulent strains of C. difficile. Despite growing understanding of the role of cooking on human evolution, little is known about the role of cooking temperatures on the selection and evolution of enteric pathogens, especially spore-forming bacteria.

16.
Can Vet J ; 55(8): 786-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25082995

RESUMO

The cross-sectional (period) prevalence of Clostridium difficile in 875 farm animals from 29 commercial operations during the summer of 2008 in Ohio, USA was quantified. Compared to an external referent population of intensively managed race horses (12.7%), intensively managed commercially mature food animals (poultry, cattle, swine; < 0.6%) were infrequent shedders of C. difficile (P < 0.00001) during the warmest weeks of 2008.


Assuntos
Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Bovinos , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/microbiologia , Cavalos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Suínos
17.
J Periodontol ; 85(12): 1799-805, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25019175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral involvement is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent evidence suggests a high incidence of periodontal disease in patients with Crohn disease (CD). To the best of the authors' knowledge, no animal model of IBD that displays associated periodontal disease was reported previously. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence and progression of periodontal disease in SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice that spontaneously develop a CD-like ileitis. In addition, the temporal correlation between the onset and progression of periodontal disease and the onset of ileitis in SAMP mice was studied. METHODS: At different time points, SAMP and parental AKR/J (AKR) control mice were sacrificed, and mandibles were prepared for stereomicroscopy and histology. Terminal ilea were collected for histologic assessment of inflammation score. Periodontal status, i.e., alveolar bone loss (ABL) and alveolar bone crest, was examined by stereomicroscopy and histomorphometry, respectively. RESULTS: ABL increased in both strains with age. SAMP mice showed greater ABL compared with AKR mice by 12 weeks of age, with maximal differences observed at 27 weeks of age. AKR control mice did not show the same severity of periodontal disease. Interestingly, a strong positive correlation was found between ileitis severity and ABL in SAMP mice, independent of age. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrate the occurrence of periodontal disease in a mouse model of progressive CD-like ileitis. In addition, the severity of periodontitis strongly correlated with the severity of ileitis, independent of age, suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms, such as abnormal immune response and dysbiosis, may be shared between these two phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Perda do Osso Alveolar/classificação , Perda do Osso Alveolar/complicações , Processo Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Ileíte/classificação , Ileíte/complicações , Íleo/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mandíbula/patologia , Doenças Mandibulares/classificação , Doenças Mandibulares/complicações , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos AKR , Microvilosidades/patologia , Doenças Periodontais/classificação , Colo do Dente/patologia
18.
Int Sch Res Notices ; 2014: 128120, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27350964

RESUMO

Aberrant false-positive reactions in negative-controls during ELISA testing for Clostridium difficile indicated the potential for false-diagnoses. Experiments with 96-well products showed a maximum peak of false-positive immunoassay reactions with the provided negative-control reagents after 5 refrigeration-to-room temperature cycles (P < 0.001), decreasing thereafter with additional refrigeration cycles. Because repetitive refrigeration causes a peak of false-positives, the use of single negative-controls per ELISA run might be insufficient to monitor aberrant preanalytical false-positives if immunoassays are subject to repetitive refrigeration.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(42): 16999-7004, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24082103

RESUMO

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular receptor that plays an essential role in innate immunity as a sensor of a component of the bacterial cell wall, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Crohn's disease (CD)-associated NOD2 variants lead to defective innate immune responses, including decreased NF-κB activation and cytokine production. We report herein that SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice, which develop spontaneous CD-like ileitis in the absence of NOD2 genetic mutations, fail to respond to MDP administration by displaying decreased innate cytokine production and dysregulated NOD2 signaling compared with parental AKR control mice. We show that, unlike in other mouse strains, in vivo administration of MDP does not prevent dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in SAMP mice and that the abnormal NOD2 response is specific to the hematopoietic cellular component. Moreover, we demonstrate that MDP fails to enhance intracellular bacterial killing in SAMP mice. These findings shed important light on the initiating molecular events underlying CD-like ileitis.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Ileíte/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/imunologia , Animais , Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Ileíte/induzido quimicamente , Ileíte/genética , Ileíte/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos AKR , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 6: 402, 2013 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24099561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The selection of stably expressed reference genes is a prerequisite when evaluating gene expression, via real-time PCR, in cells in response to viral infections. The objective of our study was to identify suitable reference genes for mRNA expression analysis in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) after infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J). FINDINGS: The expression levels of 11 potential reference genes in CEF infected with ALV-J were determined by real-time PCR. The expression stability of these genes were analyzed and ranked using the geNorm tool. Analysis indicated that the genes RPL30 (ribosomal protein L30) and SDHA (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A) were the most stably expressed genes in the ALV-J infected CEF. CONCLUSIONS: The RPL30 and SDHA were deemed suitable for use as reference genes for real-time PCR analysis of mRNA gene expression during ALV-J infection, whereas commonly used ACTB and GAPDH are unsuitable to be reference genes.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucose Aviária/fisiologia , Leucose Aviária/genética , Leucose Aviária/virologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Padrões de Referência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA