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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(2): 133-144, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with cardiovascular events. Alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, lowers lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). OBJECTIVES: A pre-specified analysis of the placebo-controlled ODYSSEY Outcomes trial in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) determined whether alirocumab-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C independently predicted major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: One to 12 months after ACS, 18,924 patients on high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo and followed for 2.8 years (median). Lipoprotein(a) was measured at randomization and 4 and 12 months thereafter. The primary MACE outcome was coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) levels (median: 21.2 mg/dl; interquartile range [IQR]: 6.7 to 59.6 mg/dl) and LDL-C [corrected for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a)] predicted MACE. Alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a) by 5.0 mg/dl (IQR: 0 to 13.5 mg/dl), corrected LDL-C by 51.1 mg/dl (IQR: 33.7 to 67.2 mg/dl), and reduced the risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 0.93). Alirocumab-induced reductions of lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C independently predicted lower risk of MACE, after adjustment for baseline concentrations of both lipoproteins and demographic and clinical characteristics. A 1-mg/dl reduction in lipoprotein(a) with alirocumab was associated with a HR of 0.994 (95% CI: 0.990 to 0.999; p = 0.0081). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C levels and their reductions by alirocumab predicted the risk of MACE after recent ACS. Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab is an independent contributor to MACE reduction, which suggests that lipoprotein(a) should be an independent treatment target after ACS. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

2.
Circulation ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992065

RESUMO

Responding to concerns about the potential for increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, specifically myocardial infarction, associated with certain glucose-lowering therapies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency issued guidance to the pharmaceutical industry in 2008. Glucose-lowering therapies were primarily granted regulatory approval from smaller studies that have demonstrated reductions in glycated hemoglobin concentration. Such studies were overall underpowered and of insufficient duration to show any effect on CV outcomes. The 2008 guidance aimed to ensure CV safety of new glucose-lowering therapies to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This resulted in a plethora of new CV outcome trials, most designed primarily as placebo-controlled noninferiority trials, but with many also powered for superiority. Several of these outcome trials demonstrated CV benefits of the newer agents, resulting in the first-ever CV protection indications for glucose-lowering therapies. Determining whether the guidance continues to have value in its current form is critically important as we move forward after the first decade of implementation. In February 2018, a think tank comprising representatives from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies convened to consider the guidance in light of the findings of the completed CV outcome trials. The group made several recommendations for future regulatory guidance and for CV outcome trials regarding glucose-lowering therapies. These recommendations include requiring only the 1.3 noninferiority margin for regulatory approval, conducting trials for longer durations, considering studying glucose-lowering therapies as first-line management of type 2 diabetes, considering heart failure or kidney outcomes within the primary outcome, considering head-to-head active comparator trials, increasing the diversity of patients enrolled, evaluating strategies to streamline registries and the study of unselected populations, and identifying ways to improve translation of trial results to general practice.

3.
Urol Oncol ; 38(2): 45-52, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879969

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men. Advances in early detection and successful treatments have improved cancer-specific survival. With prolonged survival, PCa patients now suffer from the effects of aging and are at increasing risk for the development of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV disease. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment of advanced PCa. There is conflicting evidence about whether or not ADT is associated with increased CV morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities such as increasing body weight, reduced insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and activation of T cells to the Th1 phenotype, resulting in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization, have been proposed as possible mechanisms by which ADT may increase the risk of CV events. Type of ADT and preexisting CV history also seem to play a major role in the risk of subsequent CV events. Ongoing prospective clinical trials will help define whether there is any difference between gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists in terms of CV morbidity and mortality.

5.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 16: 100462, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701037

RESUMO

The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) Strengthening the Investigator Community Project was prompted by the need to understand the reasons for high rates of turnover among investigators who lead US Food and Administration-regulated clinical trials at research sites. Because investigator knowledge and experience directly affect the quality and ultimate success of clinical trials, investigator turnover has important implications for the research enterprise, as well as the patients and other stakeholders who depend on the outcomes of clinical research. The CTTI project team used findings from both quantitative and qualitative research activities, as well as input from an expert meeting with multiple stakeholders, to delineate key concerns faced by investigators and recommend practical, action-based solutions. The recommendations focus on strengthening four key categories of site-based research activity: developing site-based research infrastructure and staff, optimizing trial execution and conduct, improving site budget development and contract negotiations, and discovering opportunities for conducting additional trials.

6.
Circulation ; 140(25): 2054-2062, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lowering of atherogenic lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduces the risk of ischemic stroke. However, concerns have been raised about very low LDL-C levels and a potential increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins, despite intensive statin therapy, targeting LDL-C levels of 25 to 50 mg/dL and avoiding sustained LDL-C <15 mg/dL. This prespecified analysis was designed to assess the effect of alirocumab on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. We hypothesized that for patients treated with alirocumab there would be a reduction in risk of ischemic stroke without increasing hemorrhagic stroke, irrespective of baseline LDL-C and of history of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Patients were randomized to alirocumab or placebo 1 to 12 months after acute coronary syndrome. The risk of nonfatal or fatal ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke was evaluated, stratified by baseline LDL-C concentration and history of cerebrovascular disease. A potential association of very low achieved LDL-C with alirocumab treatment at month 4 and subsequent hemorrhagic stroke was assessed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. In total, 263 ischemic and 33 hemorrhagic strokes occurred. Alirocumab reduced the risk of any stroke (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.57-0.91]) and ischemic stroke (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.57-0.93]) without increasing hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.42-1.65]). In total, 7164 (37.9%), 6128 (32.4%), and 5629 (29.7%) patients had a baseline LDL-C of <80, 80 to 100, and >100 mg/dL, respectively. The treatment effect on stroke appeared numerically greater for patients with higher baseline LDL-C, but there was no formal evidence of heterogeneity (Pinteraction=0.31). The effect of alirocumab on stroke was similar among 944 patients (5.0%) with a history of previous cerebrovascular disease and among those without a history of cerebrovascular disease (Pinteraction=0.37). There was no apparent adverse relation between lower achieved LDL-C and incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the alirocumab group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab decreased the risk of stroke, irrespective of baseline LDL-C and history of cerebrovascular disease, over a median follow-up of 2.8 years. Furthermore, risk of hemorrhagic stroke did not depend on achieved LDL-C levels within the alirocumab group. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(11): e005858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab was compared with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment after acute coronary syndrome in 18 924 patients. Alirocumab reduced first occurrence of the primary composite end point-coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina-as well as total nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths. The present analysis determined whether alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) hospitalizations and death and increased days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) and percent DAOH in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES. METHODS AND RESULTS: In prespecified analyses, hazard functions for total hospitalizations and death were jointly estimated by a semiparametric model, while in post hoc analyses, DAOH and percent DAOH were compared between treatment groups with Poisson regression and one-inflated beta regression, respectively. With 16 629 total hospitalizations and 726 deaths, 331 fewer hospitalizations, and 58 fewer deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo, translating to 15.6 total hospitalizations or deaths avoided with alirocumab per 1000 patient-years of assigned treatment. Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.00]; P=0.04) and increased DAOH relative to placebo (rate ratio, 1.003 [95% CI, 1.000-1.007]; P=0.05), primarily through a reduction in days dead (rate ratio, 0.847 [95% CI, 0.728-0.986]; P=0.03). Patients randomized to alirocumab were also more likely to survive to the end of the study without hospitalization (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.00-1.13]; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations with corresponding small increases in DAOH and percent DAOH. These outcomes provide alternative patient-centered metrics to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after acute coronary syndrome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732742

RESUMO

AIMS: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular risk irrespective of age, but the evidence is less strong for older patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the effect of alirocumab vs. placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to age. We examined the effect of assigned treatment on occurrence of the primary study outcome, a composite of coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)] and all-cause death. Relative risk reductions were consistent for patients ≥65 vs. <65 years for MACE [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.91 vs. 0.89, 0.80-1.00; Pinteraction = 0.19] and all-cause death [HR 0.77, 0.62-0.95 vs. 0.94, 0.77-1.15; Pinteraction = 0.46], and consistent for MACE when dichotomizing at age 75 years (HR 0.85, 0.64-1.13 in ≥75 vs. 0.85, 0.78-0.93 in <75, Pinteraction = 0.19). When considering age as a continuous variable in regression models, advancing age increased risk of MACE, as well as the absolute reduction in MACE with alirocumab, with numbers-needed-to-treat for MACE at 3 years of 43 (25-186) at age 45 years, 26 (15-97) at age 75 years, and 12 (6-81) for those at age 85 years. Although adverse events were more frequent in older patients, there were no differences between alirocumab and placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab improves outcomes irrespective of age. Increasing absolute benefit but not harm with advancing age suggests that LDL-C lowering is an important preventive intervention for older patients after ACS.

9.
Am Heart J ; 218: 110-122, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicare insurance claims may provide an efficient means to ascertain follow-up of older participants in clinical research. We sought to determine the accuracy and completeness of claims- versus site-based follow-up with clinical event committee (+CEC) adjudication of cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using linked Medicare and Duke Database of Clinical Trials data. Medicare claims were linked to clinical data from 7 randomized cardiovascular clinical trials. Of 52,476 trial participants, linking resulted in 5,839 (of 10,497 linkage-eligible) Medicare-linked trial participants with fee-for-service A and B coverage. Death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and revascularization incidences were compared using Medicare inpatient claims only, site-reported events (+CEC) only, or a combination of the 2. Randomized treatment effects were compared as a function of whether claims-based, site-based (+CEC), or a combined system was used for event detection. RESULTS: Among the 5,839 study participants, the annual event rates were similar between claims- and site-based (+CEC) follow-up: death (overall rate 5.2% vs 5.2%; adjusted κ 0.99), MI (2.2% vs 2.3%; adjusted κ 0.96), stroke (0.7% vs 0.7%; adjusted κ 0.99), and any revascularization (7.4% vs 7.9%; adjusted κ 0.95). Of events detected by claims yet not reported by CEC, a minority were reported by sites but negatively adjudicated by CEC (39% of MIs and 18% of strokes). Differences in individual case concordance led to higher event rates when claims- and site-based (+CEC) systems were combined. Randomized treatment effects were similar among the 3 approaches for each outcome of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Claims- versus site-based (+CEC) follow-up identified similar overall cardiovascular event rates despite meaningful differences in the events detected. Randomized treatment effects were similar using the 2 methods, suggesting claims data could be used to support clinical research leveraging routinely collected data. This approach may lead to more effective evidence generation, synthesis, and appraisal of medical products and inform the strategic approaches toward the National Evaluation System for Health Technology.

10.
Circulation ; 140(17): 1426-1436, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634011

RESUMO

The complexity and costs associated with traditional randomized, controlled trials have increased exponentially over time, and now threaten to stifle the development of new drugs and devices. Nevertheless, the growing use of electronic health records, mobile applications, and wearable devices offers significant promise for transforming clinical trials, making them more pragmatic and efficient. However, many challenges must be overcome before these innovations can be implemented routinely in randomized, controlled trial operations. In October of 2018, a diverse stakeholder group convened in Washington, DC, to examine how electronic health record, mobile, and wearable technologies could be applied to clinical trials. The group specifically examined how these technologies might streamline the execution of clinical trial components, delineated innovative trial designs facilitated by technological developments, identified barriers to implementation, and determined the optimal frameworks needed for regulatory oversight. The group concluded that the application of novel technologies to clinical trials provided enormous potential, yet these changes needed to be iterative and facilitated by continuous learning and pilot studies.

13.
Circulation ; 140(13): 1115-1124, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545683

RESUMO

Aspirin is the cornerstone of the antithrombotic management of patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but major guidelines provide conflicting recommendations for its use in primary prevention. Findings from recent randomized trials totaling >47 000 patients called into question the net clinical benefits of aspirin in primary prevention for 3 key populations: patients with diabetes mellitus, community-dwelling elderly individuals, and patients without diabetes mellitus who are at intermediate risk for atherosclerotic events. In the context of increasing emphasis on the use of other treatments for primary prevention in patients with moderate-high future risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, the efficacy and safety of aspirin for primary prevention has become uncertain. Key unresolved questions regarding the role of aspirin in primary prevention include the optimal drug formulation, dosing schedule, weight-based dose selection, and interplay between sex and treatment response. In the current era, most patients without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease should not be prescribed aspirin. Rather, aggressive management of comorbidities tailored to the expected cardiovascular risk needs to be emphasized. In this context, informed shared decision making between clinicians and patients regarding the use of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events is a suitable and laudable approach. In this article, we revisit the role of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases by critically reviewing the key scientific literature, highlight key areas of uncertainties for future research, and propose a decisional framework for clinicians to support prescription of aspirin in primary prevention.

14.
Physiol Genomics ; 51(10): 506-515, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530226

RESUMO

The genomic regulatory networks underlying the pathogenesis of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) are incompletely understood. As intermediate traits, protein biomarkers report on underlying disease severity and prognosis in NSTE-ACS. We hypothesized that integration of dense microRNA (miRNA) profiling with biomarker measurements would highlight potential regulatory pathways that underlie the relationships between prognostic biomarkers, miRNAs, and cardiovascular phenotypes. We performed miRNA sequencing using whole blood from 186 patients from the TRILOGY-ACS trial. Seven circulating prognostic biomarkers were measured: NH2-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, osteopontin (OPN), myeloperoxidase, growth differentiation factor 15, monocyte chemoattractant protein, and neopterin. We tested miRNAs for association with each biomarker with generalized linear models and controlled the false discovery rate at 0.05. Ten miRNAs, including known cardiac-related miRNAs 25-3p and 423-3p, were associated with NT-proBNP levels (min. P = 7.5 × 10-4) and 48 miRNAs, including cardiac-related miRNAs 378a-3p, 20b-5p and 320a, -b, and -d, were associated with OPN levels (min. P = 1.6 × 10-6). NT-proBNP and OPN were also associated with time to cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in the sample. By integrating large-scale miRNA profiling with circulating biomarkers as intermediate traits, we identified associations of known cardiac-related and novel miRNAs with two prognostic biomarkers and identified potential genomic networks regulating these biomarkers. These results, highlighting plausible biological pathways connecting miRNAs with biomarkers and outcomes, may inform future studies seeking to delineate genomic pathways underlying NSTE-ACS outcomes.

15.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1578-1589, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US cholesterol management guidelines recommend additional lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL despite maximum tolerated statin therapy. Such patients are considered at very high risk (VHR) based on a history of >1 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event or a single ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. We investigated the association of US guideline-defined risk categories with the occurrence of ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome and reduction of those events by alirocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor. METHODS: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and residual dyslipidemia despite optimal statin therapy were randomly assigned to alirocumab or placebo. The primary trial outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events, ie, coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) was examined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk category. RESULTS: Of 18 924 participants followed for a median of 2.8 years, 11 935 (63.1%) were classified as VHR: 4450 (37.3%) had multiple prior ASCVD events and 7485 (62.7%) had 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 14.4% of placebo-treated patients at VHR versus 5.6% of those not at VHR. In the VHR category, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 20.4% with multiple prior ASCVD events versus 10.7% with 1 ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Alirocumab was associated with consistent relative risk reductions in both risk categories (hazard ratio=0.84 for VHR; hazard ratio=0.86 for not VHR; Pinteraction=0.820) and by stratification within the VHR group (hazard ratio=0.86 for multiple prior ASCVD events; hazard ratio=0.82 for 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions; Pinteraction=0.672). The absolute risk reduction for major adverse cardiovascular events with alirocumab was numerically greater (but not statistically different) in the VHR group versus those not at VHR (2.1% versus 0.8%; Pinteraction=0.095) and among patients at VHR with multiple prior ASCVD events versus a single prior ASCVD event (2.4% versus 1.8%; Pinteraction=0.661). CONCLUSIONS: The US guideline criteria identify patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia who are at VHR for recurrent ischemic events and who may derive a larger absolute benefit from treatment with alirocumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

16.
Atherosclerosis ; 289: 85-93, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are limited data from the US on outcomes of patients in specialty care for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). METHODS: CASCADE FH Registry data were analyzed to assess longitudinal changes in medication usage, in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke or transient ischemic attack) in adults with FH followed in US specialty clinics. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 1900 individuals (61% women, 87% Caucasian), with mean age of 56 ±â€¯15 years, 37% prevalence of ASCVD at enrollment, mean pretreatment LDL-C 249 ±â€¯68 mg/dl, mean enrollment LDL-C 145 mg/dl and 93% taking lipid lowering therapy. Over follow up of 20 ±â€¯11 months, lipid lowering therapy use increased (mean decrease in LDL-C of 32 mg/dl (p < 0.001)). Only 48% of participants achieved LDL-C < 100 mg/dl and 22% achieved LDL-C < 70 mg/dl; ASCVD at enrollment was associated with greater likelihood of goal achievement. MACE event rates were almost 6 times higher among patients with prior ASCVD compared to those without (4.6 vs 0.8/100 patient years). Also associated with incident MACE were markers of FH severity and conventional ASCVD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: With care in FH specialized clinics, LDL-C decreased, but LDL-C persisted >100 mg/dl in 52% of patients. High ASCVD event rates suggest that adults with FH warrant designation as having an ASCVD risk equivalent. Earlier and more aggressive therapy of FH is needed to prevent ASCVD events.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1177-1186, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and death. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the clinical benefit of adding alirocumab to statins in ACS patients with prior CABG in a pre-specified analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). METHODS: Patients (n = 18,924) 1 to 12 months post-ACS with elevated atherogenic lipoprotein levels despite high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. The primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprised coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. Patients were categorized by CABG status: no CABG (n = 16,896); index CABG after qualifying ACS, but before randomization (n = 1,025); or CABG before the qualifying ACS (n = 1,003). RESULTS: In each CABG category, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MACE (no CABG 0.86 [0.78 to 0.95], index CABG 0.85 [0.54 to 1.35], prior CABG 0.77 [0.61 to 0.98]) and death (0.88 [0.75 to 1.03], 0.85 [0.46 to 1.59], 0.67 [0.44 to 1.01], respectively) were consistent with the overall trial results (0.85 [0.78 to 0.93] and 0.85 [0.73 to 0.98], respectively). Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence intervals) differed across CABG categories for MACE (no CABG 1.3% [0.5% to 2.2%], index CABG 0.9% [-2.3% to 4.0%], prior CABG 6.4% [0.9% to 12.0%]) and for death (0.4% [-0.1% to 1.0%], 0.5% [-1.9% to 2.9%], and 3.6% [0.0% to 7.2%]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with recent ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab was associated with large absolute reductions in MACE and death in those with CABG preceding the ACS event. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(17): e012929, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462138

RESUMO

Background Little is known regarding use of cardiac therapies and clinical outcomes among older myocardial infarction (MI) patients with cognitive impairment. Methods and Results Patients ≥65 years old with MI in the NCDR (National Cardiovascular Data Registry) Chest Pain-MI Registry between January 2015 and December 2016 were categorized by presence and degree of chart-documented cognitive impairment. We evaluated whether cognitive impairment was associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality after adjusting for known prognosticators. Among 43 812 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, 3.9% had mild and 2.0% had moderate/severe cognitive impairment; among 90 904 non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI patients, 5.7% had mild and 2.6% had moderate/severe cognitive impairment. A statistically significant but numerically small difference in the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention was observed between patients with STEMI with and without cognitive impairment (none, 92.1% versus mild, 92.8% versus moderate/severe, 90.4%; P=0.03); use of fibrinolysis was lower among patients with cognitive impairment (none, 40.9% versus mild, 27.4% versus moderate/severe, 24.2%; P<0.001). Compared with NSTEMI patients without cognitive impairment, rates of angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting were significantly lower among patients with NSTEMI with mild (41%, 45%, and 70% lower, respectively) and moderate/severe cognitive impairment (71%, 74%, and 93% lower, respectively). After adjustment, compared with no cognitive impairment, presence of moderate/severe (STEMI: odds ratio, 2.2, 95% CI, 1.8-2.7; NSTEMI: odds ratio, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.4-2.0) and mild cognitive impairment (STEMI: OR, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; NSTEMI: odds ratio, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.2-1.5) was associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Conclusions Patients with NSTEMI with cognitive impairment are substantially less likely to receive invasive cardiac care, while patients with STEMI with cognitive impairment receive similar primary percutaneous coronary intervention but less fibrinolysis. Presence and degree of cognitive impairment was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Approaching clinical decision making for older patients with MI with cognitive impairment requires further study.

19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 618-628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes conveys an excess risk of ischaemic cardiovascular events. A reduction in mean LDL cholesterol to 1·4-1·8 mmol/L with ezetimibe or statins reduces cardiovascular events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and diabetes. However, the efficacy and safety of further reduction in LDL cholesterol with an inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) after acute coronary syndrome is unknown. We aimed to explore this issue in a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab, assessing its effects on cardiovascular outcomes by baseline glycaemic status, while also assessing its effects on glycaemic measures including risk of new-onset diabetes. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 1315 sites in 57 countries, that compared alirocumab with placebo in patients who had been admitted to hospital with an acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) 1-12 months before randomisation and who had raised concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins despite use of high-intensity statins. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive alirocumab or placebo every 2 weeks; randomisation was stratified by country and was done centrally with an interactive voice-response or web-response system. Alirocumab was titrated to target LDL cholesterol concentrations of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effect of alirocumab on cardiovascular events by glycaemic status at baseline (diabetes, prediabetes, or normoglycaemia)-defined on the basis of patient history, review of medical records, or baseline HbA1c or fasting serum glucose-and risk of new-onset diabetes among those without diabetes at baseline. The primary endpoint was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospital admission. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01663402. FINDINGS: At study baseline, 5444 patients (28·8%) had diabetes, 8246 (43·6%) had prediabetes, and 5234 (27·7%) had normoglycaemia. There were no significant differences across glycaemic categories in median LDL cholesterol at baseline (2·20-2·28 mmol/L), after 4 months' treatment with alirocumab (0·80 mmol/L), or after 4 months' treatment with placebo (2·25-2·28 mmol/L). In the placebo group, the incidence of the primary endpoint over a median of 2·8 years was greater in patients with diabetes (16·4%) than in those with prediabetes (9·2%) or normoglycaemia (8·5%); hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes versus normoglycaemia 2·09 (95% CI 1·78-2·46, p<0·0001) and for diabetes versus prediabetes 1·90 (1·65-2·17, p<0·0001). Alirocumab resulted in similar relative reductions in the incidence of the primary endpoint in each glycaemic category, but a greater absolute reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint in patients with diabetes (2·3%, 95% CI 0·4 to 4·2) than in those with prediabetes (1·2%, 0·0 to 2·4) or normoglycaemia (1·2%, -0·3 to 2·7; absolute risk reduction pinteraction=0·0019). Among patients without diabetes at baseline, 676 (10·1%) developed diabetes in the placebo group, compared with 648 (9·6%) in the alirocumab group; alirocumab did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (HR 1·00, 95% CI 0·89-1·11). HRs were 0·97 (95% CI 0·87-1·09) for patients with prediabetes and 1·30 (95% CI 0·93-1·81) for those with normoglycaemia (pinteraction=0·11). INTERPRETATION: After a recent acute coronary syndrome, alirocumab treatment targeting an LDL cholesterol concentration of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L produced about twice the absolute reduction in cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes as in those without diabetes. Alirocumab treatment did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(7): e005103, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of ß-blocker use beyond 3 years after a myocardial infarction (MI) has not been clearly determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the CRUSADE Registry (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines) linked with Medicare claims, we studied patients ≥65 years of age with MI, discharged on ß-blocker therapy and alive 3 years later without a recurrent MI to evaluate ß-blocker use and dose (none, <50%, and ≥50% of the recommended target) at 3 years. Using inverse probability of treatment weighting, we then examined the adjusted association between ß-blocker use (and dose) at 3 years and the cardiovascular composite of all-cause mortality, hospitalization for recurrent MI, ischemic stroke, or heart failure over the subsequent 5 years. Of the 6893 patients ≥65 years age, ß-blocker use at 3 years was 72.2% (n=4980); 43% (n=2162) of these were treated with ≥50% of the target ß-blocker dose. ß-blocker use was not associated with a significant difference on the composite outcome (52.4% versus 55.4%, adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03; P=0.23). Neither low dose (<50% target dose) nor high dose (≥50% target dose) ß-blocker use was associated with a significant difference in risk when compared with no ß-blocker use. Results were also consistent in patients with and without heart failure or systolic dysfunction ( P interaction =0.30). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational analysis, ß-blocker use beyond 3 years post-MI, regardless of the dose achieved, was not associated with improved outcomes. The role of prolonged ß-blocker use, particularly in older adults, needs further investigation.

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