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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e017712, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287625

RESUMO

Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing among young adults. We aimed to describe the cardiovascular risk factors and long-term prognosis of premature CAD. Methods and Results Using the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease, we evaluated 3655 patients admitted between 1995 and 2013 with a first diagnosis of obstructive CAD before the age of 50 years. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or revascularization, were ascertained for up to 10 years. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess associations with the rate of first recurrent event, and negative binomial log-linear regression was used for rate of multiple event recurrences. Past or current smoking was the most frequent cardiovascular factor (60.8%), followed by hypertension (52.8%) and family history of CAD (39.8%). Within a 10-year follow-up, 52.9% of patients had at least 1 MACE, 18.6% had at least 2 recurrent MACEs, and 7.9% had at least 3 recurrent MACEs, with death occurring in 20.9% of patients. Across follow-up, 31.7% to 37.2% of patients continued smoking, 81.7% to 89.3% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels beyond the goal of 70 mg/dL, and 16% had new-onset diabetes mellitus. Female sex, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, multivessel disease, and chronic inflammatory disease were factors associated with recurrent MACEs. Conclusions Premature CAD is an aggressive disease with frequent ischemic recurrences and premature death. Individuals with premature CAD have a high proportion of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but failure to control them is frequently observed.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(9): e006582, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal bleeding risk scores have been validated in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following percutaneous coronary intervention. How these scores apply to the population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated without revascularization remains unknown. The objective was to evaluate and compare the performances of the PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) bleeding risk scores in the medically managed patients with ACS treated with DAPT. METHODS AND RESULTS: TRILOGY ACS (Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from 2008 to 2012 over a median follow-up of 17.0 months in 966 sites (52 countries). High-risk patients with unstable angina or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction who did not undergo revascularization were randomized to prasugrel or clopidogrel. The PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) risk scores were applied in the TRILOGY ACS population to evaluate their performance to predict adjudicated non-coronary artery bypass grafting-related GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) severe/life-threatening/moderate and TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major/minor bleeding with time-dependent c-indices. Among the 9326 participants, median age was 66 years (interquartile range, 59-74 years), and 3650 were females (39.1%). A total of 158 (1.69%) GUSTO severe/life-threatening/moderate and 174 (1.87%) TIMI major/minor non-coronary artery bypass grafting bleeding events occurred. The c-indices (95% CI) of the PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) scores through 12 months were 0.716 (0.677-0.758), 0.693 (0.658-0.733), and 0.674 (0.637-0.713), respectively, for GUSTO bleeding and 0.624 (0.582-0.666), 0.612 (0.578-0.651), and 0.608 (0.571-0.649), respectively, for TIMI bleeding. There was no significant difference in the c-indices of each score based upon pairwise comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Among medically managed patients with ACS treated with DAPT, the performances of the PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) scores were reasonable and similar to their performances in the derivation percutaneous coronary intervention populations. Bleeding risk scores may be used to predict longitudinal bleeding risk in patients with ACS treated with DAPT without revascularization and help support shared decision making. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00699998.

3.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(6): 842-850, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768631

RESUMO

Occasional bursts of discovery and innovation have appeared during the otherwise stagnant past several decades of drug development in nephrology. Among other recent drug discoveries, the unexpected kidney benefits observed with sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may herald a renaissance of drug development in kidney disease. This recent progress highlights the need to further promote and stimulate research and development of promising therapies that may ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with kidney disease. To help identify and address barriers to drug development in nephrology, the Duke Clinical Research Institute convened a conference in April 2019 that included stakeholders from academia, industry, government agencies, and patient advocacy. From these discussions, several opportunities were identified to improve every stage of drug development for kidney disease from early discovery to implementation into practice. Key topics reviewed in this article are the utility of interconnected data and site research networks, surrogate end points, pragmatic and adaptive trial designs, the promising uses of real-world data, and methods to improve the generalizability of trial results and uptake of approved drugs for kidney-related diseases.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos
4.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320941987, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718237

RESUMO

AIMS: Statins are pivotal to the secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events, but some patients are statin-intolerant. We examined the effects of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor alirocumab on the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events according to the intensity of background statin treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo in 18,924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidaemia despite intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment (including no statin if intolerance was documented). The primary outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events) comprised coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Baseline statin treatment was high-intensity (88.8%), low/moderate-intensity (8.7%) or none (2.4%). Median baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 86, 89 and 139 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in these statin treatment categories, respectively. Alirocumab produced similar relative reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline across statin treatment subgroups, but the mean absolute reductions differed (52.9, 56.7 and 86.1 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). With placebo, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was highest in the no statin subgroup (10.8%, 10.7% and 26.0% respectively). Alirocumab reduced major adverse cardiovascular events in each statin subgroup (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.96; 0.68, 0.49-0.94; and 0.65, 0.44-0.97, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.14) with a gradient of absolute risk reduction: 1.25%, 95% CI 0.34-2.16; 3.16%, 0.38-5.94; 7.97%, 0.42-15.51; Pinteraction = 0.106). CONCLUSIONS: PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab reduces the relative risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome irrespective of background statin treatment. However, patients on no statin are at high absolute risk for recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events; alirocumab substantially reduces that risk. PCSK9 inhibition may be an important therapeutic strategy for statin-intolerant patients with acute coronary syndrome.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(2): 162-171, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term prognostic impact of post-discharge bleeding in the unique population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between post-discharge bleeding and subsequent mortality after ACS according to index strategy (PCI or no PCI) and to contrast with the association between post-discharge myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent mortality. METHODS: In a harmonized dataset of 4 multicenter randomized trials (APPRAISE-2 [Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events-2], PLATO [Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes], TRACER [Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome], and TRILOGY ACS [Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes]), the association between post-discharge noncoronary artery bypass graft-related GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) moderate, severe, or life-threatening bleeding (landmark 7 days post-ACS) and subsequent all-cause mortality was evaluated in a time-updated Cox proportional hazards analysis. Interaction with index treatment strategy was assessed. Results were contrasted with risk for mortality following post-discharge MI. RESULTS: Among 45,011 participants, 1,133 experienced post-discharge bleeding events (2.6 per 100 patient-years), and 2,149 died during follow-up. The risk for mortality was significantly higher <30 days (adjusted hazard ratio: 15.7; 95% confidence interval: 12.3 to 20.0) and 30 days to 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 3.4) after bleeding, and this association was consistent in participants treated with or without PCI for their index ACS (p for interaction = 0.240). The time-related association between post-discharge bleeding and mortality was similar to the association between MI and subsequent mortality in participants treated with and without PCI (p for interaction = 0.696). CONCLUSIONS: Post-discharge bleeding after ACS is associated with a similar increase in subsequent all-cause mortality in participants treated with or without PCI and has an equivalent prognostic impact as post-discharge MI.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Alta do Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The best timing for early invasive therapy in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients remains controversial. We sought to determine the optimal timing of early catheterization in order to improve long-term outcomes in elderly (>65 years old) patients with NSTEMI. METHODS: Using data from the CRUSADE registry linked to Medicare claims, we evaluated the association of early catheterization within the first 24 h or earlier time cut-points of NSTEMI presentation with long-term mortality among older Medicare beneficiaries. RESULTS: Of 15 575 NSTEMI patients from 398 CRUSADE hospitals (2003-2006), 3880 (24.9%) received early (≤12 h) catheterization. Compared with those undergoing later catheterization, patients treated early were younger and had less comorbid illness. Relative to those treated later, patients receiving early catheterization had similar 1-year all-cause mortality (11.8% vs 11.9%, P = 0.90). Using on- vs off-hour presentation as an instrumental variable, balancing potential measured and unmeasured confounders, early and later catheterization patients had nonsignificant differences in 1-year mortality (+5.6% [-11.5%, +22.7%]). Similar results were observed in clinically relevant subgroups, such as age (< or ≥75 years), gender, diabetes status, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score (< or ≥140), presence of heart failure, and sensitivity analyses of alternative definitions of early catheterization (≤6 and ≤24 h). CONCLUSIONS: Among older NSTEMI patients, we found that <24 h or earlier (neither <6 nor 12 h) of catheterization timing were not significantly associated with differences in long-term mortality.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 127: 64-72, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386813

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia and gout are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and are associated with poor outcomes. Data describing hyperuricemia and gout in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are limited. We used data from the Duke University Health System to describe characteristics of patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >6 mg/dl) or gout (gout diagnosis or gout medication within the previous year) and to explore associations with 5-year outcomes (death and hospitalization). We identified 7,004 patients in the Duke University Health System with a known diagnosis of HFpEF who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2017. A total of 1,136 (16.2%) patients with HFpEF also had hyperuricemia or gout. Patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia or gout had a greater co-morbidity burden, more echocardiographic findings of cardiac remodeling, and higher unadjusted rates of all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, and HF hospitalization compared with those with HFpEF without hyperuricemia or gout. After multivariable adjustment, patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia or gout had a significantly higher rates of first all-cause hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.10 [95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.19]; p = 0.020) and recurrent all-cause hospitalization (associated rate ratio 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.25]; p = 0.026). After adjustment, no significant differences in death or HF hospitalization were observed. In conclusion, patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia or gout were found to have a higher burden of co-morbidities and a higher rate of all-cause hospitalization, even after multivariable adjustment, compared to patients with HFpEF without hyperuricemia or gout.


Assuntos
Gota/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gota/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(18): 2297-2308, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholesterol reduction with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitors reduces ischemic events; however, the cost-effectiveness in statin-treated patients with recent acute coronary syndrome remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether further cholesterol reduction with alirocumab would be cost-effective in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome on optimal statin therapy. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness model leveraging patient-level data from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was developed to estimate costs and outcomes over a lifetime horizon. Patients (n = 18,924) had a recent acute coronary syndrome and were on high-intensity or maximum-tolerated statin therapy, with a baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level ≥70 mg/dl, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl, or apolipoprotein B ≥80 mg/l. Alirocumab 75 mg or placebo was administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Alirocumab was blindly titrated to 150 mg if LDL-C remained ≥50 mg/dl or switched to placebo if 2 consecutive LDL-C levels were <15 mg/dl. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was determined with the addition of alirocumab versus placebo and, based on clinical efficacy findings from the trial, was stratified by baseline LDL-C levels ≥100 mg/dl and <100 mg/dl. RESULTS: Across the overall population recruited to the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial, using an annual treatment cost of US$5,850, the mean overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$92,200 per QALY (base case). The cost was US$41,800 per QALY in patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl, whereas in those with LDL-C <100 mg/dl the cost per QALY was US$299,400. Among patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios remained below US$100,000 per QALY across a wide variety of sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome on optimal statin therapy, alirocumab improves cardiovascular outcomes at costs considered intermediate value, with good value in patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl but less economic value with LDL-C <100 mg/dl. (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab [ODYSSEY OUTCOMES]; NCT01663402).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am J Med ; 133(12): e716-e721, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to 1) describe characteristics of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) enrolled in RELAX stratified by normal or elevated baseline serum uric acid (sUA) level; 2) evaluate the association between sUA level and surrogate clinical measures; and 3) assess associations between changes in sUA level over time and changes in surrogate clinical measures. METHODS: We analyzed 212 patients with HFpEF and normal or elevated (>6 mg/dL) baseline sUA measurements from the RELAX trial. Variables examined included clinical characteristics, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-minute walk testing, quality of life, echocardiography, and serum biomarker testing. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared and scatter plots with quadratic regression lines and linear regression modeling were used to assess the relationship between baseline sUA and clinical measures. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to describe composite death or cardiovascular/renal hospitalization. RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated baseline sUA was 68.9%. Patients with elevated sUA had more baseline comorbidities and poorer functional status on cardiopulmonary exercise testing than those without. After adjustment, significant associations between baseline sUA levels and cystatin C, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin I, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were identified. Higher baseline sUA was also associated with worsening peak VO2, 6-minute walk testing, and left ventricular mass. No significant association was found between baseline sUA levels and the composite of death or cardiovascular/renal hospitalization at 24 weeks. CONCLUSION: sUA is an important marker of comorbidities and functional status in patients with HFpEF. Clinical trials of sUA-lowering therapies in patients with HFpEF are promising.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
12.
Circulation ; 142(2): 150-160, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New randomized, controlled trials have become available on oral P2Y12 inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to evaluate current evidence comparing the efficacy and safety profile of prasugrel, ticagrelor, and clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. METHODS: We performed a network meta-analysis and direct pairwise comparison analysis of efficacy and safety outcomes from 12 randomized controlled trials including a total of 52 816 patients with acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: In comparison with clopidogrel, ticagrelor significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.72-0.92]) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.92]), whereas there was no statistically significant mortality reduction with prasugrel (HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.80-1.01] and HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.84-1.02], respectively). In comparison with each other, there were no significant differences in mortality (HR prasugrel versus ticagrelor, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.94-1.29] and 1.12 [95% CI, 0.98-1.28]). In comparison with clopidogrel, prasugrel reduced myocardial infarction (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]), whereas ticagrelor showed no risk reduction (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.22]). Differences between prasugrel and ticagrelor were not statistically significant. Stent thrombosis risk was significantly reduced by both ticagrelor and prasugrel versus clopidogrel (28%-50% range of reduction). In comparison with clopidogrel, both prasugrel (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.01-1.56]) and ticagrelor (HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.04-1.55]) significantly increased major bleeding. There were no significant differences between prasugrel and ticagrelor for all outcomes explored. CONCLUSIONS: Prasugrel and ticagrelor reduced ischemic events and increased bleeding in comparison with clopidogrel. A significant mortality reduction was observed with ticagrelor only. There was no efficacy and safety difference between prasugrel and ticagrelor. Registration: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; Unique identifier: CRD42019155648.

13.
Circulation ; 141(20): 1608-1617, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome are at risk for peripheral artery disease (PAD) events and venous thromboembolism (VTE). PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors reduce lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Our objective was to ascertain whether PCSK9 inhibition reduces the risk of PAD events or VTE after acute coronary syndrome, and if such effects are related to levels of lipoprotein(a) or LDL-C. METHODS: This was a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome), which was conducted in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome on intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment who were randomized to the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab or placebo. In a prespecified analysis, PAD events (critical limb ischemia, limb revascularization, or amputation for ischemia) and VTE (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were assessed. LDL-C was corrected (LDL-Ccorrected) for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a). RESULTS: At baseline, median lipoprotein(a) and LDL-Ccorrected were 21 and 75 mg/dL, respectively; with alirocumab, median relative reductions were 23.5% and 70.6%, respectively. PAD events and VTE occurred in 246 and 92 patients, respectively. In the placebo group, risk of PAD events was related to baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (Ptrend=0.0021), and tended to associate with baseline quartile of LDL-Ccorrected (Ptrend=0.06); VTE tended to associate with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (Ptrend=0.06), but not LDL-Ccorrected (Ptrend=0.85). Alirocumab reduced risk of PAD events (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.54-0.89]; P=0.004), with nonsignificantly fewer VTE events (HR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.44-1.01]; P=0.06). Reduction in PAD events with alirocumab was associated with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (Ptrend=0.03), but not LDL-Ccorrected (Ptrend=0.50). With alirocumab, the change from baseline to Month 4 in lipoprotein(a), but not LDL-Ccorrected, was associated with the risk of VTE and the composite of VTE and PAD events. CONCLUSIONS: In statin-treated patients with recent acute coronary syndrome, risk of PAD events is related to lipoprotein(a) level and is reduced by alirocumab, particularly among those with high lipoprotein(a). Further study is required to confirm whether risk of VTE is related to lipoprotein(a) level and its reduction with alirocumab. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6169, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277149

RESUMO

Changes in platelet physiology are associated with simultaneous changes in microRNA concentrations, suggesting a role for microRNA in platelet regulation. Here we investigated potential associations between microRNA and platelet reactivity (PR), a marker of platelet function, in two cohorts following a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) event. First, non-targeted microRNA concentrations and PR were compared in a case (N = 77) control (N = 76) cohort within the larger TRILOGY-ACS trial. MicroRNA significant in this analysis plus CVD-associated microRNAs from the literature were then quantified by targeted rt-PCR in the complete TRILOGY-ACS cohort (N = 878) and compared with matched PR samples. Finally, microRNA significant in the non-targeted & targeted analyses were verified in an independent post NSTE-ACS cohort (N = 96). From the non-targeted analysis, 14 microRNAs were associated with PR (Fold Change: 0.91-1.27, p-value: 0.004-0.05). From the targeted analysis, five microRNAs were associated with PR (Beta: -0.09-0.22, p-value: 0.004-0.05). Of the 19 significant microRNAs, three, miR-15b-5p, miR-93 and miR-126, were consistently associated with PR in the TRILOGY-ACS and independent Singapore post-ACS cohorts, suggesting the measurement of circulating microRNA concentrations may report on dynamic changes in platelet biology following a cardiovascular ischemic event.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Plaquetas/fisiologia , MicroRNA Circulante/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura
15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(5): 598-607, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186653

RESUMO

Importance: Determining the right dosage of aspirin for the secondary prevention treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains an unanswered and critical question. Objective: To report the rationale and design for a randomized clinical trial to determine the optimal dosage of aspirin to be used for secondary prevention of ASCVD, using an innovative research method. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pragmatic, open-label, patient-centered, randomized clinical trial is being conducted in 15 000 patients within the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), a distributed research network of partners including clinical research networks, health plan research networks, and patient-powered research networks across the United States. Patients with established ASCVD treated in routine clinical practice within the network are eligible. Patient recruitment began in April 2016. Enrollment was completed in June 2019. Final follow-up is expected to be completed by June 2020. Interventions: Participants are randomized on a web platform in a 1:1 fashion to either 81 mg or 325 mg of aspirin daily. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point is the composite of all-cause mortality, hospitalization for nonfatal myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for a nonfatal stroke. The primary safety end point is hospitalization for major bleeding associated with a blood-product transfusion. End points are captured through regular queries of the health systems' common data model within the structure of PCORnet's distributed data environment. Conclusions and Relevance: As a pragmatic study and the first interventional trial conducted within the PCORnet electronic data infrastructure, this trial is testing several unique and innovative operational approaches that have the potential to disrupt and transform the conduct of future patient-centered randomized clinical trials by evaluating treatments integrated in clinical practice while at the same time determining the optimal dosage of aspirin for secondary prevention of ASCVD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02697916.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
16.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(8): 1280-1283, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081368

RESUMO

Intraocular bleeding is a devastating clinical event due to its potentially blinding nature. It is not known if determine if dual antiplatelet therapy using aspirin and potent P2Y12 inhibitors increases this risk. We searched MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled trials that were phase III, randomly assigned patients to dual antiplatelet therapy with either aspirin and a potent P2Y12 inhibitor or aspirin and clopidogrel, had follow-up of 6 months, and at least 200 patients. Corresponding authors were contacted for intraocular bleeding data. Inverse-variance, weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken, with random-effects meta-analysis performed as a sensitivity analysis. Four trials enrolling 42,850 patients were included. The median follow-up ranged from 12 to 14 months. There was overall low risk of bias. Pooled analysis demonstrated no statistically significant increase in the risk of intraocular bleeding with dual antiplatelet therapy using potent P2Y12 inhibitors compared with clopidogrel (risk ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 1.36). There was no significant heterogeneity observed across trials (I2 statistic 0%, p = 0.98). The use of random-effects meta-analysis did not change the effect estimate or confidence intervals, and the results appeared similar when stratified by potent P2Y12 inhibitor (p = 0.97). In conclusion, this collaborative meta-analysis of dual antiplatelet trials does not suggest that the risk of intraocular bleeding is increased with the use of potent P2Y12 inhibitors compared with clopidogrel. Our results suggest that these potent P2Y12 inhibitors may continue to be used cautiously where indicated as part of dual antiplatelet therapy, even in those at high risk of spontaneous intraocular bleeding.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Ocular/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Hemorragia Ocular/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(2): 133-144, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with cardiovascular events. Alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, lowers lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). OBJECTIVES: A pre-specified analysis of the placebo-controlled ODYSSEY Outcomes trial in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) determined whether alirocumab-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C independently predicted major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: One to 12 months after ACS, 18,924 patients on high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo and followed for 2.8 years (median). Lipoprotein(a) was measured at randomization and 4 and 12 months thereafter. The primary MACE outcome was coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) levels (median: 21.2 mg/dl; interquartile range [IQR]: 6.7 to 59.6 mg/dl) and LDL-C [corrected for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a)] predicted MACE. Alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a) by 5.0 mg/dl (IQR: 0 to 13.5 mg/dl), corrected LDL-C by 51.1 mg/dl (IQR: 33.7 to 67.2 mg/dl), and reduced the risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 0.93). Alirocumab-induced reductions of lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C independently predicted lower risk of MACE, after adjustment for baseline concentrations of both lipoproteins and demographic and clinical characteristics. A 1-mg/dl reduction in lipoprotein(a) with alirocumab was associated with a HR of 0.994 (95% CI: 0.990 to 0.999; p = 0.0081). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C levels and their reductions by alirocumab predicted the risk of MACE after recent ACS. Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab is an independent contributor to MACE reduction, which suggests that lipoprotein(a) should be an independent treatment target after ACS. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Lipoproteína(a)/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Circulation ; 141(10): 843-862, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992065

RESUMO

Responding to concerns about the potential for increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, specifically myocardial infarction, associated with certain glucose-lowering therapies, the US Food and Drug Administration and the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency issued guidance to the pharmaceutical industry in 2008. Glucose-lowering therapies were granted regulatory approval primarily from smaller studies that have demonstrated reductions in glycated hemoglobin concentration. Such studies were overall underpowered and of insufficient duration to show any effect on cardiovascular outcomes. The 2008 guidance aimed to ensure the cardiovascular safety of new glucose-lowering therapies to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This resulted in a plethora of new cardiovascular outcome trials, most designed primarily as placebo-controlled noninferiority trials, but with many also powered for superiority. Several of these outcome trials demonstrated cardiovascular benefits of the newer agents, resulting in the first-ever cardiovascular protection indications for glucose-lowering therapies. Determining whether the guidance continues to have value in its current form is critically important as we move forward after the first decade of implementation. In February 2018, a think tank comprising representatives from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies convened to consider the guidance in light of the findings of the completed cardiovascular outcome trials. The group made several recommendations for future regulatory guidance and for cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering therapies. These recommendations include requiring only the 1.3 noninferiority margin for regulatory approval, conducting trials for longer durations, considering studying glucose-lowering therapies as first-line management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, considering heart failure or kidney outcomes within the primary outcome, considering head-to-head active comparator trials, increasing the diversity of patients enrolled, evaluating strategies to streamline registries and the study of unselected populations, and identifying ways to improve translation of trial results to general practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Oxazóis , Fenilbutazona/análogos & derivados , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Risco , Rosiglitazona , Tolbutamida , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
19.
Urol Oncol ; 38(2): 45-52, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879969

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men. Advances in early detection and successful treatments have improved cancer-specific survival. With prolonged survival, PCa patients now suffer from the effects of aging and are at increasing risk for the development of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV disease. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment of advanced PCa. There is conflicting evidence about whether or not ADT is associated with increased CV morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities such as increasing body weight, reduced insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and activation of T cells to the Th1 phenotype, resulting in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization, have been proposed as possible mechanisms by which ADT may increase the risk of CV events. Type of ADT and preexisting CV history also seem to play a major role in the risk of subsequent CV events. Ongoing prospective clinical trials will help define whether there is any difference between gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists in terms of CV morbidity and mortality.

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