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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1013-1029, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021519

RESUMO

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by alterations in the SATB2 gene. Here we present a review of published pathogenic variants in the SATB2 gene to date and report 38 novel alterations found in 57 additional previously unreported individuals. Overall, we present a compilation of 120 unique variants identified in 155 unrelated families ranging from single nucleotide coding variants to genomic rearrangements distributed throughout the entire coding region of SATB2. Single nucleotide variants predicted to result in the occurrence of a premature stop codon were the most commonly seen (51/120 = 42.5%) followed by missense variants (31/120 = 25.8%). We review the rather limited functional characterization of pathogenic variants and discuss current understanding of the consequences of the different molecular alterations. We present an expansive phenotypic review along with novel genotype-phenotype correlations. Lastly, we discuss current knowledge of animal models and present future prospects. This review should help provide better guidance for the care of individuals diagnosed with SAS.

3.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1175-1185, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the molecular genetics of autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome. METHODS: Families underwent phenotyping for features of Noonan syndrome in children and their parents. Two multiplex families underwent linkage analysis. Exome, genome, or multigene panel sequencing was used to identify variants. The molecular consequences of observed splice variants were evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Twelve families with a total of 23 affected children with features of Noonan syndrome were evaluated. The phenotypic range included mildly affected patients, but it was lethal in some, with cardiac disease and leukemia. All of the parents were unaffected. Linkage analysis using a recessive model supported a candidate region in chromosome 22q11, which includes LZTR1, previously shown to harbor mutations in patients with Noonan syndrome inherited in a dominant pattern. Sequencing analyses of 21 live-born patients and a stillbirth identified biallelic pathogenic variants in LZTR1, including putative loss-of-function, missense, and canonical and noncanonical splicing variants in the affected children, with heterozygous, clinically unaffected parents and heterozygous or normal genotypes in unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION: These clinical and genetic data confirm the existence of a form of Noonan syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and identify biallelic mutations in LZTR1.

4.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 83, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exon-targeted microarrays can detect small (<1000 bp) intragenic copy number variants (CNVs), including those that affect only a single exon. This genome-wide high-sensitivity approach increases the molecular diagnosis for conditions with known disease-associated genes, enables better genotype-phenotype correlations, and facilitates variant allele detection allowing novel disease gene discovery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 63,127 patients referred for clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at Baylor Genetics laboratories, including 46,755 individuals tested using exon-targeted arrays, from 2007 to 2017. Small CNVs harboring a single gene or two to five non-disease-associated genes were identified; the genes involved were evaluated for a potential disease association. RESULTS: In this clinical population, among rare CNVs involving any single gene reported in 7200 patients (11%), we identified 145 de novo autosomal CNVs (117 losses and 28 intragenic gains), 257 X-linked deletion CNVs in males, and 1049 inherited autosomal CNVs (878 losses and 171 intragenic gains); 111 known disease genes were potentially disrupted by de novo autosomal or X-linked (in males) single-gene CNVs. Ninety-one genes, either recently proposed as candidate disease genes or not yet associated with diseases, were disrupted by 147 single-gene CNVs, including 37 de novo deletions and ten de novo intragenic duplications on autosomes and 100 X-linked CNVs in males. Clinical features in individuals with de novo or X-linked CNVs encompassing at most five genes (224 bp to 1.6 Mb in size) were compared to those in individuals with larger-sized deletions (up to 5 Mb in size) in the internal CMA database or loss-of-function single nucleotide variants (SNVs) detected by clinical or research whole-exome sequencing (WES). This enabled the identification of recently published genes (BPTF, NONO, PSMD12, TANGO2, and TRIP12), novel candidate disease genes (ARGLU1 and STK3), and further confirmation of disease association for two recently proposed disease genes (MEIS2 and PTCHD1). Notably, exon-targeted CMA detected several pathogenic single-exon CNVs missed by clinical WES analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data document the efficacy of exon-targeted CMA for detection of genic and exonic CNVs, complementing and extending WES in clinical diagnostics, and the potential for discovery of novel disease genes by genome-wide assay.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 91-104, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939640

RESUMO

Identification of over 500 epigenetic regulators in humans raises an interesting question regarding how chromatin dysregulation contributes to different diseases. Bromodomain and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multivalent chromatin regulator possessing three histone-binding domains, one non-specific DNA-binding module, and several motifs for interacting with and activating three lysine acetyltransferases. Genetic analyses of fish brpf1 and mouse Brpf1 have uncovered an important role in skeletal, hematopoietic, and brain development, but it remains unclear how BRPF1 is linked to human development and disease. Here, we describe an intellectual disability disorder in ten individuals with inherited or de novo monoallelic BRPF1 mutations. Symptoms include infantile hypotonia, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, expressive language impairment, and facial dysmorphisms. Central nervous system and spinal abnormalities are also seen in some individuals. These clinical features overlap with but are not identical to those reported for persons with KAT6A or KAT6B mutations, suggesting that BRPF1 targets these two acetyltransferases and additional partners in humans. Functional assays showed that the resulting BRPF1 variants are pathogenic and impair acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 23, an abundant but poorly characterized epigenetic mark. We also found a similar deficiency in different lines of Brpf1-knockout mice. These data indicate that aberrations in the chromatin regulator gene BRPF1 cause histone H3 acetylation deficiency and a previously unrecognized intellectual disability syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Acetilação , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Cromatina/química , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome
6.
Hum Genet ; 135(5): 569-86, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27071622

RESUMO

Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20 postnatal and two prenatal) with clinically diagnosed ACDMPV. We describe novel deletion CNVs at the FOXF1 locus in 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients. Together with the previously reported cases, all 31 genomic deletions in 16q24.1, pathogenic for ACDMPV, for which parental origin was determined, arose de novo with 30 of them occurring on the maternally inherited chromosome 16, strongly implicating genomic imprinting of the FOXF1 locus in human lungs. Surprisingly, we have also identified four ACDMPV families with the pathogenic variants in the FOXF1 locus that arose on paternal chromosome 16. Interestingly, a combination of the severe cardiac defects, including hypoplastic left heart, and single umbilical artery were observed only in children with deletion CNVs involving FOXF1 and its upstream enhancer. Our data demonstrate that genomic imprinting at 16q24.1 plays an important role in variable ACDMPV manifestation likely through long-range regulation of FOXF1 expression, and may be also responsible for key phenotypic features of maternal uniparental disomy 16. Moreover, in one family, WES revealed a de novo missense variant in ESRP1, potentially implicating FGF signaling in the etiology of ACDMPV.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Impressão Genômica , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/patologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/anormalidades , Veias Pulmonares/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Genes Letais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/genética , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Deleção de Sequência
7.
Elife ; 42015 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26312503

RESUMO

The brain is sensitive to the dose of MeCP2 such that small fluctuations in protein quantity lead to neuropsychiatric disease. Despite the importance of MeCP2 levels to brain function, little is known about its regulation. In this study, we report eleven individuals with neuropsychiatric disease and copy-number variations spanning NUDT21, which encodes a subunit of pre-mRNA cleavage factor Im. Investigations of MECP2 mRNA and protein abundance in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells from one NUDT21 deletion and three duplication cases show that NUDT21 regulates MeCP2 protein quantity. Elevated NUDT21 increases usage of the distal polyadenylation site in the MECP2 3' UTR, resulting in an enrichment of inefficiently translated long mRNA isoforms. Furthermore, normalization of NUDT21 via siRNA-mediated knockdown in duplication patient lymphoblasts restores MeCP2 to normal levels. Ultimately, we identify NUDT21 as a novel candidate for intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric disease, and elucidate a mechanism of pathogenesis by MeCP2 dysregulation via altered alternative polyadenylation.


Assuntos
Fator de Especificidade de Clivagem e Poliadenilação/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/análise , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos/química , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Poliadenilação
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 20(10): 1975-88, 2011 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21355048

RESUMO

Genomic instability is a feature of the human Xp22.31 region wherein deletions are associated with X-linked ichthyosis, mental retardation and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A putative homologous recombination hotspot motif is enriched in low copy repeats that mediate recurrent deletion at this locus. To date, few efforts have focused on copy number gain at Xp22.31. However, clinical testing revealed a high incidence of duplication of Xp22.31 in subjects ascertained and referred with neurobehavioral phenotypes. We systematically studied 61 unrelated subjects with rearrangements revealing gain in copy number, using multiple molecular assays. We detected not only the anticipated recurrent and simple nonrecurrent duplications, but also unexpectedly identified recurrent triplications and other complex rearrangements. Breakpoint analyses enabled us to surmise the mechanisms for many of these rearrangements. The clinical significance of the recurrent duplications and triplications were assessed using different approaches. We cannot find any evidence to support pathogenicity of the Xp22.31 duplication. However, our data suggest that the Xp22.31 duplication may serve as a risk factor for abnormal phenotypes. Our findings highlight the need for more robust Xp22.31 triplication detection in that such further gain may be more penetrant than the duplications. Our findings reveal the distribution of different mechanisms for genomic duplication rearrangements at a given locus, and provide insights into aspects of strand exchange events between paralogous sequences in the human genome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Sequência de Bases , Quebra Cromossômica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Ordem dos Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Genome Res ; 21(1): 33-46, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21205869

RESUMO

Four unrelated families with the same unbalanced translocation der(4)t(4;11)(p16.2;p15.4) were analyzed. Both of the breakpoint regions in 4p16.2 and 11p15.4 were narrowed to large ∼359-kb and ∼215-kb low-copy repeat (LCR) clusters, respectively, by aCGH and SNP array analyses. DNA sequencing enabled mapping the breakpoints of one translocation to 24 bp within interchromosomal paralogous LCRs of ∼130 kb in length and 94.7% DNA sequence identity located in olfactory receptor gene clusters, indicating nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) as the mechanism for translocation formation. To investigate the potential involvement of interchromosomal LCRs in recurrent chromosomal translocation formation, we performed computational genome-wide analyses and identified 1143 interchromosomal LCR substrate pairs, >5 kb in size and sharing >94% sequence identity that can potentially mediate chromosomal translocations. Additional evidence for interchromosomal NAHR mediated translocation formation was provided by sequencing the breakpoints of another recurrent translocation, der(8)t(8;12)(p23.1;p13.31). The NAHR sites were mapped within 55 bp in ∼7.8-kb paralogous subunits of 95.3% sequence identity located in the ∼579-kb (chr 8) and ∼287-kb (chr 12) LCR clusters. We demonstrate that NAHR mediates recurrent constitutional translocations t(4;11) and t(8;12) and potentially many other interchromosomal translocations throughout the human genome. Furthermore, we provide a computationally determined genome-wide "recurrent translocation map."


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Recombinação Genética , Translocação Genética , Quebra Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
J Med Genet ; 47(11): 777-81, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20921022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can occur in isolation or in association with other abnormalities. We hypothesised that some cases of non-isolated CDH are caused by novel genomic disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cohort of >12, 000 patients referred for array comparative genomic hybridisation testing, we identified three individuals-two of whom had CDH--with deletions involving a ∼2.3 Mb region on chromosome 15q25.2. Two additional patients with deletions of this region have been reported, including a fetus with CDH. Clinical data from these patients suggest that recurrent deletions of 15q25.2 are associated with an increased risk of developing CDH, cognitive deficits, cryptorchidism, short stature and possibly Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA). Although no known CDH-associated genes are located on 15q25.2, four genes in this region--CPEB1, AP3B2, HOMER2 and HDGFRP3--have been implicated in CNS development/function and may contribute to the cognitive deficits seen in deletion patients. Deletions of RPS17 may also predispose individuals with 15q25.2 deletions to DBA and associated anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with recurrent deletions of 15q25.2 are at increased risk for CDH and other birth defects. A high index of suspicion should exist for the development of cognitive defects, anaemia and DBA-associated malignancies in these individuals.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Hérnia Diafragmática/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Med Genet ; 47(5): 332-41, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19914906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deletion and the reciprocal duplication in 16p11.2 were recently associated with autism and developmental delay. METHOD: We indentified 27 deletions and 18 duplications of 16p11.2 were identified in 0.6% of all samples submitted for clinical array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridisation) analysis. Detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisations were performed on 17 deletion subjects and ten subjects with the duplication. RESULTS: The most common clinical manifestations in 17 deletion and 10 duplication subjects were speech/language delay and cognitive impairment. Other phenotypes in the deletion patients included motor delay (50%), seizures ( approximately 40%), behavioural problems ( approximately 40%), congenital anomalies ( approximately 30%), and autism ( approximately 20%). The phenotypes among duplication patients included motor delay (6/10), behavioural problems (especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) (6/10), congenital anomalies (5/10), and seizures (3/10). Patients with the 16p11.2 deletion had statistically significant macrocephaly (p<0.0017) and 6 of the 10 patients with the duplication had microcephaly. One subject with the deletion was asymptomatic and another with the duplication had a normal cognitive and behavioural phenotype. Genomic analyses revealed additional complexity to the 16p11.2 region with mechanistic implications. The chromosomal rearrangement was de novo in all but 2 of the 10 deletion cases in which parental studies were available. Additionally, 2 de novo cases were apparently mosaic for the deletion in the analysed blood sample. Three de novo and 2 inherited cases were observed in the 5 of 10 duplication patients where data were available. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent reciprocal 16p11.2 deletion and duplication are characterised by a spectrum of primarily neurocognitive phenotypes that are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. The autism and macrocephaly observed with deletion and ADHD and microcephaly seen in duplication patients support a diametric model of autism spectrum and psychotic spectrum behavioural phenotypes in genomic sister disorders.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Genet ; 40(12): 1466-71, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19029900

RESUMO

Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects, developmental delay, schizophrenia and related psychoses. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with microdeletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pediatr Neurol ; 37(2): 99-107, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17675024

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to examine demographic, historical, and prothrombotic risk factors in infants with perinatal arterial stroke and their mothers. Risk factors were evaluated in 60 mother-child pairs with perinatal arterial stroke. Prothrombotic factors analyzed included the DNA mutations factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210, MTHFR C677T and A1298C; serum activity levels for protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III; serum levels of lipoprotein(a); and, in the mothers, antiphospholipid antibodies. Boys predominated, 36:24. There were four twin sets. Sixty percent were term and 22% were post-date. Ten were large for gestational age. Five mothers had abdominal trauma. Nine mothers (15%) had preeclampsia. Emergency caesarean section was performed in 17 cases (28%). Eight placental exams revealed seven with abnormalities. Seizures were the presenting sign in 70%, and 30% presented with early handedness or cerebral palsy. Prothrombotic risk factors were found in 28 of 51 mothers (55%) and 30 of 60 children (50%). Forty-one pairs (68%) had at least one abnormality in mother, child, or both. Long-term sequelae included cerebral palsy (40 of 51; 78%), cognitive impairment (35 of 51; 68%), seizures (23 of 51; 45%), and microcephaly (26 of 51; 51%). Perinatal arterial stroke is the result of multifactorial, synergistic fetal and maternal factors among which the prothrombotic factors, both fetal and maternal, appear significant.


Assuntos
Trombose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Antitrombina III/metabolismo , Artérias Cerebrais , Fator V/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trombose Intracraniana/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Proteína C/metabolismo , Proteína S/metabolismo , Protrombina/genética , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 143A(12): 1358-65, 2007 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17506108

RESUMO

Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new clinical test for the detection of well-characterized genomic disorders caused by chromosomal deletions and duplications that result in gene copy number variation (CNV). This powerful assay detects an abnormality in approximately 7-9% of patients with various clinical phenotypes, including mental retardation. We report here on the results found in a 6-year-old girl with mildly dysmorphic facies, obesity, and marked developmental delay. CMA was requested and showed a heterozygous loss in copy number with clones derived from the genomic region cytogenetically defined as Xq27.3-Xq28. This loss was not cytogenetically visible but was seen on FISH analysis with clones from the region. Further studies confirmed a loss of one copy each of the FMR1, FMR2, and IDS genes (which are mutated in Fragile X syndrome, FRAXE syndrome, and Hunter syndrome, respectively). Skewed X-inactivation has been previously reported in girls with deletions in this region and can lead to a combined Fragile X/Hunter syndrome phenotype in affected females. X-inactivation and iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) enzyme activity were therefore examined. X-inactivation was found to be random in the child's peripheral leukocytes, and IDS enzyme activity was approximately half of the normal value. This case demonstrates the utility of CMA both for detecting a submicroscopic chromosomal deletion and for suggesting further testing that could possibly lead to therapeutic options for patients with developmental delay.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Criança , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Transativadores/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 100(23): 13424-9, 2003 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14581620

RESUMO

Diminished Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is associated with the most common forebrain defect in humans, holoprosencephaly (HPE), which includes cyclopia, a phenotype also seen in mice and other vertebrates with defective Shh signaling. The secreted protein Shh acts as a crucial factor that patterns the ventral forebrain and is required for the division of the primordial eye field and brain into two discrete halves. Gli2 is one of three vertebrate transcription factors implicated as obligatory mediators of Shh signal transduction. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutations in the human GLI2 gene are associated with a distinctive phenotype (within the HPE spectrum) whose primary features include defective anterior pituitary formation and pan-hypopituitarism, with or without overt forebrain cleavage abnormalities, and HPE-like midfacial hypoplasia. We also demonstrate that these mutations lack GLI2 activity. We report on a functional association between GLI2 and human disease and highlight the role of GLI2 in human head development.


Assuntos
Holoprosencefalia/genética , Mutação , Hipófise/anormalidades , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Animais , Células COS , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Facies , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Modelos Genéticos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas Nucleares , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transfecção , Xenopus , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco
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