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1.
Nat Mater ; 20(11): 1498-1505, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697430

RESUMO

Porous materials with engineered stretching-dominated lattice designs, which offer attractive mechanical properties with ultra-light weight and large surface area for wide-ranging applications, have recently achieved near-ideal linear scaling between stiffness and density. Here, rather than optimizing the microlattice topology, we explore a different approach to strengthen low-density structural materials by designing tube-in-tube beam structures. We develop a process to transform fully dense, three-dimensional printed polymeric beams into graphitic carbon hollow tube-in-tube sandwich morphologies, where, similar to grass stems, the inner and outer tubes are connected through a network of struts. Compression tests and computational modelling show that this change in beam morphology dramatically slows down the decrease in stiffness with decreasing density. In situ pillar compression experiments further demonstrate large deformation recovery after 30-50% compression and high specific damping merit index. Our strutted tube-in-tube design opens up the space and realizes highly desirable high modulus-low density and high modulus-high damping material structures.


Assuntos
Carbono , Grafite , Simulação por Computador , Porosidade , Próteses e Implantes
2.
Sci Adv ; 7(38): eabg9358, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524849

RESUMO

High thermal gradients and complex melt pool instabilities involved in powder bed fusion­based metal additive manufacturing using focused Gaussian-shaped beams often lead to high porosity, poor morphological quality, and degraded mechanical performance. We show here that Bessel beams offer unprecedented control over the spatiotemporal evolution of the melt pool in stainless steel (SS 316L) in comparison to Gaussian beams. Notably, the nondiffractive nature of Bessel beams enables greater tolerance for focal plane positioning during 3D printing. We also demonstrate that Bessel beams significantly reduce the propensity for keyhole formation across a broad scan parameter space. High-speed imaging of the melt pool evolution and solidification dynamics reveals a unique mechanism where Bessel beams stabilize the melt pool turbulence and increase the time for melt pool solidification, owing to reduced thermal gradients. Consequently, we observe a distinctively improved combination of high density, reduced surface roughness, and robust tensile properties in 3D-printed test structures.

3.
Soft Matter ; 15(24): 4898-4904, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166358

RESUMO

We demonstrate a scalable method to create metallic nanowire arrays and meshes over square-centimeter-areas with tunable sub-100 nm dimensions and geometries using the shear alignment of block copolymers. We use the block copolymer poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-P2VP) since the P2VP block complexes with metal salts like Na2PtCl4, thereby enabling us to directly pattern nanoscale platinum features. We investigate what shear alignment processing parameters are necessary to attain high quality and well-ordered nanowire arrays and quantify how the block copolymer's molecular weight affects the resulting Pt nanowires' dimensions and defect densities. Through systematic studies of processing parameters and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, we determine that the equivalent of 2-3 monolayers of PS-P2VP are required to produce a single layer of well-aligned nanowires. The resulting nanowires' widths and heights can be tuned between 11-27 nm and 9-50 nm, respectively, and have periodicites varying between 37 and 63 nm, depending on the choice of block copolymer molecular weight. We observe that the height-to-width ratio of the nanowires also increases with molecular weight, reaching a value of almost 2 with the largest dimensions fabricated. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an additional layer of Pt nanowires can be orthogonally aligned on top of and without disturbing an underlying layer, thereby enabling the fabrication of Pt nanowire meshes with tunable sub-100 nm dimensions and geometries over a cm2-area.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(45): 11507-11512, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348773

RESUMO

Many natural silks produced by spiders and insects are unique materials in their exceptional toughness and tensile strength, while being lightweight and biodegradable-properties that are currently unparalleled in synthetic materials. Myriad approaches have been attempted to prepare artificial silks from recombinant spider silk spidroins but have each failed to achieve the advantageous properties of the natural material. This is because of an incomplete understanding of the in vivo spidroin-to-fiber spinning process and, particularly, because of a lack of knowledge of the true morphological nature of spidroin nanostructures in the precursor dope solution and the mechanisms by which these nanostructures transform into micrometer-scale silk fibers. Herein we determine the physical form of the natural spidroin precursor nanostructures stored within spider glands that seed the formation of their silks and reveal the fundamental structural transformations that occur during the initial stages of extrusion en route to fiber formation. Using a combination of solution phase diffusion NMR and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), we reveal direct evidence that the concentrated spidroin proteins are stored in the silk glands of black widow spiders as complex, hierarchical nanoassemblies (∼300 nm diameter) that are composed of micellar subdomains, substructures that themselves are engaged in the initial nanoscale transformations that occur in response to shear. We find that the established micelle theory of silk fiber precursor storage is incomplete and that the first steps toward liquid crystalline organization during silk spinning involve the fibrillization of nanoscale hierarchical micelle subdomains.


Assuntos
Viúva Negra/química , Fibroínas/ultraestrutura , Nanopartículas/química , Seda/ultraestrutura , Animais , Viúva Negra/fisiologia , Fibroínas/biossíntese , Fibroínas/química , Cristais Líquidos/química , Cristais Líquidos/ultraestrutura , Micelas , Microdissecção , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Transição de Fase , Seda/biossíntese , Seda/química
5.
Adv Mater ; 29(2)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27740691

RESUMO

Doping-induced solubility control is a patterning technique for semiconducting polymers, which utilizes the reduction in polymer solubility upon p-type doping to provide direct, optical control of film topography and doping level. In situ direct-write patterning and imaging are demonstrated, revealing sub-diffraction-limited topographic features. Photoinduced force microscopy shows that doping level can be optically modulated with similar resolution.

6.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30915, 2016 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498880

RESUMO

High efficiency polymer:fullerene photovoltaic device layers self-assemble with hierarchical features from ångströms to 100's of nanometers. The feature size, shape, composition, orientation, and order all contribute to device efficiency and are simultaneously difficult to study due to poor contrast between carbon based materials. This study seeks to increase device efficiency and simplify morphology measurements by replacing the typical fullerene acceptor with endohedral fullerene Lu3N@PC80BEH. The metal atoms give excellent scattering contrast for electron beam and x-ray experiments. Additionally, Lu3N@PC80BEH has a lower electron affinity than standard fullerenes, which can raise the open circuit voltage of photovoltaic devices. Electron microscopy techniques are used to produce a detailed account of morphology evolution in mixtures of Lu3N@PC80BEH with the record breaking donor polymer, PTB7 and coated using solvent mixtures. We demonstrate that common solvent additives like 1,8-diiodooctane or chloronapthalene do not improve the morphology of endohedral fullerene devices as expected. The poor device performance is attributed to the lack of mutual miscibility between this particular polymer:fullerene combination and to co-crystallization of Lu3N@PC80BEH with 1,8-diiodooctane. This negative result explains why solvent additives mixtures are not necessarily a morphology cure-all.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(13): 2598-602, 2015 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26266740

RESUMO

Zeolite delamination increases the external surface area available for catalyzing the conversion of bulky molecules, but a fundamental understanding of the delamination process remains unknown. Here we report morphological changes accompanying delamination on the length scale of individual zeolite clusters determined by 3-D imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results are tomograms that demonstrate delamination as it proceeds on the nanoscale through two distinct key steps: a chemical treatment that leads to a swelled material and a subsequent calcination that leads to curling and peeling off of delaminated zeolite sheets over hundreds of nanometers. These results characterize the direct, local, 3-D morphological changes accompanying delaminated materials synthesis and, with corroboration by mercury porosimetry, provide unique insight into the morphology of these materials, which is difficult to obtain with any other technique.

8.
J Phys Chem B ; 117(16): 4478-87, 2013 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23214454

RESUMO

Nanofibers (NFs) of the prototype conjugated polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), displaying H- and J-aggregate character are studied using temperature- and pressure-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Single J-aggregate NF spectra show a decrease of the 0-0/0-1 vibronic intensity ratio from ~2.0 at 300 K to ~1.3 at 4 K. Temperature-dependent PL line shape parameters (i.e., 0-0 energies and 0-0/0-1 intensity ratios) undergo an abrupt change in the range of ~110-130 K suggesting a change in NF chain packing. Pressure-dependent PL lifetimes also show increased contributions from an instrument-limited decay component which is attributed to greater torsional disorder of the P3HT backbone upon decreasing NF volume. It is proposed that the P3HT alkyl side groups change their packing arrangement from a type I to type II configuration causing a decrease in J-aggregate character (lower intrachain order) in both temperature- and pressure-dependent PL spectra. Chain packing dependent exciton and polaron relaxation and recombination dynamics in NF aggregates are next studied using transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). TAS data reveal faster polaron recombination dynamics in H-type P3HT NFs indicative of interchain delocalization whereas J-type NFs exhibit delayed recombination suggesting that polarons (in addition to excitons) are more delocalized along individual chains. Both time-resolved and steady-state spectra confirm that excitons and polarons in J-type NFs are predominantly intrachain in nature that can acquire interchain character with small structural (chain packing) perturbations.

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