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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619999

RESUMO

Background: Evidence has accumulated to support the involvement of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, possibly via gut microbial dysbiosis and alterations in the enteric nervous system, in the pathophysiology of different neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether patients with GI dysfunction have altered risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unknown.Methods: Based on a historical nationwide cohort study-ESPRESSO-in Sweden, we compared the risk of ALS among individuals with a previous GI biopsy finding of normal mucosa or non-specific inflammation, as two conditions of GI dysfunction, to that of individuals without any GI biopsy. We identified all individuals with a GI biopsy result of either normal mucosa (n = 483,442) or non-specific inflammation (n = 566,663) during 1965-2016 in Sweden as the exposed groups. For each exposed individual, we randomly selected up to five controls from the general Swedish population after individual matching by age and sex. Both the exposed and unexposed individuals were followed from date of biopsy (exposed individuals) or date of selection (unexposed individuals) until ALS diagnosis, emigration out of Sweden, death, or 31 December 2016, whichever came first. Stratified Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results: Compared to individuals without GI biopsy, individuals with a GI biopsy result of normal mucosa had an increased risk of ALS (HR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.04-1.42) after excluding the first 2 years of follow-up to alleviate concern of surveillance bias. This increased risk was noted among male (HR = 1.20; 95%CI: 0.94-1.51) and female (HR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.50), as well as among younger (<60 years; HR = 1.17; 95%CI: 0.94-1.44) and older (≥60 years; HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 0.99-1.56) individuals. In contrast, no association was observed for a GI biopsy result of non-specific inflammation (HR = 1.00; 95%CI: 0.88-1.15). Neither of the GI biopsy results was related to the mortality risk after ALS diagnosis.Conclusions: Individuals with a GI biopsy result of normal mucosa-representing potentially a distinct type of GI dysfunction-had a higher future risk of ALS. No association was however noted for a GI biopsy result of non-specific inflammation. Further studies are needed to validate this finding and to understand the underlying reasons for the contrasting result pattern.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Persons with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are at an increased risk of death and liver-related endpoints, but the association with incident cancer is not well understood, and whether it differs across histopathological subgroups is undefined. METHODS: We investigated the risk of cancer in 3,410 persons with a diagnosis of ALD and an available liver biopsy in Sweden between 1969-2016, compared to a matched reference population. Administrative coding from national registers and liver biopsy data were used to define exposure and outcome status. Competing risk regression, adjusted for available confounders and using non-cancer mortality as the competing risk, was used to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios (sHRs) for incident cancer. RESULTS: At baseline, persons with ALD had a median age of 58.2 years, 67% were men, and 2,042 (60%) had cirrhosis. ALD was not associated with cancer in general (sHR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.92-1.11), although the risk was increased in persons surviving ≥1 year (sHR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08-1.32). The risk of liver cancer was elevated sHR = 12.80, 95%CI = 9.38-17.45). HCC incidence among ALD persons with cirrhosis was 8.6 cases/1,000 person-years, corresponding to a cumulative incidence after 10 years of 5.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with biopsy-proven ALD that survive the initial time after diagnosis are at an elevated risk for cancer, in particular HCC compared with the general population. Although the risk for HCC was elevated, data do not suggest that routine surveillance for HCC in ALD cirrhosis is cost-effective.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastrointestinal infections have been linked to changes in the composition and function of gut microbiome and development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We therefore sought to examine the relationship between gastroenteritis and risk of microscopic colitis (MC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of all adult patients with MC diagnosed between 1990 and 2016 in Sweden matched to up to 5 general population controls according to age, sex, calendar year, and county. Cases of MC were identified using Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, a cohort of gastrointestinal pathology reports from all 28 pathology centers in Sweden. We used logistic regression modeling to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Through December of 2016, we matched 13,468 MC cases to 64,479 controls. The prevalence of previous diagnosed gastrointestinal infection was 7.5% among patients with MC, which was significantly higher than in controls (3.0%, Pcomparison < .001). After adjustment, gastroenteritis was associated with an increased risk of MC (aOR 2.63; 95% CI 2.42-2.85). Among specific pathogens, Clostridioides difficile (aOR 4.39; 95% CI 3.42-5.63), Norovirus (aOR 2.87; 95% CI 1.66-4.87), and Escherichia species (aOR 3.82; 95% CI 1.22-11.58), but not Salmonella species, were associated with an increased risk of MC. The association between gastrointestinal infections and risk of MC was stronger for collagenous subtype (aOR 3.23; 95% CI 2.81-3.70) as compared with lymphocytic colitis (aOR 2.51; 95% CI 2.28-2.76; Pheterogeneity = .005). The associations remained significant after adjustment for immune-mediated conditions and polypharmacy and when compared with unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION: In a nationwide study, we found that gastrointestinal infection, particularly Clostridioides difficile, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent MC. This study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee, Stockholm, Sweden (Protocol no. 2014/1287-31/4).

4.
Gut ; 70(1): 170-179, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are at increased risk of death, but studies have rarely investigated the significance of histological severity or estimated relative risks compared with a general population. We examined mortality in a nationwide cohort of biopsy-proven ALD. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study in Sweden comparing 3453 individuals with an International Classification of Disease (ICD) code for ALD and a liver biopsy from 1969 to 2017 with 16 535 matched general population individuals. Swedish national registers were used to ascertain overall and disease-specific mortality, starting follow-up at the latest of first ICD diagnosis or liver biopsy plus 3 months. Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders was used to estimate HRs in ALD and histopathological subgroups. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 58 years, 65% were men and 52% had cirrhosis at baseline. Five-year cumulative mortality was 40.9% in patients with ALD compared with 5.8% in reference individuals. The risk for overall mortality was significantly increased (adjusted HR (aHR)=4.70, 95% CI 4.35 to 5.08). The risk of liver-related death was particularly high (43% of all deaths, aHR=167.6, 95% CI 101.7 to 276.3). Mortality was significantly increased also in patients with ALD without cirrhosis and was highest in the first year after baseline but persisted after ≥10 years of follow-up (aHR=2.74, 95% CI 2.37 to 3.16). CONCLUSION: Individuals with biopsy-proven ALD have a near fivefold increased risk of death compared with the general population. Individuals with ALD without cirrhosis were also at increased risk of death, reaffirming the need to increase vigilance in the management of these individuals.

5.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although dermatitis herpetiformis is closely associated with celiac disease (CD), data on the relationship between CD and other dermatologic disorders have been mixed. We aimed to quantify the risk of skin disorders in patients after CD diagnosis in a population-based setting. METHODS: Using data from all 28 pathology departments in Sweden 1969-2016, we identified patients with CD. Each patient was matched by age, sex, calendar year, and geographic region to up to 5 population controls. We calculated the risk of any skin disease and specific skin diseases using Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: We identified 43,300 patients with CD and 198,532 matched controls. After a median follow-up time of 11.4 years, the incidences of skin disease in CD patients and controls were 22.6 and 14.8 per 1000 person-years respectively (HR=1.55; 95%CI 1.51-1.58). Increased risks were present for eczema (HR=1.67; 95%CI 1.56-1.79), psoriasis (HR=1.55; 95%CI 1.43-1.68), urticaria (HR=1.52; 95% CI 1.42-1.64), vitiligo (HR=1.90; 95%CI 1.52-2.39), acne (HR=1.39; 95%CI 1.29-1.50), and alopecia areata (HR=1.78; 95%CI 1.43-2.20). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, patients with CD are at increased risk of multiple common skin disorders, a risk that persists in the long-term.

6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105194

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. Individuals with a negative result are recommended to undergo rescreening within a 10-year interval, but evidence supporting this advice is limited. METHODS: We performed a matched cohort study using prospectively collected data from 88,798 individuals in Sweden with normal mucosa at the first colorectal biopsy (aged ≥50 years) in the nationwide gastrointestinal epidemiology strengthened by histopathology reports (ESPRESSO) (1965-2016) and 424,150 matched reference individuals from the general population. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC incidence and mortality of incident CRCs up to 44 years of follow-up. RESULTS: In the normal biopsy and reference groups, respectively, the 20-year incidences of CRC were 3.03% and 4.53% and the 20-year mortalities of incident CRC were 0.89% and 1.54%. The multivariable hazard ratio comparing the normal biopsy and reference groups was 0.62 for CRC incidence (95% CI = 0.58-0.66, P < 0.001) and 0.56 for mortality of incident CRC (95% CI = 0.49-0.64, P < 0.001). When assessed by time interval after biopsy, lower CRC incidence and mortality were observed throughout the follow-up. The association seemed weaker for proximal colon cancer than for rectal and distal colon cancer. DISCUSSION: A normal colorectal biopsy was associated with lower CRC incidence and mortality for at least 20 years after the examination. Our findings confirm previous data and suggest that the screening intervals after a normal colonoscopy could be longer than the commonly recommended 10 years. It may be time to open the discussion for a revision of the international guidelines.

7.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Population-based data are lacking regarding the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality across the complete histological spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). DESIGN: This nationwide, matched cohort study included all individuals in Sweden with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (1966 to 2017; n=10 568). NAFLD was confirmed histologically from all liver biopsies submitted to Sweden's 28 pathology departments, after excluding other etiologies of liver disease, and further categorised as, simple steatosis, non-fibrotic steatohepatitis (NASH), non-cirrhotic fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD cases were matched to ≤5 general population comparators by age, sex, calendar year and county (n=49 925). Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs (aHRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Over a median of 14.2 years, 4,338 NAFLD patients died. Compared with controls, NAFLD patients had significantly increased overall mortality (16.9 vs 28.6/1000 PY; difference=11.7/1000 PY; aHR=1.93, 95% CI=1.86 to 2.00). Compared with controls, significant excess mortality risk was observed with simple steatosis (8.3/1000 PY, aHR=1.71, 95% CI=1.64 to 1.79), non-fibrotic NASH (13.4/1000 PY, aHR=2.14, 95% CI=1.93 to 2.38), non-cirrhotic fibrosis (18.4/1000 PY, aHR=2.44, 95% CI=2.22 to 2.69) and cirrhosis (53.6/1000 PY, aHR=3.79, 95% CI=3.34 to 4.30)(ptrend <0.01). This dose-dependent gradient was similar when simple steatosis was the reference (ptrend <0.01). The excess mortality associated with NAFLD was primarily from extrahepatic cancer (4.5/1000 PY, aHR=2.16, 95% CI=2.03 to 2.30), followed by cirrhosis (2.7/1000 PY, aHR=18.15, 95% CI=14.78 to 22.30), cardiovascular disease (1.4/1000 PY, aHR=1.35, 95% CI=1.26 to 1.44) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (1.2/1000 PY, aHR=11.12, 95% CI=8.65 to 14.30). CONCLUSION: All NAFLD histological stages were associated with significantly increased overall mortality, and this risk increased progressively with worsening NAFLD histology. Most of this excess mortality was from extrahepatic cancer and cirrhosis, while in contrast, the contributions of cardiovascular disease and HCC were modest.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and liver failure, but data on overall mortality in AIH are conflicting. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden from 1969-2017 of 6,016 adults with AIH and 28,146 matched general population reference individuals. AIH was defined by a combination of a medical diagnosis of AIH plus a liver biopsy from any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Through Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific death. Liver transplant was included in our main outcome of death. RESULTS: During follow-up, 3,185 individuals with AIH died (41.4/1000 person-years) compared with 10,477 reference individuals (21.9/1000 person-years). The 10-year cumulative incidence of death was 32.3% (95%CI=31.1-33.6) for AIH individuals and 14.1% (95%CI=13.7-14.5) for reference individuals. This corresponded to an adjusted HR of 2.29 (95%CI=2.17-2.41), which remained elevated ≥20 years follow-up. AIH individuals with cirrhosis on biopsy had a high risk of death (HR=4.55; 95%CI=3.95-5.25), while mortality in patients with fibrosis, inflammation without fibrosis, or necrosis did not differ. Portal hypertension and overlap with cholestatic liver diseases were also associated with death. AIH was associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.27; 95%CI=1.15-1.40), liver disease (HR=66.24; 95%CI=48.19-91.03) and extrahepatic malignancy (HR=1.69; 95%CI=1.51-1.89). In a sibling comparison, AIH individuals remained at increased risk of death. CONCLUSION: AIH is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of death. Risks were particularly high in individuals with cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and overlap with cholestatic liver disease.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have explored the link between childhood celiac disease and long-term psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a population-based cohort study of associations between childhood celiac disease and psychiatric disorders and investigated whether risk persists into adulthood. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study in Sweden using data from the ESPRESSO cohort. In this cohort, 19,186 children with a diagnosis of biopsy-verified celiac disease from 1973 through 2016 were identified from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Each patient was matched with as many as 5 reference children (controls, n=94,249). Data on psychiatric disorders were obtained from the patient register. We used Cox proportional modeling to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 12.3 years, 3174 children (16.5%) with celiac disease received a new diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder, compared with 13,286 controls (14.1%). Corresponding incidence rates were 12.2 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 11.8-12.7) vs 10.3 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 10.2-10.5). Childhood celiac disease was associated with a 19% increase in risk of any psychiatric disorder (95% Cl, 1.14-1.23); the increase in risk was observed in all childhood age groups. The highest HRs were seen in the first year after celiac diagnosis (HR, 1.70; 95% Cl, 1.41-2.05). The risk increase persisted into adulthood (older than 18 years: HR, 1.11; 95% Cl, 1.04-1.17). We found increased risks of mood disorders (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.19), eating disorders (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.20-1.39), and autism spectrum disorder (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.64). We found no statistically significant risk increase for psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorders, personality disorders, suicide attempt, or suicide. Celiac disease was also linked to an increased use of psychiatric drugs (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.43). A conditional logistic regression found that psychiatric disorders were also more common prior to diagnosis of celiac disease (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% Cl, 1.39-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood celiac disease is associated with increased risk of subsequent psychiatric disorders, which persists into adulthood. Mental health surveillance should be integral in the care of celiac disease.

10.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(11): 986-995, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of antibiotics in early life has been linked with childhood inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but data for adults are mixed, and based on smaller investigations that did not compare risk among siblings with shared genetic or environmental risk factors. We aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic therapy and IBD in a large, population-based study. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, we identified people living in Sweden aged 16 years or older, with a diagnosis of IBD based on histology and at least one diagnosis code for IBD or its subtypes (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease). We identified consecutive patients with incident IBD from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, cross-referenced with the Swedish Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register. We accrued data for cumulative antibiotic dispensations until 1 year before time of matching for patients and up to five general population controls per patient (matched on the basis of age, sex, county, and calendar year). We also included unaffected full siblings as a secondary control group. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs for diagnosis of incident IBD. FINDINGS: We identified 23 982 new patients with IBD (15 951 ulcerative colitis, 7898 Crohn's disease, 133 unclassified IBD) diagnosed between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2016. 117 827 matched controls and 28 732 siblings were also identified. After adjusting for several risk factors, aOR in patients who had used antibiotics versus those who had never used antibiotics was 1·88 (95% CI 1·79-1·98) for diagnosis of incident IBD, 1·74 (1·64-1·85) for ulcerative colitis, and 2·27 (2·06-2·49) for Crohn's disease. aOR was higher in patients who had received one antibiotic dispensation (1·11, 1·07-1·15), two antibiotic dispensations (1·38, 1·32-1·44), and three or more antibiotic dispensations (1·55, 1·49-1·61) than patients who had none. Increased risk was noted for ulcerative colitis (aOR with three or more antibiotic dispensations 1·47, 95% CI 1·40-1·54) and Crohn's disease (1·64, 1·53-1·76) with higher estimates corresponding to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Similar but attenuated results were observed when siblings were used as the reference group, with an aOR of 1·35 (95% CI 1·28-1·43) for patients who had received three or more dispensations, compared with general population controls. INTERPRETATION: Higher cumulative exposure to systemic antibiotic therapy, particularly treatments with greater spectrum of microbial coverage, may be associated with a greater risk of new-onset IBD and its subtypes. The association between antimicrobial treatment and IBD did not appear to differ when predisposed siblings were used as the reference controls. Our findings, if substantiated by longer-term prospective studies in humans or mechanistic preclinical investigations, suggest the need to further emphasise antibiotic stewardship to prevent the rise in dysbiosis-related chronic diseases, including IBD. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. Crohn's and Colitis Foundation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Disbiose , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sistemas de Informação em Farmácia Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between microscopic colitis (MC) and cancer risk is unclear. Large, population-based studies are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study of 11,758 patients with incident MC (diagnosed 1990-2016 in Sweden), 50,828 matched reference individuals and 11,614 siblings to MC patients. Data were obtained through Sweden´s pathology departments and from the Swedish Cancer Register. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: At the end of follow up (mean: 6.7 years), 1,239 (10.5%) of MC patients had received a cancer diagnosis, compared to 4,815 (9.5%) of reference individuals (aHR 1.08 (95%CI=1.02-1.16)). The risk of cancer was highest during the first year of follow up. The absolute excess risks for cancer at 5, 10 and 20 years after MC diagnosis were +1.0% (95%CI=0.4%-1.6%), +1.5% (0.4%-2.6%) and +3.7% (-2.3-9.6%), respectively, equivalent to one extra cancer event in every 55 individuals with MC followed for ten years.MC was associated with an increased risk of lymphoma (aHR 1.43, 1.06-1.92) and lung cancer (aHR 1.32, 1.04-1.68) but with decreased risks of colorectal (aHR 0.52, 0.40-0.66) and gastrointestinal cancers (aHR 0.72, 0.60-0.85). We found no association with breast or bladder cancer. Using siblings as reference group to minimize the impact of shared genetic and early environmental factors, patients with MC were still at an increased risk of cancer (HR=1.20; 95%CI=1.06-1.36). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide cohort study demonstrated an 8% increased risk of cancer in MC patients. The risk was highest during the first year of follow up.

12.
JAMA ; 323(13): 1277-1285, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259229

RESUMO

Importance: Celiac disease may be associated with a modest but persistent increased long-term mortality risk. It is uncertain whether this risk has changed in the era of wider diagnosis rates, less severe clinical disease, and more widespread availability of gluten-free food. Objective: To evaluate the association between celiac disease and mortality risk in a population-based cohort in Sweden. Design, Setting, and Participants: All individuals in Sweden with celiac disease diagnosed between 1969 and 2017 were identified through the Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden (ESPRESSO) cohort. Participants (n = 49 829) were observed starting on the day of the biopsy. The final date of follow-up was December 31, 2017. Exposures: Celiac disease was defined by the presence of small intestinal villus atrophy on histopathology specimens during the years 1969-2017 from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Each individual was matched with as many as 5 control participants in the general population by age, sex, county, and calendar period. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was cause-specific mortality. Patients with celiac disease were compared with controls using stratified Cox proportional modeling, stratifying by year of diagnosis. Results: There were 49 829 patients with celiac disease, including 24% who were diagnosed between the years 2010 and 2017. The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 32.2 (25.2) years and 62.4% were women. During a median follow-up time of 12.5 years, 13.2% (n = 6596) died. Compared with controls (n = 246 426), overall mortality was increased in those with celiac disease (9.7 vs 8.6 deaths per 1000 person-years; absolute difference, 1.2 per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21 [95% CI, 1.17-1.25]). The relative increase in mortality risk was present in all age groups and was greatest in those diagnosed in the age range of 18 to 39 years (1.9 vs 1.1 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.47-1.94]; P values for heterogeneity comparing 18-39 years with 40-59 years and with ≥60 years were both <.001). Individuals with celiac disease were at increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (3.5 vs 3.4 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.02-1.13]), cancer (2.7 vs 2.2 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.22-1.36]), and respiratory disease (0.6 vs 0.5 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.08-1.37]). When compared with controls, the overall mortality risk was greatest in the first year after diagnosis (15.3 vs 6.5 per 1000 person-years; HR, 2.34 [95% CI, 2.14-2.55]) but persisted beyond 10 years after diagnosis (10.5 vs 10.1 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.20]). The mortality risk was likewise present for patients diagnosed during the years 2010-2017 (7.5 vs 5.5 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.21-1.51]). Conclusions and Relevance: In a Swedish population studied between 1969 and 2017, a diagnosis of celiac disease compared with the general population was associated with a small but statistically significant increased mortality risk.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atrofia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/patologia , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(5): 746-755, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108661

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mortality concern is a frequent driver of care seeking in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Data on mortality in IBS are scarce, and population-based studies have been limited in size. We examined mortality in IBS. METHODS: A nationwide, matched, population-based cohort study was conducted in Sweden. We identified 45,524 patients undergoing a colorectal biopsy at any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments and with a diagnosis of IBS from 2002 to 2016 according to the National Patient Register, a nationwide registry of inpatient and outpatient specialty care. We compared the mortality risk between these individuals with IBS and age- and sex-matched reference individuals (n = 217,316) from the general population and siblings (n = 53,228). In separate analyses, we examined the role of mucosal appearance for mortality in IBS. Finally, we examined mortality in 41,427 patients with IBS not undergoing a colorectal biopsy. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death. RESULTS: During follow-up, there were 3,290 deaths in individuals with IBS (9.4/1,000 person-years) compared with 13,255 deaths in reference individuals (7.9/1,000 person-years), resulting in an HR of 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.14). After adjustment for confounders, IBS was not linked to mortality (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.92-1.00). The risk estimates were neutral when patients with IBS were compared with their siblings. The underlying mucosal appearance on biopsy had only a marginal impact on mortality, and patients with IBS not undergoing a colorectal biopsy were at no increased risk of death (HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.99-1.06). DISCUSSION: IBS does not seem to confer an increased risk of death.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Biópsia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1574-1583.e2, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microscopic colitis shares pathogenetic mechanisms with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We studied the association between microscopic colitis and risk of incident IBD using data from a nationwide cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all adults who received a diagnosis of microscopic colitis from 1990 through 2017 in Sweden and risk of incident IBD. Cases of microscopic colitis (n= 13,957) were identified through Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, which included gastrointestinal pathology reports from all of Sweden's 28 centers. Individuals with microscopic colitis were matched to 5 general population controls (n = 66,820) and to unaffected siblings (n =13,943). Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Through December of 2017, we identified 323 incident cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and 108 incident cases of Crohn's disease (CD) in patients with microscopic colitis compared with 94 UC and 42 CD cases in population comparators. Mean times from diagnosis of microscopic colitis to diagnosis of CD was 3.3 ± 3.2 years and to diagnosis of UC was 3.2 ± 3.5 years. In multivariable models, microscopic colitis was associated with an aHR of 12.6 (95% CI 8.8-18.1) for CD, 17.3 (95% CI 13.7-21.8) for UC, and 16.8 (95% CI 13.9-20.3) for IBD. The 10-year absolute excess risks of CD and UC were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 2.6 (95% CI 2.2-2.9) percentage points, respectively. In sensitivity analyses, comparing patients with microscopic colitis with their unaffected siblings, the aHRs of CD and UC were 5.4 (95% CI 3.2-9.2) and 9.4 (95% CI 6.4-13.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based study in Sweden, we found a significant increase in risk of incident IBD among patients with microscopic colitis. Future studies should focus on potential mechanisms underlying these observed associations.


Assuntos
Colite Microscópica/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Microscópica/complicações , Colite Microscópica/patologia , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(11): 2491-2499.e3, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microscopic colitis is one of the most common causes of chronic diarrhea in older populations. We investigated all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with microscopic colitis. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study of all cases of microscopic colitis (n = 14,333) diagnosed from 1990 through 2017 in Sweden. Cases of microscopic colitis were identified using SNOMED codes from gastrointestinal histopathology reports collected from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Each case of microscopic colitis was matched to 5 population comparators (n = 68,700). Mortality data were ascertained from Sweden's cause of death register. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Through December of 2017, we confirmed 3014 deaths in patients with microscopic colitis (27.4/1000 person-years) and 12,534 deaths in matched population comparators (23.3/1000 person-years). This corresponded to a 10-year absolute risk difference of 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1%-4.6%) and an aHR of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.12-1.22). However, further adjustment of models for comorbidity burden reduced the relative risk of death for patients with microscopic colitis (aHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.94-1.02). In analyses of cause-specific death, microscopic colitis was associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal-related death (aHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.38-2.05) and infection-related death (aHR, 1.42 ; 95% CI, 1.11-1.83), but not cancer-related death (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91) or cardiovascular-related death (aHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.10). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide cohort study in Sweden, we found that patients with microscopic colitis were at increased risk of death. However, the increase appears to be related to higher burden of comorbidities in this population.

16.
J Pers Assess ; 94(4): 372-9, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22404047

RESUMO

This study examines the reliability and convergent validity of 2 versions of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS), one for use with Thematic Apperception Test narratives (SCORS-TAT; Westen, 1990) and one for use with clinical interview data (SCORS-CDI; Westen, Barends, Leigh, Mendel, & Silbert, 1990 ). Four SCORS dimensions were evaluated. Data were collected in a psychiatric sample (N = 74). Results show that although interrater reliability was good for all dimensions, internal consistency was low, especially for the affective dimensions. Structural equation modeling, in which a model with 2 factors (i.e., SCORS-TAT and SCORS-CDI) and 4 dimensions each was tested, indicated low convergence between corresponding dimensions of SCORS-TAT and SCORS-CDI. Correlational analyses suggested that this was due to a strong method factor. Regression analyses, however, revealed that the presence of a personality disorder operated as a moderator for convergence between corresponding cognitive-structural dimensions.


Assuntos
Cognição , Entrevista Psicológica/normas , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Social , Teste de Apercepção Temática/normas , Adulto , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Neurosci Methods ; 206(1): 73-7, 2012 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22330817

RESUMO

Partial Granger causality was introduced by Guo et al. (2008) who showed that it could better eliminate the influence of latent variables and exogenous inputs than conditional G-causality. In the recent literature we can find some reviews and applications of this type of Granger causality (e.g. Smith et al., 2011; Bressler and Seth, 2010; Barrett et al., 2010). These articles apparently do not take into account a serious flaw in the original work on partial G-causality, being the negative F values that were reported and even proven to be plausible. In our opinion, this undermines the credibility of the obtained results and thus the validity of the approach. Our study is aimed to further validate partial G-causality and to find an answer why negative partial Granger causality estimates were reported. Time series were simulated from the same toy model as used in the original paper and partial and conditional causal measures were compared in the presence of confounding variables. Inference was done parametrically and using non-parametric block bootstrapping. We counter the proof that partial Granger F values can be negative, but the main conclusion of the original article remains. In the presence of unknown latent and exogenous influences, it appears that partial G-causality will better eliminate their influence than conditional G-causality, at least when non-parametric inference is used.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Estatística como Assunto , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 32(4): 949-53, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16822161

RESUMO

Lexical bias is the tendency for phonological errors to form existing words at a rate above chance. This effect has been observed in experiments and corpus analyses in Germanic languages, but S. del Viso, J. M. Igoa, and J. E. García-Albea (1991) found no effect in a Spanish corpus study. Because lexical bias plays an important role in the debate on interactivity in language production, the authors reconsidered its absence in Spanish. A corpus analysis, which considered relatively many errors and which used a method of estimating chance rate that is relatively independent of total error number, and a speech-error elicitation experiment provided converging evidence for lexical bias in Spanish. The authors conclude that the processing mechanisms underlying this effect hold cross-linguistically.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem por Associação de Pares , Fonética , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Atenção , Conscientização , Humanos , Probabilidade , Reforço Psicológico , Fatores de Risco
19.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 13(6): 972-7, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17484421

RESUMO

The lexical bias effect (LBE) is the tendency for phonological substitution errors to result in existing words (rather than nonwords) at a rate higher than would be predicted by chance. This effect is often interpreted as revealing feedback between the phonological and lexical levels of representation during speech production. We report two experiments in which we tested for the LBE (1) in second-language production (Experiment 1) and (2) across the two languages of a bilingual (Experiment 2). There was an LBE in both situations. Thus, to the extent that the LBE reveals the presence of interactivity between the phonological and the lexical levels of representation, these effects suggest that there is feedback in second-language production and that it extends across the two languages of a bilingual.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Idioma , Multilinguismo , Fala/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Linguística , Medida da Produção da Fala
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