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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 582, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been related to improvements on cardiometabolic parameters and reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis mainly in primary cardiovascular prevention. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet (DIeta CArdioprotetora Brasileira, DICA Br) based on consumption of inexpensive locally accessible foods supplemented or not with mixed nuts on cardiometabolic features in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: DICA-NUTS study is a national, multicenter, randomized 16-week follow-up clinical trial. Patients over 40 years old with diagnosis of previous MI in the last 2 to 6 months will be recruited (n = 388). A standardized questionnaire will be applied to data collection and blood samples will be obtained. Patients will be allocated in two groups: Group 1: DICA Br supplemented with 30 g/day of mixed nuts (10 g of peanuts, 10 g of cashew, 10 g of Brazil nuts); and Group 2: only DICA Br. The primary outcome will consist of LDL cholesterol means (in mg/dL) after 16 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes will consist of other markers of lipid profile, glycemic profile, and anthropometric data. DISCUSSION: It is expected that DICA Br supplemented with mixed nuts have superior beneficial effects on cardiometabolic parameters in patients after a MI, when compared to DICA Br. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03728127 . First register: November 1, 2018; Last update: June 16, 2021. World Health Organization Universal Trial Number (WHO-UTN): U1111-1259-8105.


Assuntos
Dieta , Infarto do Miocárdio , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111411, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a healthy diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or pecans on plasma fatty acids (PFAs) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Patients 40 to 80 y of age were randomized to one of three dietary interventions (allocation ratio 1: 1: 1): healthy diet based on guidelines (control group [CG]), healthy diet supplemented with 30 g/d of pecans (PNG), or a healthy diet supplemented with 30 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil (OOG). PFAs were identified at baseline and at the end of follow-up (12 wk), and correlations between dietary fatty acids intake, PFAs, and clinical biomarkers of the lipid profile were also assessed before and after the interventions. RESULTS: Among 149 participants included in the analysis (43 CG; 51 PNG; and 55 OOG), correlations were observed between food intake, PFAs, and lipid profile before and after interventions independent of statins used, but all were considered weak. At the end of the study, the OOG showed increased concentrations of oleic fatty acid independently of the type of statin in use (1.49%; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-2.89; P = 0.029); however, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding the final mean values of oleic fatty acid or in the other PFAs. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable CAD, there were no significant differences in PFAs after 12 wk according to dietary interventions evaluated.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3828-3835, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To evaluate the effect of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program (BALANCE Program) on inflammatory biomarkers, involved in the pathophysiology of the atherosclerosis, on inflammatory biomarkers, cardiovascular risk factors, and on plasma fatty acids in cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients. METHODS: In this substudy of the BALANCE Program randomized clinical trial, a total of 369 patients aged 45 years or older, who have experienced cardiovascular disease in the previous 10 years, were included. These patients were randomized into two groups and followed up for six months: BALANCE Program group and control group (conventional nutrition advice). In the initial and six-month final visits, anthropometry (body weight, height and waist circumference), food intake evaluation by 24-h dietary recall, plasma inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein levels), blood pressure, glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, and plasma fatty acids levels were evaluated. RESULTS: The BALANCE Program group showed increased plasma alpha-linolenic acid levels (P = 0.008), reduction in waist circumference (P = 0.049) and BMI (P = 0.032). No difference was observed among plasma inflammatory biomarkers and clinical data. CONCLUSION: After six months of follow-up, BALANCE Program led to a significant reduction on BMI and waist circumference in individuals in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. Although plasmatic alpha-linolenic acid has increased, there was no impact on plasma inflammatory biomarkers. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01620398.

5.
J Nutr Biochem ; 97: 108809, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192591

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia consists of changes in concentrations and composition of plasma lipids after food intake, commonly presented as increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may also affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and function, resulting in a net decrease in HDL concentrations. Elevated triglycerides (TG) and reduced HDL levels have been positively associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases development. Here, we investigated the plasma lipidome composition of 12 clinically healthy, nonobese and young women in response to an acute high-caloric (1135 kcal) and high-fat (64 g) breakfast meal. For this purpose, we employed a detailed untargeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach and data was obtained at four sampling points: fasting and 1, 3 and 5 h postprandial. Analysis of variance revealed 73 significantly altered lipid species between all sampling points. Nonetheless, two divergent subgroups have emerged at 5 h postprandial as a function of differential plasma lipidome responses, and were thereby designated slow and fast TG metabolizers. Late responses by slow TG metabolizers were associated with increased concentrations of several species of TG and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Lipidomic analysis of lipoprotein fractions at 5 h postprandial revealed higher TG and PI concentrations in HDL from slow relative to fast TG metabolizers, but not in apoB-containing fraction. These data indicate that modulations in HDL lipidome during prolonged postprandial lipemia may potentially impact HDL functions. A comprehensive characterization of plasma lipidome responses to acute metabolic challenges may contribute to a better understanding of diet/lifestyle regulation in the metabolism of lipid and glucose.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072813

RESUMO

Anemia is a worldwide concern. This cross-sectional population-based study examined the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among residents of São Paulo (n = 898; 12-93 years), considering sociodemographic factors, dietary iron inadequacy, and food contributors to iron intake. Blood cell count and iron biomarkers were quantified. Dietary iron intake was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Iron intake inadequacy was estimated using a probabilistic approach. The prevalence of anemia was 6.7%, depleted iron stores 5.1%, and IDA 1.1%. Women of all age groups, older adults, and those who were underweight or obese had the highest prevalence of anemia, and female adolescents had the highest prevalence of depleted iron stores. Female adolescents and adults were more vulnerable to depleted iron stores. Male adults and older adults had a considerable prevalence of iron overload. Except for female adolescents and adults, all groups had mild probabilities of inadequate iron intake. The main food iron contributor was wheat flour. Hemoglobin concentrations were directly associated with being an adult, having a higher income, and inversely associated with being female. Serum ferritin concentrations were directly associated with age and inversely correlated with female sex. Residents of São Paulo had a low prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and IDA, and sociodemographic factors interfered with these parameters.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutr Health ; : 2601060211015594, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS) is an important process related to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis and can be increased by the low intake of antioxidants. Zinc (Zn) is an important antioxidant trace-element for human health and the assessment of the nutritional status of this micronutrient in these patients is of relevance. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate Zn nutritional status in rheumatoid arthritis patients and its relation to OS. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out with 51 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA group) recruited in Hospital São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and 55 healthy women (CO group) from the campus of the University of São Paulo. Blood and 24-hour urine collection were used for biochemical parameters related to Zn status and OS. The assessment of dietary Zn was performed by three 24-hour dietary recalls. RESULTS: The RA group presented significative low Zn intake (p < 0.001) and plasma concentration (p = 0.040) of this mineral compared to the CO group. However, both groups were Zn deficient and the disease activity (DAS28 score) for RA patients did not influence Zn biomarkers. In addition, the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activity and the urinary 8-isoprostanes were reduced in RA patients. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of dietary intake and biochemical biomarkers indicates that rheumatoid arthritis patients are zinc deficient and have increased OS.

8.
Amino Acids ; 53(4): 597-607, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715068

RESUMO

Although branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are commonly used as a strategy to recover nutritional status of critically ill patients, recent findings on their role as immunonutrients have been associated with unfavorable outcomes, especially in obese patients. The present study aimed to explore the effects of different BCAA supplementation protocols in the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell cultures were divided into five groups, with and without BCAA supplementation, (2 mmol/L of each amino acid). Then, cell cultures followed three different treatment protocols, consisting of a pretreatment (PT), an acute treatment (AT), and a chronic treatment (CT) with BCAA and LPS stimulation (1 µg/mL). Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, NO production was assessed by the Griess reaction and IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and PGE2 synthesis, was evaluated by ELISA. BCAA significantly increased cell viability in AT and CT protocols, and NO and IL-10 synthesis in all treatment protocols. IL-6 synthesis was only increased in PT and CT protocols. TNF-α and PGE2 synthesis were not altered in any of the protocols and groups. BCAA supplementation was able to increase both pro and anti-inflammatory mediators synthesis by RAW 264.7 macrophages, which was influenced by the protocol applied. Moreover, these parameters were significantly increased by isoleucine supplementation, highlighting a potential research field for future studies.

9.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; (41): 351-359, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1147696

RESUMO

Summary Background & aims: Diet is a modifiable risk factor, which may influence the gene expression and the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers related to obesity and atherosclerosis. In this sub study from Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program, we hypothesized that a nutritional intervention based on the usual Brazilian diet modulates the expression of genes involved with atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers in male patients, in the secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. Methods: Six male patients, aged 45 years or older, obese, were selected to follow a qualitative-quantitative food plan for 6 months. Glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL) -1b), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and adiponectin, and expression of 84 atherosclerosis-related genes in total peripheral blood cells, were measured. Results: After nutritional intervention, the participants reduced weight (p<0.04), waist circumference(p<0.04), Homeostasis Model Assessment index for insulin resistance (p»0.046) and overall leukocyte count (p»0.046) and neutrophils (p»0.028). There was no significant modification in the plasma concentration of the inflammatory biomarkers, however, there was a significant increase in the expression of Apo A1 (p»0.011), ELN (p»0.017) and IL4 (p»0.037) genes. Conclusions: The BALANCE Program, the qualitative-quantitative food plan composed of Brazilian usual foods, did not reduce the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers, but increased in total peripheral blood cells the expression of genes involved in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic in obese patients, in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. The clinical trial is registered athttps://clinicaltrials.gov/and the unique identifier is NCT01620398.


Assuntos
RNA Mensageiro , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Expressão Gênica , Dieta , Obesidade
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 41: 351-359, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diet is a modifiable risk factor, which may influence the gene expression and the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers related to obesity and atherosclerosis. In this substudy from Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program, we hypothesized that a nutritional intervention based on the usual Brazilian diet modulates the expression of genes involved with atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers in male patients, in the secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Six male patients, aged 45 years or older, obese, were selected to follow a qualitative-quantitative food plan for 6 months. Glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL) -1ß), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and adiponectin, and expression of 84 atherosclerosis-related genes in total peripheral blood cells, were measured. RESULTS: After nutritional intervention, the participants reduced weight (p < 0.04), waist circumference (p < 0.04), Homeostasis Model Assessment index for insulin resistance (p = 0.046) and overall leukocyte count (p = 0.046) and neutrophils (p = 0.028). There was no significant modification in the plasma concentration of the inflammatory biomarkers, however, there was a significant increase in the expression of Apo A1 (p = 0.011), ELN (p = 0.017) and IL4 (p = 0.037) genes. CONCLUSIONS: The BALANCE Program, the qualitative-quantitative food plan composed of Brazilian usual foods, did not reduce the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers, but increased in total peripheral blood cells the expression of genes involved in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic in obese patients, in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. The clinical trial is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ and the unique identifier is NCT01620398.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Prevenção Secundária
13.
Nutrition ; 78: 110935, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine, and isoleucine, are widely studied because of their effects on immunity and metabolism. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of cell also studied due to their immunomodulatory properties. Since both BCAAs and MSCs have immunomodulatory capacity, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of BCAAs on some immunomodulatory aspects of MSCs. METHODS: MSCs were cultivated in BCAA-supplemented media to evaluate metabolic activity, including cell cycle, proliferative nuclear cell antigen, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, nuclear factor kappa B (NFкB), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT-3) expression. Additionally, some inflammatory mediators' synthesis, such as interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, transforming growth factor beta, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2, were also evaluated. RESULTS: Supplementation with BCAA led not only to increased MSC proliferation with more cells in the S, G2, and M cycle phases, but also to increased metabolic activity. BCAA supplementation also altered the immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs by decreasing the p-NFкB/NFкB and increasing the p-STAT-3/STAT-3 gene expression ratios, in addition to increasing synthesis of the antiinflammatory mediators transforming growth factor beta and prostaglandin E2. Finally, MSCs cultivated in BCAA-supplemented media was shown to decrease the IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha production by macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: BCAA supplementation affected some immunoregulatory aspects of MSCs.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , NF-kappa B , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Proliferação de Células , Imunomodulação
14.
Nutr Res ; 78: 42-49, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502762

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic risk involves environmental and genetic factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma fatty acids and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in elongase and desaturases genes, and cardiometabolic parameters in a cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample of 226 adults who participated in the Health Survey of Sao Paulo, Brazil, was selected. Clinical and anthropometric variables, plasma lipoprotein, and fatty acid were evaluated. We hypothesized that differences in SNPs could lead to changes in plasma long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. We analyzed the relationship between SNPs in FADS1 (rs174546) and ELOVL2 (rs953413) genes, plasma fatty acid profiles, and cardiometabolic-related phenotypes using multiple linear regression, which was adjusted for confounders. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower in carriers of the T allele for the FADS1 SNP. Plasma oleic acid levels were statistically higher in individuals with CT/TT genotypes in the FADS1 and AG/GG genotypes in the ELOVL2 SNPs in comparison to the CC and AA genotypes, respectively. Higher levels of linoleic and linolenic acid were found for T-allele carriers of FADS1 SNP. The estimated activity of the stearoyl CoA desaturase enzyme (SDC_18) was higher in the CT/TT genotypes (FADS1). Delta-5 desaturase estimated activity was statistically lower in the presence of the minor FADS1 allele. The estimated activity of the enzyme delta-6 desaturase was statistically lower for FADS1 CT and TT genotypes. SNPs in FADS1 and ELOVL2 genes showed protective associations for lipid metabolism and could be markers of lower cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Adulto , Brasil , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 205-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555987

RESUMO

The Human Genome Project has significantly broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects regulating the homeostasis and the pathophysiology of different clinical conditions. Consequently, the field of nutrition has been strongly influenced by such improvements in knowledge - especially for determining how nutrients act at the molecular level in different conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this manner, characterizing how the genome influences the diet and vice-versa provides insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, the present review aims to discuss the potential application of Nutritional Genomics to modulate obesity-related inflammatory responses. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):205-22.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Inflamação/genética , Nutrigenômica , Obesidade/genética , Doença Crônica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 205-222, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131094

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The Human Genome Project has significantly broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects regulating the homeostasis and the pathophysiology of different clinical conditions. Consequently, the field of nutrition has been strongly influenced by such improvements in knowledge - especially for determining how nutrients act at the molecular level in different conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this manner, characterizing how the genome influences the diet and vice-versa provides insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, the present review aims to discuss the potential application of Nutritional Genomics to modulate obesity-related inflammatory responses. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):205-22

17.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 141-147, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092754

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in individuals with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene. The research was conducted on 241 articles found in the PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library databases between November and December 2018. After article screening, three randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials were identified as eligible for this review. Participants were Australian, Brazilian, and Chinese individuals, who ingested doses of vitamin D3 ranging from 2000 IU to a megadose of 200,000 IU. The presence of the BB/Bb genotype of the BsmI polymorphism and the FokI G allele caused an increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin D after supplementation. Nonetheless, the few studies on this subject are not unanimous in their results. It is possible that differences among populations, sample sizes, doses, and time of supplementation have an impact on data and outcomes.


RESUMEN El objetivo de esta revisión fue investigar el efecto de la suplementación con vitamina D3 sobre la concentración sérica de 25-hidroxivitamina D en individuos con los polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido en el gen del receptor de la vitamina D. La investigación se realizó en 241 artículos encontrados en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct y Cochrane Library entre noviembre y diciembre de 2018. Después de la selección del artículo, se identificaron tres ensayos clínicos aleatorios, controlados con placebo, doble ciego, como elegibles para esta revisión. Los participantes fueron australianos, brasileños y chinos, quienes ingirieron dosis de vitamina D3 que iban desde las 2000 UI hasta una megadosis de 200,000 UI. La presencia del genotipo BB / Bb del polimorfismo BsmI y el alelo FokI G causó un aumento en las concentraciones séricas de vitamina D después de la suplementación. No obstante, los pocos estudios sobre este tema no son unánimes en sus resultados. Es posible que las diferencias entre poblaciones, tamaños de muestra, dosis y tiempo de suplementación tengan un impacto en los datos y resultados de la investigación.

18.
Clin Nutr ; 39(2): 554-562, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885503

RESUMO

High-fat diet increase two to three times the plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and induce subclinical inflammation. Diet can modify gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to MicroRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important role in the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in regulation of expression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Also, diet can indirectly induce post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNAs, which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of high-fat high-saturated meal ingestion on plasma miRNA expression and LPS levels during the postprandial period in healthy women. METHODS: An interventional study was carried out in which a high-fat breakfast (1067.45 kcal), composed mainly of saturated fatty acids (56 g), and 500 mL of water, was offered. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 3 and 5 h after meal intake. The studied population consisted of healthy women (n = 11), aged between 20 and 40 years, and body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Plasma levels of lipid profile, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and LPS were measured at the 3 time points. A profile of 752 human plasma miRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR assay. These analyzes were performed for all blood collection time-points. RESULTS: Expression profile analysis revealed 33 differentially expressed plasma circulating miRNAs compared to that of the control group. MiR-145-5p and miR-200 were differentially modulated in all time-points post meal consumption. In addition, there was a significant increase in plasma LPS, triglycerides, myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids levels at the 3 time-points in comparison with the control basal levels. We also observed increased levels of the plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels after 5 h post meal ingestion. CONCLUSION: Ingestion of high-fat high-saturated meal was able to induce metabolic endotoxemia and increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-alpha and VCAM-1, as well as modulating circulating miRNAs possibly controlling inflammatory and lipid metabolism proteins at the postprandial period.

19.
Nutrition ; 70: 110596, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic low-grade inflammation (SLGI) is an intermediary common condition to the physiopathology of chronic noncommunicable diseases and targeting its determinants could lead to more efficient public health strategies. We aimed to investigate SLGI-independent associations with lifestyle, diet, and genetic factors in a population-based sample of adults using a systemic low-grade inflammation score (SIS). METHODS: The study sample is composed of 269 participants from the cross-sectional population-based Health Survey of Sao Paulo (2008-2010), ages 20 to 59 y, whose data on socioeconomic variables, lifestyle, health parameters, and blood samples were available. Diet was assessed by two 24-h recalls, and the Brazilian Health Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was scored. From blood samples, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms on inflammatory genes were genotyped, and plasma eleven inflammatory biomarkers levels that composed the SIS were determined. A multiple, stepwise, linear regression was used to investigate SIS-independent associated factors. RESULTS: Factors independently associated with SIS were BHEI-R score (partial R²â€¯= 5.1; ß = -0.13; P = 0.003), body mass index (partial R²â€¯= 3.4; ß = 0.19; P = 0.001), TLR4 rs5030728 GA + AA genotype (partial R²â€¯= 3.1; ß = -1.37; P = 0.008), age 50 to 59 y (partial R²â€¯= 2.5; ß = 1.93; P = 0.029) in comparison with the reference category (20 to 29 y), and commuting physical activity >150 min/wk (partial R²â€¯= 2.2; ß = -1.29; P = 0.043) after adjustment for current smoking status, medication use, and dietary misreporting. CONCLUSIONS: Eating a lower quality diet, having a higher body mass index score and age, being GG homozygous for TLR4 rs5030728, and spending <150 min/wk in transportation physical activity are independent determinants of SLGI.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estilo de Vida , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Genótipo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutr Res ; 67: 40-52, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150916

RESUMO

The Brazil nut is an excellent source of selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient for human health. In this study, we hypothesized that Brazil nut intake modulates circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in obese women and aimed to evaluate the effects of this nut intake on circulating miRNAs in women with obesity or metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 54 subjects recruited from the Clinical Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a Brazil nut group (BN group, n = 29) and a control group (CO group, n = 25); both were monitored for 2 months. BN group members were instructed to consume 1 Brazil nut (approximately 1261 µg/Se) per day; CO group members were instructed not to consume any. Biochemical parameters related to Se status and 25 circulating miRNAs in plasma were evaluated in all patients both at baseline and after 2 months. Expression levels of 2 miRNAs (miR-454-3p and miR-584-5p) were significantly increased after Brazil nut intake. To investigate the effect of MetS on circulating miRNAs at baseline, we performed comparisons between women with MetS (n = 23) and women without MetS (others, n = 31). Circulating miR-375 levels were significantly lower (P = .012) in women with MetS. In conclusion, our findings suggested that a daily intake of 1 Brazil nut increased circulating miR-454-3p and miR-584-5p expression levels in obese women, and our network analysis indicated a link between Se intake, vitamin D metabolism, and calcium homeostasis.


Assuntos
Bertholletia/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Nozes/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo
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