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1.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Warner Initial Developmental Evaluation of Adaptive and Functional Skills (WIDEA-FS) is a 50-item, criterion-specified questionnaire that assesses a child's adaptive skills in everyday context and can be used in high-risk follow-up settings to identify risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Our aim was to validate the WIDEA-FS by comparing a sample of typically developing children to children with special health needs and to compare results to the Capute Scales, which include domains of including both the Cognitive Adaptive Test (CAT) and the Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS). METHODS: Six hundred and sixty children (typically developing and having special healthcare needs) aged 0-36 months completed the WIDEA-FS, the CAT, and the CLAMS assessments. RESULTS: Children with special health needs scored significantly lower on the WIDEA than those with typical development. WIDEA-FS subscales were significantly associated with the CAT (WIDEA-FS self-care 0.87, social cognition 0.89) and the CLAMS (WIDEA-FS communication 0.96, social cognition 0.92) tests. CONCLUSIONS: The WIDEA-FS has concurrent validity with the CAT and CLAMS and construct validity in that children with special health needs have significantly poorer performance on the WIDEA-FS than children with typical development. IMPACT: The WIDEA-FS demonstrated both construct validity and concurrent validity with the Capute Scales, including the Cognitive Adaptive Test (CAT) and the Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS). This is the first study to validate the use of the WIDEA-FS in children with typical development and children with special healthcare needs. The WIDEA-FS is a quick and valid checklist that can be used to assess neurodevelopmental functioning during daily activities in typically developing children and those at risk for neurodevelopmental differences.

2.
Perception ; 49(11): 1121-1127, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092462
3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218188

RESUMO

The use of Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) in applications, such as in light shaping and redirection, requires certain characteristics such as a high Diffraction Efficiency, low angular selectivity and stability against UV damage. In order to maximize the performance of the HOEs, photosensitive materials are needed that have been optimised for the characteristics that are of particular importance in that application. At the core of the performance of these devices is the refractive index modulation created during holographic recording. Typically, a higher refractive index modulation will enable greater light Diffraction Efficiency and also operation with thinner devices, which in turn decreases the angular selectivity and the stability of the refractive index modulation introduced during recording, which is key to the longevity of the device. Solar concentrators based on volume HOEs can particularly benefit from thinner devices, because, for a solar concentrator to have a high angular working range, thinner photopolymer layers with a smaller angular selectivity are required. This paper presents an optimisation of an acrylamide-based photopolymer formulation for an improved refractive index modulation and recording speed. This was achieved by studying the effect of the concentration of acrylamide and the influence of different initiators in the photopolymer composition on the diffraction efficiency of holographic gratings. Two initiators of different molecular weights were compared: triethanolamine (TEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). A fivefold increase in the rate of grating formation was achieved through the modification of the acrylamide concentration alone, and it was also found that holograms recorded with MDEA as the initiator performed the best and recorded up to 25% faster than a TEA-based photopolymer. Finally, tests were carried out on the stability of the protected and unprotected photopolymer layers when subjected to UV light. The properties exhibited by this photopolymer composition make it a promising material for the production of optical elements and suitable for use in applications requiring prolonged exposure to UV light when protected by a thin melinex cover.

4.
Case Rep Obstet Gynecol ; 2020: 2695058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976101

RESUMO

Adnexal masses are routinely encountered in the clinical practice. However, adnexal masses during pregnancy are incidental findings and usually resolve spontaneously or can be managed conservatively during pregnancy due to their benign nature. Ovarian malignancy is a rare event to occur during pregnancy. Only a few cases of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), a subtype of epithelial ovarian cancers, have been reported in pregnancy and all of which have undergone cystectomy or pregnancy termination prior to the last trimester of pregnancy. We present a unique case of OCCC in a pregnant 38-year old female of Asian ethnicity with endometriosis and an in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy. The OCCC, initially suspected to be of benign nature, was removed via emergency cesarean section during delivery in the late preterm period. The Positron Emission Tomography scan performed a few weeks after delivery confirmed metastatic lesions. Our case study not only emphasizes the need for definitive treatment option for endometriosis but also a close surveillance of all masses diagnosed during pregnancy, in particular with a background of other risk factors such as endometriosis and Asian ethnicity. In addition, our study advocates the need for the guidelines for management of such rare cases.

5.
Iperception ; 10(4): 2041669519856906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384414

RESUMO

Reversed apparent motion (or reversed phi) can be seen during a continuous dissolve between a positive and a spatially shifted negative version of the same image. Similar reversed effects can be seen in stereo when positive and spatially shifted negative images are presented separately to the two eyes or in a Vernier alignment task when the two images are juxtaposed one above the other. Gregory and Heard reported similar effects that they called "phenomenal phenomena." Here, we investigate the similarities between these different effects and put forward a simple, spatial-smoothing explanation that can account for both the direction and magnitude of the reversed effects in the motion, stereo and Vernier domains. In addition, we consider whether the striking motion effects seen when viewing Kitaoka's colour-dependent Fraser-Wilcox figures are related to the reversed phi illusion, given the similarity of the luminance profiles.

6.
Perception ; 48(3): 193-196, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727833
7.
Psychol Rev ; 126(1): 162-169, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604991

RESUMO

The title of Dhanraj Vishwanath's (2014) Psychological Review article is, of course, adapted from the title of George Berkeley's (1709/1922) book, "Towards a New Theory of Vision," and, as a consequence, it promises to provide us with a radically new understanding of 3D vision. Does it succeed? Vishwanath certainly raised important questions about what we mean by stereopsis, and he does a good job in reviewing some of the more recent findings on how particular viewing conditions affect stereopsis; however, it disappoints with respect to the claim that it offers a "new theory of stereopsis." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção de Profundidade , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Curr Diab Rep ; 17(4): 26, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28321766

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we outline barriers to appropriately caring for high-risk youth with diabetes and discuss efforts in partnering with insurers through Alternative Payment Models to achieve the Triple Aim (improved health, improved care, and reduced costs) for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Current approaches in caring for youth with diabetes who evidence a high degree of social complexity are woefully ineffective. These youth are vulnerable to repeat diabetic ketoacidosis episodes, poor glycemic control, and excessive utilization of healthcare resources. To effectively pursue the Triple Aim, an "integrator" (i.e., an entity that accepts responsibility for all components of the Triple Aim for a specified population) must be identified; however, this does not fit into current fee-for-service models. Integrators for youth with diabetes are limited, but early examples of integrator efforts are promising. We present one successful "integrator," Novel Interventions in Children's Healthcare (NICH), and detail this program's efforts in partnering with insurers to serve high-risk youth with diabetes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Seguradoras , Adolescente , Criança , Empatia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Humanos
9.
Perception ; 45(11): 1267-1278, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343185

RESUMO

There are many similarities between binocular disparity and motion parallax as sources of information about the structure and layout of 3-D objects and surfaces. The former can be thought of as a transformation that maps one eye's image onto the other while the latter is a transformation that maps the changes in one eye's image over time. There are many empirical similarities in the ways we use the two sources of information but there are also significant differences. A consideration of those differences leads to the conclusion that, rather than seeing motion parallax as a close analogue of binocular stereopsis, motion parallax is better thought of as a special case of the kinetic depth effect in which the depth order of the depicted 3-D object or surface can be disambiguated by vertical perspective information.

10.
Perception ; 45(11): 1279-1303, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343187

RESUMO

In the kinetic depth effect, the direction of the perceived depth and the direction of apparent rotation of a 3-D structure are linked, and typically ambiguous, whereas depth from motion parallax during both observer- and object-movement is stable and unambiguous. Rogers and Rogers demonstrated that the vertical perspective transformations play an important role in disambiguating the direction of the perceived depth in parallax-defined surfaces but more recently Nawrot et al. have proposed that pursuit eye movements provide the crucial disambiguating information. Theoretical considerations suggest that pursuit eye movements could not, in principle, provide the necessary information because 3-D objects as surfaces may rotate during observer- or object-movement. The empirical evidence presented here shows that vertical perspective transformations are sufficient for the unambiguous perception of parallax depth whereas pursuit eye movements are not necessary and may not even be sufficient.

11.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 78(5): 1381-91, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27025213

RESUMO

The ability of human observers to judge the straightness and parallelism of extended lines has been a neglected topic of study since von Helmholtz's initial observations 150 years ago. He showed that there were significant misperceptions of the straightness of extended lines seen in the peripheral visual field. The present study focused on the perception of extended lines (spanning 90° visual angle) that were directly fixated in the visual environment of a planetarium where there was only minimal information about the distance to the lines. Observers were asked to vary the curvature of 1 or more lines until they appeared to be straight and/or parallel, ignoring any perceived curvature in depth. When the horizon between the ground and the sky was visible, the results showed that observers' judgements of the straightness of a single line were significantly biased away from the veridical, great circle locations, and towards equal elevation settings. Similar biases can be seen in the jet trails of aircraft flying across the sky and in Rogers and Anstis's new moon illusion (Perception, 42(Abstract supplement) 18, 2013, 2016). The biasing effect of the horizon was much smaller when observers were asked to judge the straightness and parallelism of 2 or more extended lines. We interpret the results as showing that, in the absence of adequate distance information, observers tend to perceive the projected lines as lying on an approximately equidistant, hemispherical surface and that their judgements of straightness and parallelism are based on the perceived separation of the lines superimposed on that surface.


Assuntos
Percepção de Profundidade , Percepção de Distância , Julgamento , Campos Visuais , Feminino , Humanos , Ilusões , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
12.
Health Commun ; 31(9): 1081-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799666

RESUMO

In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Política , Vacinação , Adolescente , Criança , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Commun ; 31(1): 83-90, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26075310

RESUMO

This study looks at media portrayals of sexual health through the popular HBO television show Girls. This rhetorical criticism of Girls delineates two emergent narrative themes. First, the show repeatedly discusses human papillomavirus (HPV) in terms of its severity, but it oscillates in terms of representing the degree of significance. Second, the show frames the source of infection as more important than other concerns related to HPV. Ultimately, this analysis demonstrates that Girls perpetuates a problematic narrative plot structure related to issues of HPV transmission; it also provides a largely scientifically accurate portrayal of HPV and promotes open and frank discussions of sexual health. It is argued that mediated narratives, such as Girls, might have the potential to transform social attitudes and actions and should thereby garner attention from health communication scholars and public health advocates.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Reprodutiva , Televisão , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/transmissão , Comportamento Sexual
14.
Curr Pharm Des ; 21(14): 1899-907, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25732550

RESUMO

Fusion proteins have been well-studied and widely applied in biopharmaceutics. Albumin fusion proteins are simple to construct, easy to purify, and stable to formulate. One main application of fusion protein is to extend the plasma half-life of therapeutic proteins and peptides. Albiglutide for diabetes treatment is the first albumin fusion protein drug approved by FDA. Balugrastim and other albumin fusion proteins have been evaluated in clinical trials. Taking advantage of the physiological functions of albumin, albumin fusion proteins can also been applied to act on an essential intracellular target and carry fatty acid-modified drugs. This novel approach makes it possible to co-deliver two different types of drug to one tumor cell for synergistic cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Albumina Sérica/administração & dosagem , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Albumina Sérica/química
15.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 77(1): 249-57, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25239097

RESUMO

In the new moon illusion, the sun does not appear to be in a direction perpendicular to the boundary between the lit and dark sides of the moon, and aircraft jet trails appear to follow curved paths across the sky. In both cases, lines that are physically straight and parallel to the horizon appear to be curved. These observations prompted us to investigate the neglected question of how we are able to judge the straightness and parallelism of extended lines. To do this, we asked observers to judge the 2-D alignment of three artificial "stars" projected onto the dome of the Saint Petersburg Planetarium that varied in both their elevation and their separation in horizontal azimuth. The results showed that observers make substantial, systematic errors, biasing their judgments away from the veridical great-circle locations and toward equal-elevation settings. These findings further demonstrate that whenever information about the distance of extended lines or isolated points is insufficient, observers tend to assume equidistance, and as a consequence, their straightness judgments are biased toward the angular separation of straight and parallel lines.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Lua , Ilusões Ópticas/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Percepção de Distância/fisiologia , Feminino , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
16.
Perception ; 43(9): 840-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25420325

RESUMO

For centuries, philosophers and psychologists have distinguished between correct or veridical perception and illusory perception. Illusions have become an essential topic in textbooks on perception, and we amuse our lecture classes with demonstrations that reveal the fallibility of perceptual systems--what we see, hear, feel, taste, and smell does not correspond to what is really there. This special issue of Perception contains the descriptions of many new and interesting illusions as well as speculations about the causes of familiar illusions. There have also been many attempts to classify illusions that date back to Al-Haytham (1083) in the 11th century through to Richard Gregory (2009 Seeing through Illusions, Oxford: Oxford University Press) in the last decade, but there have been far fewer attempts to analyse and critique the concept itself. That is the purpose of this paper, and the conclusion reached is that there is no satisfactory way of distinguishing between those aspects of our perception that we regard as veridical and those we label as illusions.


Assuntos
Ilusões Ópticas/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Delusões/psicologia , Humanos
17.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 41(4): 350-9, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24969245

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explicate the emotional experiences of women undergoing breast cancer diagnosis who are waiting for the results of breast biopsy. RESEARCH APPROACH: Glaserian Grounded Theory. SETTING: Urban area in western Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 37 women aged 32-76 years. The breast cancer diagnosis was positive for 11 women, negative for 24 women, and two results were unclear. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: Unstructured, recorded telephone interviews. FINDINGS: Undergoing breast cancer diagnosis is a profoundly distressing experience dictated by diagnostic processes and procedures. Women rapidly transitioned from wellness to frightening phases of facing cancer to continuing terror during the testing phase. While waiting to hear results, women controlled their emotions, which enabled them to get through the experience and highlighted the protective function of enduring and its necessity for survival. The basic social psychological process, preserving self, is the outcome of enduring. CONCLUSIONS: A mid-range theory, Awaiting Diagnosis: Enduring for Preserving Self, was developed. This theory explicates the emotional responses of women who were undergoing diagnosis for breast cancer and provides a theoretical behavioral basis for responding to cues and signals of suffering. INTERPRETATION: The Praxis Theory of Suffering enables nurses to recognize and respond according to the behaviors of suffering, and to endure with healthy, adaptive, and normalizing behaviors that enable preserving self.


Assuntos
Biópsia/enfermagem , Biópsia/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama , Enfermagem Oncológica/métodos , Autoimagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/enfermagem , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/enfermagem , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem
18.
J Pharm Sci ; 101(8): 2744-54, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22678811

RESUMO

A novel recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) fusion protein (VRS-317) was designed to minimize receptor-mediated clearance through a reduction in receptor binding without mutations to rhGH by genetically fusing with XTEN amino acid sequences to the N-terminus and the C-terminus of the native hGH sequence. Although in vitro potency of VRS-317 was reduced approximately 12-fold compared with rhGH, in vivo potency was increased because of the greatly prolonged exposure to the target tissues and organs. VRS-317 was threefold more potent than daily rhGH in hypophysectomized rats and fivefold more potent than daily rhGH in juvenile monkeys. In juvenile monkeys, a monthly dose of 1.4 mg/kg VRS-317 (equivalent to 0.26 mg/kg rhGH) caused a sustained pharmacodynamic response for 1 month equivalent to 0.05 mg/kg/day rhGH (1.4 mg/kg rhGH total over 28 days). In monkeys, VRS-317, having a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 110 h, was rapidly and near-completely absorbed, and was well tolerated with no observed adverse effects after every alternate week subcutaneous dosing for 14 weeks. VRS-317 also did not cause lipoatrophy in pig and monkey studies. VRS-317 is currently being studied in GH-deficient patients to confirm the observations in these animal studies.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/farmacocinética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Meia-Vida , Haplorrinos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos adversos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Receptores da Somatotropina/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacocinética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Suínos
19.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 27(3): 154-61, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22573281

RESUMO

Early-onset dementia, presenting before age 65 years, is increasingly recognized. It is often difficult to diagnose, since non-Alzheimer's etiologies and unusual dementias are common. These conditions are more commonly genetic, and important potentially inherited causes of early-onset dementia include early-onset Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Kufs' disease, and Niemann-Pick disease type C. For each of these diseases, this review provides information on common clinical presentations, etiology, pathophysiology, and current and experimental treatments. A discussion of the diagnosis and workup for early-onset dementia is included with an emphasis on conditions that may have other involved family members.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Demência Frontotemporal/epidemiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Humanos , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/diagnóstico , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/epidemiologia , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/diagnóstico , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/epidemiologia
20.
Vision Res ; 53(1): 47-53, 2012 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22138529

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: How much information is conserved, or discarded, as it travels through the visual system? A target (an oriented bar) was defined by dark grey spots embedded in light spots for the left eye, and by light grey spots embedded in dark spots for the right eye. With one eye open, the target bars were clearly visible, but with both eyes open the light and dark spots fused binocularly into medium grey and the target vanished. Results were similar for color; the target comprised greenish spots embedded in reddish spots for the left eye, and by reddish spots embedded in greenish spots for the right eye (somewhat like an Isihara color plate). RESULT: The colored targets were invisible when both eyes were open but reappeared when one eye was closed. Small targets that moved in opposite directions in the two eyes were visible to each eye alone by common fate, but motion averaging made them disappear when both eyes were open. CONCLUSION: Opposed retinal luminances or colors were averaged out by binocular fusion, but could be retrieved by a special afterimage technique in Experiment 6. Conversely, in Experiment 7 dichoptic target spots flickered in counterphase but background spots flickered in-phase to the two eyes. RESULT: The targets were invisible monocularly but became visible as reduced-flicker when fused binocularly. We conclude that two eyes were worse than one eye when opposite colors or movements were fused (Experiments 1-6) but were better than one when binocular correlations could be extracted (Experiment 7). These experiments show how much of the visual information gets transmitted, gets discarded, can still be retrieved, or reaches conscious awareness.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Fusão Flicker/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Pós-Imagem/fisiologia , Humanos , Luz , Iluminação , Fatores de Tempo
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